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CALIFORNIA 




INDEX— VOLUME 41 

JANUARY, 1927 — DECEMBER, 1927 _ . -. • 

ST ATI 



Title 



Page 



Able Seamen's Certificates* 326 

A. B.'s from the Farm* 7 

-Accidents, Responsibility for — By Silas B. Axtell 20 

"Agreeable Servitude"* 294 

Alaska Fishermen's Union, Agreements* 138 

' Alaska Packers' Fleet 100 

"Alaska, Possibilities of 370 

Alaska's Resources 243 

Alaskan Fur Seal Catch 335 

American Merchant Marine, Seamen's Program 

for 259 

Ancient Ships — Still Going* 328 

Another Dollar Mutiny* 167 

Another Phony Probe* 298 

Anti-American News Control* 105 

Arbitration Act, Norwegian 199 

Arbitration Bubble* 168 

Arbitration, S. F. Ferryboatmen's* 359 



Aristotle and Gompers. 

Armies of Europe 

Australia's New Capital 

Australian Seamen's Wages* 

Automobile of the Ocean, Hamilton W. Wright. 
Axtell Stood Pat 



237 
272 
141 
103 
174 
45 



260 
331 

366 



American Federation of Labor — 

Labor Day, 1927— By William Green 

Mexican Immigration, A. F. of L. on 

A. F. of L. Convention — Summary of 
Proceedings 

Asiatics — 

Citizenship, Japanese* 10 

Chinese Crews, Importing* 39 

Japan's Immigration Policy 52 

Chinese Crews* 74 

Immigrants, Bootlegging 82 

Chinese Crews, Dollar's* 134 

Filipino Independence Vetoed* 137 

Chinese Crews* 167 

Orientals in British Columbia 238 



All editorial matter is designated by an asterisk (*). 



Title r £j p, f^^'^- 

Filipino Laborers in Hawaii:.>...-.,-..,_ 238 

Japanese Fishermen Organize. ... 293 

Filipino Indepence 355 

B 

Barnacles in Fresh Water 205 

Barry, James H., Death of* 266 

Biological Institute. Helgoland 77 

"Blacklegs' Charter" British* 265 

Boats for All? 563 

British Columbia, Orientals in 238 

British Point of View (Labor Magazine) 210 

British Seamen, Census of 292 

Burns, Tactics of 357 

Business in Government* .-. 9 

Business in Politics : 372 

Book Reviews — 

Fog and Clouds — By William J. Humphreys. 19 

The Largest Ships in the World — By V. S. 

Fellowes Wilson 16 

Out of the Past — By R. W. Postgate 51 

Ship Model-Making, Vol. II. How to Make a 

Clipper Ship — By Capt. F. Armitage McCann 83 
American Labor and American Democracy 

—By Wm. E. Walling 83 

New Tactics in Social Conflict — By Harry W. 

Laidler & Norman Thomas 115 

Windjammers and Shellbacks — By F. Keble 

Chatterton 147 

The Ship Under Sail— By E. Keble Chatterton 179 
Ship Sanitation & First Aid — By Robert W. 

Hart 176 

World Migration and Labor — By John \\ . 

Brown 21 1 

The Lovely Ship — By Storm Jameson ..... 212 

The Bridge to France — By Edward H. Hurley 243 

The Ships Sail On— By Nordahl 27? 

Harmony between Labor and Capital 

— By Oscar Newfang 307 

Handbook of Labor Statistics 1624-1926 

—By Ethelbert Stewart 307 

The Moonraker — By F. Tennyson Jesse 339 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUME FORTY-ONE 



Title Page 

American Ship Types — By A. C. Hardy 371 

The Stowage of Cargo — By Capts. Bridger 

& Watts 371 

C 

Cable, New Pacific 324 

California Labor's Conclave -"'1 

California. Launching of 340 

Call of the Dollars* 39 

Canberra, Australia's Capital 141 

Castile, Story of 333 

Casualties in October 33() 

Ct.n>us of British Seamen 2<>2 

Chances for American Boys* 38 

Cheap Labor Policy* 232 

China. Chester Powell on 143 

China, Missionaries in \ l >7 

China. What's Wrong in* 13(» 

Chinese Crews. Importing 39 

Chinese Seamen's I In ion 271 

( Chinese Strikebreakers* 266 

Class Legislation! '.....■...:, 80 

Claude. M. Georges, 1- xperimft 5nis i f ..;. 237 

Cloth, Names of !.....' 240 

Coal versus Oil* ........... 233 

Codification or Nulliiu ation* 264 

Colorado Coal Fields, i. W W. in ... 273 

Colored Labor at Sea (News Letter, Inter- 
national Transport Workers Federation)........ 110 

( Company Unions 50, 22 ( ) 

"Company Union" Town 148 

Compensation Law, New* 102 

Compensation. 1 ,ongshoremen's 176 

Communism in Labor Movement* 297 

Communists, Tactics of* 104 

Congress in Session* 358 

Congress "Lame Duck" Sessions 12 

Congress. Record of (69th Session) 99 

Convention, Seamen's Postponed* 360 

Congress, Seventieth* 358 

Congress, Third House of — By Basil Manly 101 

Constructive Program, American Merchant 

Marine 25'< 

Control of the Submarine* 262 

Convention, A. F. of L 366 

Convention, California State Federation of Labor 291 
Convention Report — By Andrew Furuseth ... 35 

Crooks in Strike Time (Catholic Advocate) 113 

Current Legal Notes 178 

Court Decisions, Maritime, Labor Legal Notes, etc. — 

Shipping Articles Defined 3 

Wages. Right to for Term of Contract 3 

Wages for Waiting Time 18 

Persona] Injuries, Damages 18 

Hair vs. American S. S. El Estero 43 

Keeping Watches at Sea 43 

Strikes. When Legal 45 

Painting Over the Side 50 

Assault, Damages for 50 

Residence for Citizenship 114 

Unseaworthiness of Vessel 114 

British vs. U. S. Law 114 

Settlement Out of Court 114 

Deportation of Alien Seamen 114 

International Labor Office at Geneva, on 

Working Hours 133 

Stonecutters' Case, Supreme Court Decision in 

By James M. Lynch 144 

Loggers Under State Compensation Law 146 

Contract Relating to Working Hours, Validity 146 

Syndicalism Law Upheld* 170 

Lustgarten Case, Damages 207 

Release not Bar to Recovery 210 

Liquor Treaty Upheld 210 

Naturalization 242 

Deportation of Alien Seamen 242 

Liability Limitation of 274 



Title Page 

Naturalization, Petition for 274 

Wages. Maritime Lien for 274 

Marine Railway Defined 274 

Lookout Essential 274 

Jones Act, Application of 306 

Alien Seamen. Deportation 306 

Transporting Destitute Seamen , 

Maritime Employment, Definition of $06 

Naturalization, Residence for $06 

Jurisdiction of U. S. Courts 337 

Agents on Ships, Status of 337 

Discharge, Penalty for Unlawful . J37 

Wages, Payment to Aliens in Coastwise Trade 338 

Watchmen on Laid-up Ships 338 

Defining Harbor Workers" Compensation 369 

Passengers Assumption ^i Risk $69 

D 

Deportees, Using the* 135 

Diplomacy. Menace of Secret 370 

Disarmament. Thoughts on* 72 

Diseases, Quarantinable 69 

Disrupters Enemies of Labor* 298 

Doing Things for "Poor Jack"* 360 

Dollar as a Journalist* 262 

Dollar in the News Again* 202 

Dollar. Wisdom from J65 

Dollar's Chinese Crews* 134 

"Don'ts", a Few* ■—- 74 

Do You Really Think? (Australian Worker) 116 

Drowning of Excursionists 272 

Dual Citizenship* 1 () 

E 
Education, Workers' — By Harold Coj 15 

Elections Here and There* 559 

Elections, C S., Nicaragua and Mexico* •^' , 

Election, Wilson Contests* 41 

Employee ( >wnership* 328 

Employee — Stockholders* 362 

Equality in the Navy* 296 

Evolution and its Implications— By Dr. Vernon 

Kellog 78 

F.xploiters use I. W. W 272 

"Exploring the Ocean"— (The Syren & Shipping) 235 

F 

Fall-Sinclair Jury. Tampering by Detectives 357 

Fascism in Action* 74 

Fascist Regime Condemned 49 

Kerry boat men's Arbitration 325 

Fish, Philippine 335 

Fishermen, Union, Japanese 

Flying Across the Atlantic* 166 

Forcing Out the Truth 142 

Forty-eight Hour Week* 198 

French Seamen. Unity Among 340 

Future of the Pacific 203 
Fisheries — 

Alaska Fisheries— By Peter Olsen 81 

Salmon Fishermen's Agreements* 138 

Furuseth, Andrew — Articles by, etc. 

Report to the 30th Annual Convention 35 

Furuseth's View Confirmed (Australian Worker) 68 
Labor -Injunction Traced to Days of Ancient 

Rome 171 

"Equity Power and its Abuse" 171 

Labor Day Address at the University of 

California 299 

G 
Gary, Judge Elbert H.* 365 

Geneva, Keeping an Eye on H 

Gold Beneath the Keel* ■'-> 

(iood Advice* 361 

Guarding the Gates 3<>8 

Great Lakes — 

Disasters on Great Lakes 2,2 

Investigations of Pake Disasters* 



11 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUME FORTY-ONE 



Title Page 

H 

Hamburg- American Line 205 

Harbor Workers' Insurance 209 

Hawaii, Filipino Laborers in 238 

Hayti. Exclusion of — By Senator King 100 

Health of Seamen 196 

Hearst on a Rampage* 361 

Hearst. Wm. Randolph & Mexico* 361 

Help for the "Poor"* 71 

Help Yourself* 42 

History of a Hulk 239 

History Repeats Itself!* 10 

Hoover's Report* 9 

How to Collect Union Dues* 230 

Human Body, Cash Value of 148 

Human vs. Trade Rights* 134 

Hunting Icebergs* 169 

Hurricane. What Is a 52 

I 

Icebergs, Protection Against* 169 

Iceland's First Railroad 335 

Illiteracy* 232 

Income Tax Refund* 71 

Inevitable Remedy, The — By J. C. Shanessy 228 

Injunction Evil* 231 

Injunction, Labor Traced to Ancient Rome 171 

Inland Steamships* 171 

Iron Heel in Britain 145 

Institute of Pacific Relations 203, 267 

Insurance for Passengers 273 

Insurance, Harbor Workers' 209 

International Labor Conference at Geneva 75 

International Labor Meeting 308 

International Naval Rivalry* 38 

International Seamen's Union of America 

Convention* 7 

Italv. New Freedom in 304 

Italy's Penal Colony 208 

I. W. W. Murderers Confess* '. 202 

Immigration — 

Citizenship. Japanese* 10 

Immigration, Data on 43 

Alien, Labeling the 44 

Japan's Immigration Policy 52 

Bootlegging Immigrants 82 

Exclusion Act. New 100 

Immigration Problem. United States — By Paul 

Scharrenberg 107 

Smuggling Bogus Seamen (Washington Post).. 112 

Immigration Law, America's* 233 

Immigration Data 293 

Pan-American Federation, Agreement as to 

Mexican Immigrants 331 

Naturalization Statistics 357 

Immigration Restriction 368 

International Seamen's Union of America — 

Wages, Facts About Seamen's* 6 

Convention, International Seamen's Union* 7 

International Seamen's Union of America 

Convention Report 35 

Unionism, Training in* 70 

Seamen's Code 75 

Seamen's Act, Enforcing 131 

Law Enforcement Winning* 170 

International Seamen's Union vs. Transport 

Workers* 294 

Seamen's Convention Postponed* 360 

J-K 

Japan and Timber 240 

Japan, Cooperation in 201 

Japanese Mandate 116 

Japanese Seafarers 77 

Japanese Seamen's Union 368 

Journeymen Stonecutters Association, Decision... 163 

Judge Gary Passes On* 265 



Title Page 

Jutland, Battle of, (Australian Worker) 334 

Kiel Canal Traffic 365 

L 

Labor Day, 1927— By William Green 260 

Labor's Policy Endorsed 37 

La Follette Seamen's Law 81 

Lampedusa, Island of 208 

Land Speculator 144 

Latin-American Freedom, U. S. Labor Crushers 

Fight to Destroy — By John P. Frey 139 

Law Office "Factoryized" 148 

Laws, Multiplicity of 237 

Lawyers' Union* 167, 230 

Lessons of the Past* 74 

Liability, Limitation of 304 

Liberia, Rubber in 113 

Liberty and Trade Unions* 362 

Liberty, What is* 362 

Licensed Men Confer 206 

Lifeboat Race, First 336 

Lifeboats, Provision for 365 

Limitation of Liability 304 

Lindbergh, Charles* 166 

Lindbergh's Father* 200 

Lindbergh's Partner 339 

Lindbergh's "We"— Aera 308 

Living Quarters, Swedish Yessels 261 

Lloyd's Shipping Statistics 269 

Lobbying in Congress 101 

Longshoremen's Compensation* 102 

Longshoremen's Compensation— Warren H. Pills- 
bury 176 

Loyalty of Members* 41 

M 

MacLafferty, J. H. Shipowners' Lobbyist* 294 

Magnanimous Corporation* 8 

Mail Service, Ocean* 9 

Make the Oecan Work 237 

Matson Company's Prosperity* 327 

Medical Supplies Listed - 302 

Men versus Soap — By Thurman B. Rice 333 

Merchant Marine Officers, International Associa- 
tion of 206 

Messages in Bottles* 234 

Mexican Workers Confer 301 

Mexico, Property Rights of Americans in* 167 

Mexico. Who Wants War With 67 

Missionaries in China *-y 

Monroe Doctrine — By Elihu Root 69 

Motorship: Tampa *74 

N 
National Association of Manufacturers, Political 

Program of 372 

National City Bank, Review by ^/ 

Names of Cloth 240 

Naturalization Fees 33$ 

Naval Reserve. What is a 3<-3 

Naval Rivalry, International* 38 

Navigation Laws Codified y 

Navigation Laws, Proposed Amendments to* 264 

Navigation, U. S. Bureau Report 5 

Navy, Equality in* 296 

Needed— Publicity!— By James M. Lynch 144 

New Principle on Trial 331 

News Control, Anti-American* |0«> 

Nicaragua Canal 1°0 

Nicaragua, Our Navy in* ° 

Nicaragua, Our War in 20; 

Non-Union Man. The 227 

Norwegian Arbitration Act* 1;; 

O 

O'Connor. T. V. on Top* 328 

Olander— The Menace of Slavery 363 

Open Shippers Retreating* 296 

Our Communist Teachers* 2J7 



V — 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUME FORTY-< >NE 



Title Page 

Olander, Victor — 

The Seamen's Code 75 

Right to Strike Curtailed 163 

Labor I lav 261 

Olander Visits the Pacific* 

Menace of Slavery 363 

P 

Pacific Cable, New $24 

Pacific Ocean, Sounding the 502 

Panama Canal a Money Maker* 40 

Panama Canal Record, New 340 

Pan-American Relations 

Pan-American Labor Unity. 270 

Pan-American Union or American League of 

Nations* 168 

Peninsular and Oriental S. S. Co. Dividends. lb 

Penal Colony. Italy's 208 

Pennsylvania, Light in 372 

Pensions for Hank Clerks 52 

Permanent Commission for Better Understanding 

By J. C. Shanessy 22s 

Personal Contact. Value of* 7') 

Petersen on the Stand* 263 

Petersen's Scab Shipping Office* 

Philippine Fish all Edible.. 335 

Philippines, Independence of 355 

Pilot Associations in United States* 298 

Planets, Electric Forces of 333 

Polish Navy, Shifting the 325 

Popular Pardon* Jul 

Poor Sportsmanship* 359 

I 'ortuguese Empire* 105 

Postage Stamp, Story of the 303 

Power Development, Use of Ocean for 237 

Press. Who Controls the* 137 

Problems of Survival 244 

Problems of the Pacific 267 

Property Rights* 167 

Public Health Service 13 

Public Opinion, Power of — By J. C. Shanessj 228 

Poetry — 

Dreamer and Doer — Bv Ted Olson 60 

The Look-Out— By Abalidot 80 

Sea Fever — By John Masefield 02 

The Voice of an Old-Timer— By R. 11. Corn- 132 

An Exotic Thanksgiving — By Swinburne 244 

All Hands on Deck— By I. A. Haarklau 276 

Wanderlust— Bv Richard Hovev J08 

God Dive Us Men— By .1. G. Holland 334 

Insignificant Existence — By Isaac Watts r>72 

Prohibition Problems — 

Booze Prescriptions* 73 

Workers vs. Bootleggers* 329 

Prohibition, What it Does $69 

R 

i adio. Union Broadcasting Station 174 

I ailway, Iceland's First. 335 

Reaction in Great Britain* 265 

Reading, Pa., Election in ,]72 

Referred to Mr. Dollar* 201 

Report Paw Evasions* 40 

Rubber in Liberia 113 

Russian Seamen. Condition of 370 

S 

Sabotage, by Peach Growers* 2 { h 

Sacco and Vanzetti 143. 276 

Sacramento River Boats*. 170 

Sailors as "Movie" Actors 12 

Sailors' Union of Pacific, Anniversary* 103 

Sailors' Union, Value* 361 

Scandinavian Seamen 80 

Seal. Alaskan Eur J35 

Seal Farm, Uncle Sam's 147 

Seamen's Act. Enforcement of* 17(i 

Seamen's Church Institute* 7 



Title 
Seamen's Entry in U. S. — Rules for 

Seamen'.- Progress Abroad 

Secret 1 Hplomacy 

Sherman Anti-Trust Act 

Shipbuilding, World'- 

Shipowners Conference at Hot Springs. Ark 
Shipowners' New Lobbyisl 

Shipping Articles Defined 

Shipping Board, Reorganization of 

Shipping, 1 ncrea.se in* ... 
Shipping Statistics. Lloyd's 

Shortening Distances* 

Skilled Seanu-n Still Available 
Slavery, Slow Passing of 
Sounding the I 'acific < )cean 
South Sea Islands, Japanese Control 1 
Soviet Merchant Marine* 
Speak Well of the Living 
Steamboat Inspection, U. S 
Steel Trust Generosity 
Steel Trust Profits 
Stock Owning Schemes* 

Stonecutters' Case, Opinion of Justice Brandeis* 
Strike-breaking is Costlj 

Strike: Right Curtailed- p> \ njer 
Strikes, British Conservatives — Attempt to Outla 
Studying Life in Sea- 
Submarine. Control of 

Submarine Photography 

Subsidy for Chief Justice 

Survival. Problems of 

Swedish Diving Quarters 

Swimming Record, Notable* 




Taft, Chief Justice. Carnegie Subsidy for 

Tampa: U. S. Motorship 

Tankers. Loading of 

Teapol 1 )ome* 

Timber "in Japan 

Tipping System 

Tobacco, Tax Upon 

Too Many Readies* 

Trade Unions and Liberty* 

Trade Unions, 37,000,000 in 

Trial by Jury, Right to* 

True Preparedness* 

U-V 

I'n declared War* 

Union Broadcasting Station: Jos. A. W 

Union Hustler* 

Union Is Your Business* 

Unions, Toe of Poverty 

Unionism, Value of* 

Unlucky Month, An 

P. S. Pilot Associations* 

U. S. Shipping Hoard: Annual Report 
Vikings Win Lifeboat Race 

W-Y 
Wage Levels, Increase in* 
Wages, Payment of (Merchant Marine). 

Welland Shi)) Canal 

Well Said. Father Ryan! (Upholsterers' Journal) 

WestWOOd, California 

Whaling Industry 

Whaling in the Antarctic ., 

What is. Un-American ?* 

What's in a name — By I. A. Haarklau ... 
White Star Line. Sale of 

Whitney, Pardon of* 

Wilson- Vare Election Contest* 

Windjammer's Speedy Passage* 

Working Hours at Sea 

World Shipping Recovering* 
Workers' Education — By Harold Coy 
"Yellow Dog Contract" 
"Yellow Dogs" in Maryland* 



328 
102" 
269 

231 
195 

133 

116 

240 

4 

112 

13 

134 
199 
163 
145 

77 
262 
293 

68 
244 

41 

68 

174 

1 1 MI 

361 

240 
33ti 
165 
2'>7 
296 
336 

231 

42 

174 

8 

104 

P.4 

42 
336 
298 

17 



201 

4 
142 

84 
148 
110 
206 
198 
145 

IX 
2(11 

41 

40 
133 
K>3 

15 
173 



UKNlfc 




assssasa i ^-^ s ^=^=«s= 
Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

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A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEA 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's too 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use the 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justic 



Contents 

Page 

SHIPPING ARTICLES DEFINED 3 

PAYMENT OF SEAMEN'S WAGES 4 

UNITED STATES STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE 4 

WORK OF BUREAU OF NAVIGATION 5 

EDITORIALS: 

FACTS ABOUT SEAMEN'S WAGES 6 

A. B.'S FROM THE FARM 7 

THE SEAMEN'S CONVENTION 7 

A MAGNANIMOUS CORPORATION 8 

OUR NAVY IN NICARAGUA 8 

THE UNION HUSTLER 8 

BUSINESS IN GOVERNMENT 9 

OCEAN MAIL SERVICE 9 

DUAL CITIZENSHIP 10 

KEEPING AN EYE ON GENEVA 11 

LAME DUCK SESSIONS 12 

UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE. 13 

WORKERS' EDUCATION 15 

SHIPPING BOARD'S ANNUAL REPORT 17 

SALE OF WHITE STAR LINE 18 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 18 

BOOK REVIEWS 19 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 21, 22, 23, 24 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 25, 26, 27, 28 




VOL. XLI, No. 1 
WHOLE No. 1956 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
JANUARY 1, 1927 



^uiiuoiiiMiiuiiniiiiiiiiiiioiiimiiiioiiiiiiiiiiiHiiin 



International Seamen's Union of America 



Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' 



FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 
359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

iy 2 Lewis Street. Phone Bowling Green 0524. 
Branches: 

PROVIDENCE. R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Dexter 8090. 

NEW YORK, N. Y CHRIS RASMUSSEN, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

216 S. Second Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE, Md M. A. SCHUCH, Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 5910. 

NORFOLK. Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk. 

MOBILE, Ala 

68% Dauphine Street 

NEW ORLEANS. La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Jackson 5557 

GALVESTON. Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street, Phone 2215 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WM. ROSS, Agent 

131 Proctor Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RrVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa OTTO A. OLSSON, Agent 

216 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

735 So. Broadway 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WILLIAM ROSS, Agent 

222 Proctor St. 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 
Branches: 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch) JAS. ALLEN, Agent 

Phone Cortlandt 1979 

BOSTON, Mass _ -...JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVrDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE. Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street" 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WM. ROSS, Agent 

131 Proctor Street. 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass WM. H. BROWN. Secretary 

288 State Street. Phone Richmond 0827. 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER. Mass THOMAS COVE, Agent 

209 Main Street. Phone Gloucester 1045. 

NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton Street. Phone John 4539. 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR EM- 
PLOYES UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 
NEW ORLEANS, La S. C. OATS. Secretary 

910 N. Dorgenois S treet. P hone Galvez 6210-J 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 359 North Wells Street 

VICTOR A. OLANDER. Secretary 
Phone Superior 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

308 Superior Avenue. W. Phone Main 1*42. 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING. Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

652 Jefferson Ave. W., Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY. Secretary 
ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 308 Superior Avenue, W. 

PATRICK ADAMS, Agent 
Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ERNEST ELLIS, Agent 
Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 652 Jefferson Avenue, W. 

IVAN HUNTER, Agent 
Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 359 North Wells Street 

CHARLES GUSTAFSON, Agent 
Phone State 5175 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD. Secretary 

Telephone Seneca 0896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 25 W. Klnzie Street 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1S42 

MILWAUKEE, Wis., 162 Reed St., Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 

652 Jefferson Avenue, W. Phone Randolph 0044 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2207 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE, Wash _ P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash.™ JOHN A. FEIDJE, Agent 

502 East First Street 
P. O. Box 280, Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, ORE JOHN M. MOORE, Agent 

242 Flanders Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal _ HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 So. Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68, Telephone 1713W 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on page 28) 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



SHIPPING ARTICLES DEFINED 




LTHOUGH five years have elapsed 
certain legal phases arising out of 
the Seamen's defensive strike in 1921 
are still in the United States Courts. 
Toward the end of that strike Amer- 
ican ship operators claimed the right to get 
rid of crews receiving union wages by simply 
paying such undesirable crews an extra 
month's wages. A test case was taken 
into the Federal Court and in due time this 
claimed right of shipowners was denied by 
the United States District Court for the East- 
ern District of Louisiana. The decision of 
the lower court was appealed but has now 
been sustained by the United States Circuit 
Court of Appeals (5th Circuit) in the fol- 
lowing interesting opinion rendered by Circuit 
Judge Walker and concurred in by Circuit Judges 
Bryan and Foster: 

By duly signed shipping articles, dated New Or- 
leans, La., November 29, 1921, the appellee was em- 
ployed as an oiler on board the Steamship "Steel 
Trader" "from the Port of New Orleans to Pireaus, 
Greece, and East Indian Ports, and such other ports 
and places in any part of the world as the Master 
may direct and back to a final port of discharge and 
or loading ports on the Atlantic or Gulf Coast in 
the United States, for a term not exceeding twelve 
calendar months;" — his wages being at the rate of 
$80.00 per month. After the articles were signed the 
following provision, typewritten on a sheet of paper, 
was pasted on the foot of page 1 of the articles, a 
notation written in ink on that slip showing that 
appellee did not consent to that provision: 

"Should any changes in the scale of wages of 
crews employed on vessels whose owners are mem- 
bers of the America Steamship Owners Association, 
be made after the departure of this vessel, such 
scale of wages shall prevail on this vessel from 
date hew scale is put into effect by the American 
Steamship Owners Association." 

On December 12, 1921, at Port Arthur, Texas, to 
which place the vessel went on leaving New Or- 
leans, the appellee was discharged without his con- 
sent because he would not agree to the last above 
quoted provision. He was then paid wages at the 
contract rate for the time he had served and an 
extra month's wages of $80.00, and for the amount 
so paid he gave a receipt before a United States 
Shipping Commissioner, but did not sign any release 
of demands for wages. After the return of the ves- 
sel to the port of New Orleans on May 19, 1922, the 
appellee filed his libel alleging that he was dis- 
charged in violation of said articles, against his will 
and without just cause, and claiming that he was 
entitled to his wages up to and including the day 
of signing off after the vessel's return to New Or- 
leans. The claim asserted was resisted on the ground 
that the appellee was discharged and paid off in 
accordance with the provision of Section 4527 of 
United States Revised Statutes, which reads as fol- 
lows: 

"Any seaman who has signed an agreement and 
is afterward discharged before the commencement 



of the voyage or before one month's wages are 
earned, without fault on his part justifying such dis- 
charge, and without his consent, shall be entitled to 
receive from the Master or owner, in addition to 
any wages he may have earned, a sum equal in 
amount to one month's wages as compensation, and 
may, on adducing evidence satisfactory to the Court 
hearing the case, of having been improperly dis- 
charged, recover such compensation as if it were 
wages duly earned." 

By the decree appealed from the appellee was 
awarded the amount of his wages for the voyage, 
less a credit of $80.00 paid as above stated, with 
6% interest from May 19, 1922. 

The only ground on which the decree is com- 
plained of is that under 4527 R. S. the payment made 
satisfied all liability incurred by the wrongful dis- 
charge of the appellee. The appellee's rights under 
the contract evidenced by the shipping articles are 
governed by ordinary rules of contract except as 
modified by the statute. Unless a statute otherwise 
provides, on the wrongful discharge of an employee 
before the expiration of the time for which he was 
employed he is entitled to compensation for the serv- 
ices already rendered and also to such damages as 
he may sustain as a result of the wrongful dis- 
charge or breach of contract. To say the least, the 
language of the provision in question does not 
clearly manifest a purpose to give to the payment 
to a seaman wrongfully discharged within the time 
mentioned of the amount of any wages he may have 
earned and in addition a sum equal to one month's 
wages the effect of satisfying all liability incurred by 
wrongfully discharging him. That provision was 
originally enacted as section 4 of the Seaman's Act 
of June 7, 1872, the fundamental purpose of which 
was to afford protection to seamen in respect to 
their treatment and wages. The section of that act, 
before it was amended by the act of December 21, 
1898 (U. S. Comp. Stat. 8317), reads as follows: 
"In cases where the service of any seaman term- 
inates before the period contemplated in the agree- 
ment, by reason of the loss or wreck of the vessel, 
such seaman shall be entitled to wages for the time 
of service prior to such termination, but not for 
any further period." This provision is explicit in 
limiting the time for which the seaman shall be 
entitled to wages, while R. -S, 4527 makes the amount 
therein prescribed payable to a seaman, on his dis- 
charge under the circumstances therein dealt with, 
"as if it were wages duly earned," without indicating 
that such payment has the effect of satisfying all 
liability to the seaman resulting from his wrongful 
discharge. The last mentioned provision determines 
the amount to be paid, "as if it were wages duly 
earned," to the wrongfully discharged seaman in the 
presence of a dulv authorized shipping commissioner. 
R. S. 4549, R. S. 4552 determines the legal effects of 
a discharge before a shipping commissioner. The 
second paragraph of that section declares that it 
"shall operate as a mutual discharge and settlement 
of the demands for wages between the parties 
thereto, on account of wages in respect of the part 
voyage or engagement." That language does not dis- 
close a purpose to give to the payment of the pre- 
scribed amount in the presence of a shipping" com- 
missioner the effect of satisfying or extinguishing 
whatever right of action the seaman then may have 
against the ship or its owner. The case of the 
W. L. White, 25 Fed. 503, involved the Question of 
the effect, on the right of a seaman hurt in the serv- 
ice of the ship to recover from the ship the expenses 
of his cure, of his discharge pursuant to the provi- 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1927 



sion of the Dingley Act of June 26, 1884, that 
"whenever a seaman is discharged by a consular 
office in consequence of any injury received in the 
service of the vessel, such consular officer shall re- 
quire the payment by the master of one month's 
extra wages over and above the wages due at the 
time of the discharge." It was held that such dis- 
charge did not absolve the vessel from liability for 
the expenses of the seaman's medical treatment and 
cure for a hurt received prior to the discharge. The 
following was included in the opinion of Judge Addi- 
son Brown in that case: 

"If a cause of action in favor of the seaman had 
already accrued for injuries received by violence, or 
cruel usage, or insufficient food, a discharge at the 
end of the voyage, or by a consul in a foreign port, 
would not affect his right of action. Several of 
the cases above cited are of that kind. It is the 
same with his claim for the payment of the ex- 
penses of care for a hurt received in the service of 
the ship prior to his discharge. The inchoate right 
of action has already accrued to the seaman, which 
is not affected by a discharge from further claim to 
wages. There is nothing in the act of June 26, 1884, 
intimating any intent to absolve the ship from her 
legal obligations to an injured or sick seaman, be- 
yond possibility, the wages to the end of the voyage 
that might otherwise have been recovered, instead 
of one month's extra pay after discharge. Section 
4600, as amended by the same act, provides that the 
consular officer, in case of apprehension of a sea- 
man deserting on account of 'Unusual or cruel treat- 
ment, shall discharge him,' requiring payment of 
one month's extra wages. It is impossible to sup- 
pose that Congress intended that one month's wages 
should be taken as satisfaction of whatever claim to 
damages might exist for any actual injuries inflicted 
by such cruelty, or as a bar to such a claim. The 
'discharge' must be deemed to leave such claim unaf- 
fected. ... If vessels could in this way relieve them- 
selves from all charges for treatment of sick or 
wounded seamen, it would be an extreme hardship 
upon seamen, and would be liable to lead to abuses. 
The effect in this instance has been to deprive the 
seamen of the entire fruits of the voyage. An act 
like that of June 26, 1884, amending the prior law. 
and designed in part for the benefit of seamen, ought 
not to be construed to their prejudice any further 
than its language requires. As it does not expressly 
absolve the vessel from her liability previously incur- 
red for the medical treatment and cure of the dis- 
charged seaman, it should not be construed as doing 
so any more than an ordinary discharge at tin 
of the voyage would do so, nor any more than it 
would bar a vested right of action for a tort." 

The language of R. S. 4527 is consistent with an 
intention to treat the amount required to be paid to 
the wrongfully discharged seaman as compensation 
for the service already rendered by him. Certainly 
that language falls far short of expressly absolving 
the vessel, on the payment of such amount, from 
her liability for damages for breaching the contract 
evidenced by the shipping articles. That provision 
determines what is payable to the wrongfully dis- 
charged seaman at the time of his discharge. Other 
provisions determine what is payable at the time 
of the discharge of a seaman on account of the 
unseaworthiness of the vessel, or when the vessel 
is sold in a foreign country, or on the complaint of 
a seaman in a foreign country based on alleged 
violation of his rights. U. S. Comp. Stat, 8350, 8373, 
8374. Shipping Commissioners and consular officers 
are vested with authority to exact compliance with 
those provisions. U. S. Comp. Stat. 8297, 8338, ct 
seq. In the absence of a seaman's consent, those 
officials are not vested with authority or jurisdiction 
to determine what is recoverable on accrued or in- 
(Continued on Page 20) 



PAYMENT OF SEAMEN'S WAGES 



The following self-explanatory letter has 
been issued by the United States Commis- 
sioner of Navigation : 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Navigation 

Washington, D. C. 

November 16, 1926. 
General Letter No. 279. 

United States Shipping Commissioners and Collectors 
of Customs Acting as Such: 
Some doubt has developed as to the payment of 
wages on demand of seamen under Section 4 of the 
Seamen's Act of March 4, 1915, as amended by Sec- 
tion 31 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920. 

The matter has been given consideration by this 
Department and it is held that seamen are entitled 
to one-half of their wages earned and remaining un- 
paid any time demand is made therefor provided 
that such demand is not made oftener than the 
statute contemplates according to the example 
given below: 
Wages earned in New York and demand 

made by seaman $ 175.00 

Wages paid seaman New York (one-half).... 87.50 

Wages earned and remaining unpaid $ 87.50 

Brought forward $ 87.50 

Wages earned between New York 

and other port 190.00 

Total wages earned and remaining unpaid at 

other port when second demand made 277. oO 

Due and payable to seaman at this port 

(one-half this amount) 138.75 

Wages earned and remaining unpaid $ 138.75 

Please be governed accordingly. 
Respectfullv, 

D. B. CARSON, 
Commissioner. 



U. S. STEAMBOAT INSPECTION 



The annual report of Supervising Inspector 
General D. N. Hoover states that during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1926, the Steamboat 
Inspection Service inspected and certificated 
7377 vessels, with a total gross tonnage of 15,- 
016,556, of which 7055 were domestic vessels, 
with a total gross tonnage of 11,619,240, and 
322 were foreign passenger steam vessels, 
with a total gross tonnage of 3,397,316. Of 
the domestic vessels there were 5581 steam 
vessels, 950 motor vessels, 18 passenger barges, 
and 506 seagoing barge.s. There were 1000 
cargo vessels examined to carry persons in 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



addition to crew under the act of Congress 
approved June 5, 1920. 

Letters of approval of designs of boilers, en- 
gines, and other operating machinery were 
granted to 20 steam vessels, with a total gross 
tonnage of 707. There were inspected for the 
U. S. Government 73 hulls of vessels and 2009 
boilers. There were 2575 reinspections of 
steam vessels, motor vessels, and barges, the 
report states. 

Licenses were issued to 22,459 officers of all 
grades. There were examined for visual de- 
fects 6962 applicants for license, of whom 15 
were found color blind or with other visual 
defects and rejected. Certificates of service 
were issued to 8925 able seamen, and 584 were 
rejected. Certificates of efficiency were issued 
to 7852 lifeboat men, and 4960 were rejected. 

Steel plates for the construction of marine 
boilers to the number of 2958 were inspected 
at the mills. There were tested at the mills 
by assistant inspectors 6308 steel bars to be 
used as boiler stays and braces, of which 70 
were rejected. There were examined and 
tested 175,132 new life preservers and kapok 
collars for life preservers, of which 1987 were 
rejected. 

There were inspected 12,920 new cork-ring 
life buoys, of which 256 were rejected. There 
were inspected at factories 442 new lifeboats, 
all of which were passed ; 269 new life rafts, 
of which 2 were rejected, and 192 new boat 
davits, all of which passed. 

The total number of accidents resulting in 
loss of life was 314. The total number of lives 
lost was 368, of which 103 were passengers. 
Of the lives lost, 156 were from suicide, acci- 
dental drowning, and other similar causes, 
leaving a loss of 212 fairly chargeable to ac- 
cidents, collisions, founderings, etc. Passengers 
to the number of 350,370,065 were car- 
ried on vessels required by law to make re- 
port of the number of passengers carried. 
Dividing this number by 103, the total num- 
ber of passengers lost, shows that 3,401,651 
passengers were carried for each passenger 
lost. The number of lives directly saved 
by means of the life-saving appliances re- 
quired by law was 752. 



BUREAU OF NAVIGATION 



Let those who argue against liberty because 
it is sometimes abused mention something 
that cannot be abused. — Charles T. Sprading. 



The annual report of the Commissioner of 
Navigation for the fiscal year has just been 
made public, and contains a number of items 
of interest. The merchant marine of the 
United States on June 30, 1926, consisted of 
26,343 documented vessels of all kinds, of a 
total gross tonnage of 17,311,147, of which 
3,052 seagoing vessels of 11,895,058 tons 
were of 1,000 gross tons or over, showing a 
reduction in number of twenty vessels, and 
a reduction in tonnage of about 88,000 tons, 
from the figures of the previous year. 

The report advocates a reorganization of 
the maritime bureaus and activities, under the 
direction of the Department of Commerce ; 
the personnel of the customs service has the 
carrying out of many of these duties at pres- 
ent, and yet the Secretary of Commerce is 
charged with the administration of law, 
through the employes of another department 
over whom he has no direct supervision and 
whose efficiency, or lack of it, he has no au- 
thority to reward or correct. This is marked 
in the cases of endorsement of a mortgage 
of a vessel on her documents, or in the case 
of the highly technical work of admeasure- 
ment of tonnage of vessels, upon which is 
based the collection of navigation fees, ton- 
nage taxes, canal tolls and port charges in 
American and foreign ports. The consolida- 
tion of effort under central direction will re- 
sult in the attraction of competent men, and 
render expert and more adequate service. 

During the year 534,000 officers and men 
were shipped, reshipped and discharged be- 
fore shipping commissioners under the De- 
partment of Commerce, with an average cost 
per man for this service of 23 cents. Col- 
lectors of customs acting at ports where ship- 
ping commissioners' offices have not been es- 
tablished shipped and discharged during the 
year 54,000 officers and men ; American con- 
suls shipped and discharged 39,500 officers 
and men. Of the men shipped before commis- 
sioners 53 per cent were born or naturalized 
Americans, the highest percentage for several 
years. The British nationality came next, 
about 12 per cent of the whole, followed by 
Germans with about 8 per cent and Spanish 
with 5.5 per cent. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1927 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

THOMAS CONWAY, Second Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILD, Third Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fourth Vice-President 

1% Dewis Street, Boston, Mass. 

WM. H. BROWN, Fifth Vice-President 

202 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

OSCAR CARDSON, Sixth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 

PATRICK O'BRIEN, Seventh Vice-President 

55 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHA RRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURNAL 
is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 






JANUARY 1, 1927 



FACTS ABOUT SEAMEN'S WAGES 



Several of the big newspapers of the United 
States have recently published a series of edi- 
torials and special feature stories on American 
shipping with particular reference to Sea- 
men's wages. It really is astonishing how 
much misinformation is extant among news- 
paper writers on so important a subject. The 
newspapers referred to, have a tremendous cir- 
culation all over America, and it is next to 
impossible to effectively correct misstate- 
ments published on their editorial pages un- 
less such correction is made on the same 
pages by the consent of the owners. Such 
permission is difficult to obtain because not 
one of America's great daily newspapers will 
ever admit that an error or a mistake has 
been made by its editorial staff. 

As a horrible example of topsy-turvey edi- 
torial logic we submit the following from the 
San Francisco Chronicle : 

The American ship costs more to operate because 
our navigation laws are frankly designed to maintain 



the wages of seamen at the level of those in the 
protected industries, and require a high standard of 
personnel, equipment and safety. Our coastwise ships 
are, in the matter of high wages, on the same plane 
as the general American industrial system, protected 
against foreign competition, and paying American 
wages. The coastwise traffic, into which foreign 
ships may not enter, sets the standard for cost of 
operation in American shipping. But when an Amer- 
ican ship enters the foreign trade, it still has to 
keep up the American standard of wages and per- 
sonnel, although it no longer enjoys the benefit of 
the protective principle. And it is these high wages 
that create the problem of operating an American 
ship at a profit in the foreign trade. American ship- 
ping must meet the competition of the ships of the 
world, no matter how low the foreign standard of 
wages, personnel and equipment. This is the prob- 
lem of the American Merchant Marine. 

Scarcely a sentence in the foregoing per- 
suasive discourse can stand upon its own bot- 
tom. To begin with it is absolutely untrue 
that our navigation laws keep up the wages 
of seamen. There are no laws to regulate 
wages on American ships. There are no 
laws requiring American ships to carry Amer- 
ican sailors; in fact, there are neither laws 
nor any sort of Governmental requirements 
stipulating the employment of white men on 
American ships. No less a person than Mr. 
A. I". Haines, first vice-president of the Pacific 
American Steamship Association, made this 
thoroughly understood when he testified be- 
fore the Senate Committee on Commerce, as 
follows : 

We can and do employ Chinese whenever we can 
get away with it with the unions. That is the only 
law that we have that prevents it. 

It is not true, as asserted by the Chronicle 
editorial writer, that our coastwise ship- are 
paying American wages. Our coastwise -hips 
employ the cheapest men they can get, pre- 
ferably aliens who cannot show lawful entry 
into the country. These men are needed, Mr. 
W. J. Petersen, testified in Congress to move 
our "highly protected" coastwise trade. 

It is not true that the American standard 
of wages and personnel have to be kept up in 
the offshore or foreign trade. If the busy 
editor of the Chronicle can spare the time the 
editor of the Journal will be glad to es- 
cort him on a visit to American ship- in San 
Francisco harbor manned almost exclusively 
by Asiatics receiving Asiatic rates of wages. 

Of course, no one need be in doubt about 
the motive back of the Chronicle's "high 
wage" stories. The Chronicle is simply aping 
the tactics of certain shipowners. 

Whenever the latter talk for publicity they 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



generally endeavor to create the impression 
that "wages" is the all-important item in 
the cost of operating ships. When talking to 
Congressional Committees they virtually 
moan about the comparatively "high" wages 
on American ships. When they want to ef- 
fect a saving the wage item is usually the 
first to be attacked for reduction. Yet, only 
12 cents out of each dollar of the total cost 
of ship operation is paid for wages. And this 
includes everybody's wages aboard ship, from 
master to the lowest paid boy. The major 
item of expense is for fuel, interest on invest- 
ment, depreciation and general port charges. 

The obvious answer to those who con- 
stantly complain about high wages is that 
an efficient crew, even though a high wage 
crew, will easily be the less expensive be- 
cause several of the principal items in ship 
operation, but especially fuel and port charges, 
can be and will be very considerably reduced 
when efficient men are manning the ship. 

If mere cheapness of the crew were a de- 
termining factor in success or failure of ocean 
navigation why in the name of common sense 
does not the Chinese empire control all ocean 
shipping. China has more cheap labor than 
any other country on earth and yet, strange 
to relate, there is not even a semblance of a 
Chinese Merchant Marine. Will the Chronicle 
editor please explain? 



A. B.'s FROM THE FARM 



The Providence (R. I.) Agent of the 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association has 
supplied the Journal with two interesting af- 
fidavits. Both are sworn to by native farm 
hands from Louisiana who came to Port 
Arthur, Texas, looking for work. Having 
picked up the news that work would be fur- 
nished at the Seamen's Church Institute they 
rpplied at that concern for employment. The 
superintendent of the Institute informed them 
that the steamship Alabama was looking for 
two able seamen. The young men told the 
superintendent that they were farmers and 
without knowledge or experience of seafaring. 
The superintendent of the Seamen's Church 
Institute assured them that "it did not mat- 
ter," that the ship was glad to get anybody. 
This information proved to be correct. The 
two young men were duly signed on as 



able seamen and the vessel proceeded to sea. 
Immediately upon arrival at Providence both 
were discharged for incompetency but the 
mate graciously informed them that they 
could work their way "back home" if they 
so desired! 

This method of manning ships through 
the agency of charitable concerns, such as 
Seamen's Missions and Institutes, seems to 
be developing into a regular industry. In San 
Francisco the so-called Seamen's Institute, 
conducted a scab shipping office until the 
managers of the Community Chest threatened 
to stop the annual subsidy to the Institute. 
In New York and other ports similar condi- 
tions prevail. Yet some of our good friends 
express surprise that an increasing number of 
seamen are losing confidence in missionaries 
and sky pilots of all kinds! 



THE SEAMEN'S CONVENTION 



The forthcoming Washington convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America 
promises to be a real, worthwhile meeting. 
Coming together in the nation's capital, while 
Congress is in session, the representatives 
of the Seamen of America will have an un- 
usual opportunity to exchange notes and 
map out a course for the future. Substan- 
tial gains have been made during the year 
just past. Several of the District Unions are 
reporting satisfactory increases in member- 
ship and a general dispositon on the part 
of delinquent members to square themselves 
with their union. The recent Supreme Court 
decision on the scab shipping offices and the 
blacklisting discharge book has raised certain 
new questions that must be seriously con- 
sidered. The holdover legislative program 
must be reviewed and more than ordinary 
attention will doubtless be given general 
organizing activities. Several other matters 
relating to the Union's established policy are 
due for careful examination. Well, here is 
wishing that harmony and good will may 
be in evidence at all times during the session. 
Success to the thirtieth annual convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America. 



It is a big assumption that because the nine- 
teenth century was increasingly democratic, 
the twentieth must go on being more demo- 
cratic still. — Dean Inge. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 192) 



A MAGNANIMOUS CORPORATION 



The Union Oil Company of California is 
having a regular streak of magnanimity. 
According to an announcement, every em- 
ployee of the company will be urged to sign 
an agreement assigning to said oil company 
his entire right to any invention which he 
may conceive. The company will then prose-' 
cute the application for a patent and if a 
patent should be granted will pay the invent- 
ing employee the magnificent sum of $100. 
After that— 

. . . "No compensation other than the primary 
award of $100 will be payable to the employee for 
the use of the invention by the company unless 
greatly increased profits are enjoyed as a direct 
result, in which case the administrators, with the 
approval of the board of directors, may award ad- 
ditional compensation." 

The Union Oil Company evidently is of 
the opinion that it owns the body and the 
soul of its employees and has a 100 per cent 
property right in the inventive genius of any- 
one on its payroll ! 

In the good old days the offspring of serfs 
and slaves became the property of the master 
from the moment of birth. Are we returning 
to those good old days? 



OUR NAVY IN NICARAGUA 



Although "official denials" have been made 
at Washington, D. C, armed intervention in 
Central America — in Nicaragua — is now an 
accomplished fact. 

The first act of the American Navy was to 
disarm a unit of the liberal forces of Dr. Juan 
Sacasa and compel the revolutionaries to 
evacuate their zone of operations. Dr. Sacasa 
was recently recognized by Mexico as the 
liberal constitutional president of Nicaragua 
just after Adolfo Diaz had been recognized by 
the United States as the conservative presi- 
dent of the country. Were Mexico powerful 
enough the next step would be for her to land 
Mexican marines at Managua, the Diaz cap- 
ital, and order him and his backers to clear 
out precisely as the United States has done 
at Puerto Cabezas, the Sacasa capital. This 
would mean war. What actually will happen 
is now a problem. Mexico, of course, is just 
as completely within her rights of a sovereign 
power to recognize Sacasa as the rightful 
ruler of Nicaragua as the United States is 



to look upon Diaz as the ['resident. Hence, it 
is a question of might, not of right. 

Our Latin-American diplomacy never has 
been on too high a plane, but of late it has 
been getting worse and the situation is far 
from reassuring. Some very powerful forces in 
this country are busy seeking American inter- 
vention in Mexico, and any trivial "incident" 
in Nicaragua might be twisted into the very 
excuse they are looking for. At all events 
things are approaching a crisis; that much 
is certain. There must be a showdown soon 
on. this momentous question : Does our Navy 
receive its orders from the State Department 
and to what extent are these orders influ- 
enced by the almighty dollar — or to be blunt 
— do these orders emanate from the interna- 
tional bankers who demand safety and 25 
per cent interest on their foreign investments? 



THE UNK )X HUSTLER 



What is a hustler? There are a good many 
different kinds of hustlers. There is the hust- 
ling business man, there is the hustling em- 
ployee, there is the hustler in almost every 
industry or business house. The Labor Union, 
too, has its hustlers. He is the essential cog 
in the wheel. He is needed everywhere. 
^\\ 'here there are a number of live hustlers in 
the union there is success. What we need at 
this very time is more hustlers. Hustlers who 
are honest. Hustlers who know what they 
are doing and doing all the time. A real 
hustler never knows what it is to lay down 
on anything. He starts out with a desire and 
never ends his work until that desire is 
satisfied. 

Why not let us all get a hustle on for our 
union? Let us get a desire to do things. 
Things of merit. We are never going to get 
anywhere without some hustle. Nothing is 
going to come to us without hustling for it. 
Hustling makes you tired at night, you sleep 
well, you feel better the next day. It keeps 
you out of trouble. It is good stuff. It has 
a real kick. Try some of it for yourself. 



The world's riches increase each day. The 
Union Label stands for the proposal that all 
the producers of this wealth shall have a fair 
share of it. 



8 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



BUSINESS IN GOVERNMENT 



That ours is a business man's government 
is well illustrated by the annual report of 
Secretary of Commerce Hoover, just pub- 
lished. The keynote of his accounting to the 
people, of the work of his department is 
"elimination of waste." 

The Secretary shows beyond the possibility 
of doubt that his department has taught 
commercial enterprise to eliminate waste in 
many lines; in fact, he has covered the whole 
field of commerce. He has shown the value 
to business of adequate transportation facilities, 
and of co-operation rather than competition 
between the various types of transportation. 
He has discussed the enormous injury caused 
by so-called "booms," and the periods of de- 
pression and unemployment and suffering 
that inevitably follow, and has with justice 
urged those who seek his advice to fight 
against "booms," as they would against a 
loathsome disease, and to strive for a greater 
degree of stability in industry. He has, at 
great length,, described the work of his de- 
partment in establishing standards for many 
products, from milk bottle stoppers to con- 
crete building units, from dining car china- 
ware to woven wire fencing. He has dis- 
cussed the value of the wider use of power, 
and of the conservation and utilization of the 
water resources of the nation, and many other 
subjects of interest to business and industry 
in general. 

One cannot but agree that all these things 
are excellent, that the work of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce is of inestimable value. 
But to whom? The report leaves one won- 
dering. He quotes statistics of weighty ap- 
pearance to prove that retail prices have kept 
up, have in fact increased during the past year 
presumbably with the assistance and approval 
of the Department of Commerce. He quotes 
more statistics to show wages have not de- 
creased ; that they have in fact kept at about 
the same level. He quotes still more statis- 
tics to show that the volume of business has 
increased. One might pause to note that by 
far the greatest increase is in the five-and-ten- 
cent stores and mail-order houses ! 

But an inquisitive mind is not satisfied. 
Surely, elimination of waste means a saving. 
What has become of that saving? The 



report does not tell us. The consumer did not 
get it, for retail prices have increased, even 
along with and in spite of the increase in 
volume of business. The wage-earner did 
not get it, for his wages have remained the 
same. Quite evidently it has gone into those, 
capacious pockets which are already filled 
to overflowing. "To him that hath shall be 
given." A public official is presumed to be a 
servant of the people — all of them, not just 
a few. Why cannot that co-operation, which 
you preach so effectively, Mr. Secretary, as 
between business and business, industry and 
industry, be reflected all the way down the 
line so that the man who buys the stopper 
on his bottle of milk and the man who toils 
in the factory to produce it may share in the 
benefits produced through your efforts? 

Business men have made wide use of late of 
that slogan, "More business in government, 
less government in business." There has 
been some confusion as to the exact meaning 
of that slogan. After reading Mr. Hoover's 
report, one is led to believe that "business in 
Government" is laudable when industry, ac- 
knowledging its own inability, can ask politi- 
cal government to function as does the De- 
partment of Commerce, in aid of maintenance 
of prices and volume of business. On the 
other hand, "government in business" seems 
to be reprehensible whenever government, 
pursuant to its original mandate and its 
ultimate purpose of protection of the human 
rights of its citizens, steps in and says to 
business, "Thus far shalt thou go!" 



OCEAN MAIL SERVICE 



A sane and logical plea for a more liberal 
interpretation of the Ocean Mail Act of 1891 
is made by Mr. Henry E. Frick, vice-presi- 
dent of the American Export Steamship 
Company. 

The act in question provides for a mileage 
rate of compensation for mail-carrying vessels 
built in accordance with certain requirements 
and manned according to certain minimum 
stipulations as to American citizenship of the 
crew. 

Mr. Frick rightly argues that the rates 
paid under the terms of the Act of 1891 are 
based upon operating costs of American-flag 
tonnage at that time. Therefore, when one 
considers the increase in wages and the in- 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1927 



creased price of commodities entering into the 
operations of steamships, it will be readily 
conceded that not by the wildest stretch of 
imagination could any compensation paid 
for services to be performed thirty-five years 
ago be applicable to conditions at the present 
time. 

For instance, Bunker coal could be pur- 
chased in 1900 at New York at $3.00 to 
$3.25 per ton compared with $4.50 to $4.75 
prior to the present strike condition in Eng- 
land. Fuel oil prices at New York were 
$1.26 per barrel in 1913 compared with $1.77^ 
at the present time. Other operating costs have 
increased to approximately the same extent. In 
1900 the wages for New York stevedores were 
about 30 cents per hour, compared with 80 
cents per hour plus 10 per cent insurance 
at the present time. Seamen's wages have 
more than doubled. Watching, checking and 
clerk hire have increased proportionately 
Wharfage has increased. Shifting tugs which 
were $4.00 an hour in 1900 are $15.00 per 
hour at the present time. Tugs for docking 
were $10.00 per hour in 1900 compared with 
$30.00 per hour at the present time. 

Yet, the rates paid for carrying United 
States mail have remained unchanged for 
thirty-five years. And this in face of the un- 
disputed fact that during the past decade 
the Government has made a handsome profit 
from its ocean-going mail service, as the 
following tabulation clearly shows : 
Year Revenues Expenditures 

1916 $ 9,615,749.27 $3,453,975.37 

1917 9,533,727.15 3,410,102.64 

1918 10,780,894.59 3,916,111.61 

1919 13,562,193.36 4,982,333.46 

1920 17,236,035.99 6,071,629.73 

1921 16,528,043.48 6,651,792.00 
15,317,686.30 6,923,561.00 
14,828,258.97 7,493,627.00 
17,598,672.74 8,748,267.00 
18,000,430.39 8,157,199.62 

The last convention of the International 
Seamen's Union of America went on record, 
by unanimous vote, in a clean-cut declaration 
"that the Ocean Mail Act, passed in 1891, 
does not now provide sufficient compensation 
for the service to be rendered to the Govern- 
ment ; and we urge that the act in question be 
revised so as to give proper pay for this 
direct service." 

At the present time approximately 55 per 
cent of foreign mail of the United States is 
being carried in American steamers as indi- 



1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 



cated by the report of the Postmaster General 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925. 

With suitable amendments to the Ocean 
Mail Act of 1891 and sufficient appropriations 
by Congress there is no reason why this per- 
centage should not be very materially in- 
creased. All classes of American citizens 
would be the direct beneficiaries of such an 
arrangement. It would stimulate the ship- 
building industry and give more employment 
to American workers ashore and afloat. 



DUAL CITIZENSHIP 



"Nichi Bei," a Japanese newspaper, quotes 
figures issued by the Japanese Government to 
the eflfect that for the year ending Dec. 1, 
1925, 6039 Japanese children were born in 
America (this must mean continental United 
States because over 5000 were born in Ha- 
waii) ; and that of these only 1783 took Japa- 
nese nationality, thereby securing dual citi- 
zenship, while the remaining 4256 became 
American citizens without responsibilities to 
Japan under the new expatriation law. The 
results reported in Hawaii for the same 
period, by the Japanese Consul at Honolulu, 
are as follows : 

Births, 5024. Of this number 3645 kept 
Japanese nationality and dual citizen-hip by 
formal notice, while 1379 only permitted their 
Japanese citizenship to lapse automatically. 

These are significant figures, indeed ! 

One thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
three Japanese babies born on the mainland 
of America and 3645 Japanese babies born 
in Hawaii, an American territory, making a 
total of 5428 babies who are classified in the 
census as native-born Americans, but who 
have served formal notice that they prefer 
to remain subjects of the Mikado! 



HISTORY REPEATS ITSELF! 



Small thieves lie in* towers fastened to wooden 
blocks; big ones strut about in gold and silver. — Cato 
(Roman statesman of the second century, B. ( . i. 

When we read about the disagreement of 
the jury in the Dougherty trial, and tin- ac- 
quittal of Messrs. Fall and "5oheny, we are 
forced to the conclusion that old man Cato 
was quite correct! Cabinet officers can get 
away with a hundred thousand, or more, 
but God help the poor fellow who steals a 
loaf of bread when he is hungry! 



in 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



KEEPING AN EYE ON GENEVA 



While the United States has no direct af- 
filiation either with the League of Nations 
or the International Labor Office it is no 
secret that American seamen have much 
more than a passing interest in the various 
transactions of the International Labor Office. 
Readers of the Journal will recall that 
the organized seamen of America took the 
lead in exposing the real meaning of the so- 
called International Seamen's Code which 
certain interested folks attempted to have en- 
dorsed although said code perpetuated ancient 
penalties for quitting work. 

It is therefore of interest to note that the 
joint Maritime Commission of the Interna- 
tional Labor Office (functioning under the 
League of Nations) will meet in January, 
1927. This will be the first meeting of the 
commission since its re-election at Geneva 
in June, 1926. 

According to official reports from Geneva 
the commission will consider, in the first 
place the Director's Report giving an ac- 
count of the work done by the office on 
maritime questions since the last session. 

The commission will also be asked to de- 
liberate on the best way of giving effect 
to the resolutions on maritime questions 
adopted by the ninth session of the con- 
ference, held at Geneva last June. One of 
the most important of those resolutions is 
that which suggests that the regulation of 
hours of work onboard ship should be placed 
on the agenda of a special maritime con- 
ference in 1928. Other resolutions deal with 
articles of agreement for the fishing industry; 
the repatriation of fishermen, penalties in re- 
spect of the violation of seamen's articles 
of agreement, inquiry into conditions of work 
in fishing for sponges and other submarine 
products. 

It is said that the commission will also be 
requested to express its views on questions 
to be placed on the program of a future 
maritime conference, including questions al- 
ready proposed by the conference itself, and 
two suggested by the International Mercan- 
tile Marine Officers' Association. 

That there is considerable dissatisfaction 
with the Joint Maritime Commission was 
made plain at a meeting of the General 



Council of trie International Shipping Federa- 
tion held in London recently, which was at- 
tended by representatives from Great Britian, 
France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Den- 
mark, Norway and Sweden. The before- 
mentioned meeting discussed the general re- 
sults of the Seamen's Conference held at 
Geneva last June. Particular criticism was 
levied at the reconstitution of the Joint Mari- 
time Commission. It is proposed to increase 
the representation both of shipowners and 
seamen on this commission, but the method 
by which the seamen's representatives are 
appointed does not ensure the appointment 
of the representatives of the recognized sea- 
men's unions. To the contrary, in several in- 
stances the seamen of maritime nations 
have been represented by men without real 
experience as seamen. This is due to 
the fact that the seamen's representatives 
are selected by the respective Governments, 
and that the seamen's organizations have no 
voice in such selections. 

Again, the present constitution of these 
maritime conferences is regarded as extremely 
unsatisfactory, because such conferences are 
participated in by countries which possess 
practically no mercantile marine of their own. 
These countries are. nevertheless, given an 
effective voice in matters of vital importance 
to the great maritime countries of Europe. 

Additional pertinent criticism has been of- 
fered by delegate Narasaki, who represented 
the seamen of Japan at the recent Geneva con- 
ference. In reporting on said conference 
delegate Narasaki said : 

The only workers' representatives from Asia were 
those of India and Japan. All the rest came from 
the countries of the white race, and thus one had 
the impression that the Conference was a Conference 
of white people. 

It was rather surprising to see only two men rep- 
resenting the millions of workers in Asia, which has 
the greatest area and the largest population of all the 
continents, and in which industry is the least devel- 
oped and conditions of life and work are the poorest. 
According to the "Labor Charter" of the Peace 
Treaty, the fundamental purpose of the organization 
is to improve those working conditions which in- 
volve injustice, poverty and hardship, and thus to 
safeguard the permanent peace of the world. There is 
no place where conditions of injustice and misery 
exist such as those of Asia. Asia, in that sense, pre- 
sents the greatest possibilities of danger to the peace 
of the world. 

Seamen's Delegates. — It was regrettable that, at 
the ninth session of the Conference, which was a 
maritime session, the delegates did not include Mr. 
Havelock Wilson, the representative of the British 
Seamen, and many other people who could be con- 



11 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1927 



sidered as really representative of maritime workers. 
It is to be hoped that something will be clone to 
prevent a recurrence of this situation at the next 
maritime conference. 

We fully agree with the delegate from 
Japan that "something should be done" to 
prevent a recurrence of certain peculiar in- 
cidents at the Geneva conference. But inas- 
much as the International Labor Office was 
established, and its functions outlined and 
circumscribed, by the Treaty of Versailles, 
it is not an easy matter to "do something." 

In any event it behooves the seamen of 
America to keep their eye on Geneva. Sea- 
men, more than any other group of workers, 
are directly affected by international treaties, 
rules and regulations. 

Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty ! 
There are many forces moving to deprive the 
American seamen of the freedom gained 
under the LaFollette Seamen's Act of 1915. 
It is our business to see to it that the In- 
ternational Labor Office is not used by these 
mysterious forces to set back the clock and 
stay the march of progress! 



"LAME DUCK" SESSIONS 



SAILORS AS "MOVIE" ACTORS 



Because the filming of "Old Ironsides," a 
scenario from the pen of Lawrence Stallings, 
author of "The Big Parade," was entirely too 
realistic, with its accompanying T. N. T. ex- 
plosion, Harry F. Broyles, a member of the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific, sustained serious 
injuries that resulted in the filing of a $250,000 
damage suit against the Famous Players- 
Lasky Corporation in the United States Dis- 
trict Court. According to Silas B..Axtell, who 
has instituted the action for Broyles, his client 
had riot been advised that the scenes were to 
be so realistic, and that when he was sent 
aloft in the Constitution, the old battle- 
scarred, mute fighter of the seas, he was 
thrown through the air onto a yard and had 
to be rushed to a hospital. The medical 
report, according to the papers in the civil 
action, says Broyles sustained internal in- 
juries, broken legs and arms and fractured 
ribs. He is still in a hospital in Los Angeles. 



Liberty, I am told, is a divine thing. Lib- 
erty, when it becomes the "liberty to die by 
starvation." is not so divine.— Ca'rlyle. 



This ought to be the last "lame duck' 
sion in the history of the United States. They 
are at best a travesty on representative gov- 
ernment. In a great cri>is they would be a 
menace. 

The Senate now has ten "lame ducks" who 
were repudiated by the people at the polls. 
The House has twenty or more. On impor- 
tant votes they may well hold the balance of 
power. Let us look at the "lame duck 
the Senate. Here they are — Cameron, Ernst, 
Harreld, Lenroot, McKinley, Means, Pepper, 
Stanfield, Wadsworth and Weller. They are 
all hard-boiled reactionaries, overwhelmingly 
defeated because of their bad records. And 
yet, during this short session of Congress, 
these ten votes may sacrifice Muscle Shoals to 
the Power Trust, put through the River and 
Harbor "Pork Barrel," and refund millions 
of taxes to a handful of millionaires. 

Many, if not all, of these defeated Senators 
and Representatives are looking to the Presi- 
dent for berths as ambassadors, judg< 
commissioners that will maintain them "in 
the style to which they are accustomed." 
They have eaten at the trough of the Federal 
treasury and will not forsake it. Dependent 
upon the President's favor for these jobs, each 
of them will hear and heed "His Master's 
Voice." Thus the administration is assured a 
a solid block of votes that may well be deci- 
sive on controversial issues. This is "Govern- 
ment by Lame Ducks." 

It is time to end this farce. Three times 
the Senate has passed the Xorris Amendment 
to the Constitution which would abolish 
"lame duck" sessions and also bring the 
newly elected Congressmen into office be- 
fore they have forgotten what they were 
elected for. Three times the reactionary ma- 
chine of the House has prevented the Norris 
Amendment from being voted upon by the 
Representatives. The first time, in 1922. the 
Norris Amendment was killed in the House 
by the most outrageous piece of skull-dmj 
ever perpetrated in a legislative body. On 
that occasion, the Rules Committee by ma- 
jority vote adopted a rule fixing a date for 
a vote on the amendment. The House was 
overwhelmingly for it. probably 10 to 1. Bui 
the chairman of the Rules Committee, Phil 



12 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



Campbell of Kansas, brazenly "pocketed" the 
rule and defied the majority of the House to 
compel him to report it. He was defeated at 
the next election, but was rewarded by a big 
business appointment as "lobbyist de luxe" 
and now lives in splendor on his nearby Vir- 
ginia estate. 

At the last session of Congress the Norris 
Amendment again passed the Senate by a 
vote of 73 to 2. It was favorably reported to 
the House on February 24, 1926, and is now 
reposing on the House calendar. The greatest 
public service that the progressives in the 
House could perforin would be to serve notice 
on the majority leaders that they must permit 
a vote on this measure during the short ses- 
sion. Early action is important. Forty-five 
State legislatures meet in 1927 and only a 
few in 1928. Speedy ratification therefore de- 
mands that this amendment to the Constitu- 
tion should go to the States early in January. 

The Norris Amendment is a sound, progres- 
sive measure. It has the approval of the 
American Bar Association as well as the na- 
tional organizations of labor, women and 
farmers. It will cure an intolerable situation 
and should pass forthwith. 



PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 



STEEL TRUST WAS WRONG 



The steel trust's division of $200,000,000 of 
its $700,000,000 profits among stockholders re- 
futes the claim that the twelve-hour day and 
the seven-day week is necessary. 

As late as June, 1923, Judge Gary and asso- 
ciate directors of the American Iron and Steel 
Industries said the twelve-hour day could not 
be abandoned until "there is a surplus of 
labor available." But the change was made 
without having three men for every job. 

The steel trust is a copper-riveted indus- 
trial autocrat. Each employe of this corpora- 
tion must deal with it as an individual. It 
is honeycombed with spies and informers to 
acquaint its management with any unrest 
among workers, yet the men who direct this 
policy are not immune from the penetration 
of trade union agitation. 



Predominance of the few over the many is 
the surest and most fatal sign of a race in- 
corrigibly savage. — Lytton. 



The annual report of the Surgeon General 
of the United States Public Health Service 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1926, has 
been transmitted to Congress by the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury. The report gives the 
record of the one hundred and twenty-eighth 
year of the existence of the Service. 

The Surgeon General says that increases 
in the facilities for the transportation of hu- 
man beings and of commodities multiplies op- 
portunities for the introduction of communi- 
cable diseases from one state or community 
into another and from foreign countries into 
the United States. Increases in population 
produce marked tendencies to more than cor- 
responding increases in sickness and death. 
and such increases will surely follow unless 
the means of preventing them aie placed at 
the disposal of our public health agencies 
and unless the people themselves will co- 
operate with their health authorities. 

An earthquake in Japan arouses our sym- 
pathy, but it does not endanger our safety; 
but smallpox in England, cholera in Siam, 
plague in Egypt, or trachoma in Russia may 
be conveyed to our shores and introduced 
among our people in a very short time. A 
widespread epidemic of diphtheria in Canada 
will probably cause cases of this disease in 
the United States. In spite of all practicable 
precautions, typhus fever cases from Mexico 
are occasionally found in the Southwest. 

The responsibilities of health officers — Fed- 
eral, state and local— are. increasing, but our 
knowledge of disease and the methods by 
which it can be prevented are also increasing. 
We now know the methods by which many 
of the more important communicable diseases 
are transmitted, and this knowledge enables 
the health officer to take action to prevent 
the introduction of or spread of these diseases. 
Some diseases — smallpox and diphtheria, for 
instance — could be practically eliminated if 
the public could be made to realize the ad- 
vantages of using well-known methods of 
prevention. Thousands of persons in the 
United States suffer and die each year be- 
cause of lack of available information or in- 
difference which prevents the use of methods 
of prevention, the efficacy and safety of which 
have been proved. Even when the results 



n 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1927 



are reckoned only in dollars, properly directed 
health work pays large dividends to the com- 
munity. 

Measures for safeguarding shellfish from 
pollution and contamination, conducted in co- 
operation with the Bureau of Chemistry and 
the Bureau of Fisheries, resulted in great im- 
provement in the methods used by the pro- 
ducing states and in renewed confidence in the 
safety of shellfish in the consuming states. 
Reasonably uniform rules, regulations, and 
methods of enforcement are being developed 
which will result in better observance as well 
as better enforcement. 

Measures for insuring safe drinking water 
supplies on interstate carriers, both trains 
and vessels, are meeting with better results 
each year, due to the increasing appreciation 
of the value of this work on the part of the 
companies concerned. The railroads have 
practically completed the installation of the 
new type of water coolers for passenger cars 
which completely separate the ice and the 
drinking water. 

There was no importation of plague, chol- 
era, yellow fever, or other major quarantin- 
able disease during the year. This freedom 
from such importation has been accomplished 
with a minimum delay and expense to ship- 
ping and the traveling public, although the 
health conditions throughout the world have 
been threatening. Recognizing that the pre- 
vention of the importation of epidemic dis- 
eases is based upon epidemiology, which is 
constantly advancing, action has been taken 
to improve quarantine methods, making them 
more efficient, more precise, and less burden- 
some to commerce. The need of constant 
vigilance at our ports was shown when a 
Japanese steamer arrived at New Orleans 
with two cases of plague on board among the 
crew. The vessel was fumigated and 422 rats 
were killed. Of these twenty-three were in- 
fected with bubonic plague. 

The inspection at European ports of emi- 
grants intending to come to the United States. 
which was begun during the fiscal year, is 
apparently an unqualified success. It is, how- 
ever, a severe drain upon the medical person- 
nel of the Public Health Service, both on ac- 
count of the number of officers needed and 
the special training required. At present 
there are twenty-eight regular Medical Of- 



ficers of the Service on duty in Europe in the 
following countries: England, 4; Ireland, 5; 
Germany, 8; Scotland, Norway and Sweden, 
in each, 2; and one each in Poland, France, 
Holland, Belgium, and Denmark. Immigra- 
tion inspection is still continued at American 
ports, as all foreign seamen must be examined 
as prospective immigrants. There were 872,- 
842 foreign seamen so examined last year. 

The Public Health Service provided hospi- 
tal care and other medical services in different 
parts of the United States, Alaska, and the in- 
sular possessions for the treatment of mer- 
chant seamen and other beneficiaries of the 
service. A total of 1,321,309 hospital patient 
days, 572.139 out-patient treatments, and 91,- 
553 physical examinations were furnished. 
The number of lepers segregated at the Na- 
tional Leper Home at Carville, La., increased 
to 259. The Marine Hospital at Ellis Island 
continued to admit all sick and detained im- 
migrants whose treatment was requested by 
the Department of Labor, including an in- 
creasing number of alien seamen with venereal 
and other contagion- disea 

The program of venereal disease control 
which has been built up in the eight years 
since the creation of th Division of Venereal 
Diseases has been found, on the whole, satis- 
factory. This Division co-operates with State 
Boards of Health for the prevention and con- 
trol of venereal diseases and for the study and 
investigation of conditions influencing the 
spread of these diseases. Throughout the 
country there has been built up a unified 
method of prevention and control. The work- 
done at 416 Venereal Disease Clinics, oper- 
ated by local authorities, was reported regu- 
larly to the service. At these clinics scientific 
treatment is given to indigent patients with- 
out cost or for a nominal fee. Educational 
pamphlets, motion-picture films, stereopticon 
slides, and exhibits have been made avail- 
able through each of the State Boards of 
Health. Standard laws and ordinances have 
been enacted throughout the country, tending 
to unify the program of control. A review of 
the field to be covered and the work that 
has been done indicates an outstanding 
achievement in modern public health effort. 



It is difficult to free fools from the chains 
they revere. — Voltaire. 



14 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



WORKERS' EDUCATION 



By HAROLD COY 

Instructor in Labor Journalism, Commonwealth 

College, Mena, Arkansas. 



1. Education a Prize, Not a Gift. 

"The more a shepherd, a plowman, or any other 
peasant knows of the world, and the things that 
are foreign to his labor or employment, the less fit 
he'll be to go through the fatigues and hardships 
of it with cheerfulness and content." 

These words, written by Bernard de Mandeville 
150 years ago, express the attitude which for cen- 
turies was taken by the governing classes toward 
the education of workers and their children. 

The "ins" have never liked the idea of educat- 
ing the "outs." In Czarist Russia men and women 
were sent to Siberia for teaching the peasants to 
read and write; but even in enlightened England 
and America the right to learn has only been won 
by a long and hard fight. Bernard Shaw says, 
"It must never be forgotten that education is 
such a dangerous thing that it is very doubtful 
whether the invention of printing would have 
been tolerated if more than a few people had been 
able to read." 

Right here in America free schools have not 
always been a safe subject for Fourth of July 
orators to grow sentimental about. John Randolph, 
speaking to the Virginia Constitutional Convention 
in 1829, voiced a common opinion of the upper 
classes toward universal education: 

"Look at that ragged fellow staggering from 
the whisky shop, and see the slattern who has 
gone to reclaim him; where are their children? 
Running about ragged, idle, ignorant, fit candi- 
dates for the penitentiary. Why is all this so? 
Ask the man and he will tell you. 'Oh! the gov- 
ernment has undertaken to educate our children 
for us. It has given us a premium for idleness, 
and I spend on liquor that which I should other- 
wise be obliged to save to pay for their schooling." 

To us such arguments sound as ridiculous as 
will the propaganda of today's "open-shoppers" to 
our children. But they had their weight in their 
day, along with the declaration of a United States 
Senator that "the Government would never be 
properly administered until the laboring classes 
were reduced to a livelihood of herrings and 
potatoes." Free education was a revolutionary 
doctrine and those who sponsored its cause were 
dangerous radicals. Free education found in or- 
ganized labor one of its few champions; and 
organized labor has a right to take pride in the 
fact that it has played such an important part 
in making free education a part of the American 
tradition. 

But the interest of organized labor in education 
did not stop with the establishment of the public 
school. To be sure, organized labor for many 
years thereafter was engaged primarily in the 
task of organizing the crafts and learning the 
technique of collective bargaining. But it never for- 
got that it had been, in a sense, the godfather of 
American education and so today it is not surpris- 
ing to read a great deal in the labor press and hear 
a great deal from labor speakers about workers' 
education. 

What does workers' education — this great move 
on the part of organized labor — stand for? What 
problems have caused labor to turn to its own 
evening classes, summer schools, and resident labor 



colleges? Where did the movement receive its in- 
spiration and how were its ideals shaped? In other 
words, what is the story of workers' education? It 
is the story of the indomitable will of the producing 
classes for the better things of life and of their 
struggle, against great odds for the tools with 
which to acquire them. 

Education for a "Going Concern" 

Today workers' education is not only a part of 
the labor movement but it flourishes throughout the 
world — in Europe, the United States, South America, 
Japan, wherever there is a labor movement of any 
strength. More than 25,000 workers have enrolled 
in workers' education classes in the United States 
during the past ten or twenty years, and the total 
of such classes and projects comes to several 
hundred. Whence comes this demand for workers' 
education? What needs is it calculated to meet? 
To understand, we must look back at our move- 
ment. Back when prairie schooners went lumbering 
over Western deserts, scattered workers here and 
there, remembering that "in union there ; s strength," 
were banding themselves together in order to se- 
cure some slight improvement in their condition of 
life. They had one weapon: They could strike — 
a little. Their officers were likely to be the best 
educated among them, but frequently even the 
officers could read little and cipher less. 

Both the prairie schooner and the labor move- 
ment have changed. The prairie schooner has 
changed into the modern locomotive, and the feeble 
workingmen's organizations of yesterday have be- 
come mechanisms just as intricate. You could al- 
most say that one has changed because the other 
has. For the power of the great industrial organ- 
ization which owns the locomotive had to be met 
with corresponding power. National labor organ- 
izations had to be built up; organizers became 
necessary. Lines of communication within the or- 
ganization had to be established; keen executives 
became imperative, and even the routine details of 
the organization called for people with specialized 
abilities and training. 

Labor's weapons have increased as labor's power 
has grown. The strike has remained a powerful 
weapon, but in order to make it effective a union 
must have speakers to solidify the ranks of the 
strikers, publicists to interpret grievances to the 
public, and tactful but astute officers to draw up 
an eventual settlement. If both employer and union 
decide that it is too costly to fight out their differ- 
ences and that it is better to take them to an 
arbitration board, labor cannot depend on ap- 
peals to sentimentality to move stern mediators. 
Labor's advocates must match their wits with the 
shrewdest minds that big business can hire — they 
must "know their stuff" and be able to produce 
hard facts and convincing figures on costs of living, 
comparative wages, industrial conditions, and many 
other points. 

And labor's needs do not stop even here. Labor 
knocks at legislative doors for protective laws, 
but unless it has friends inside there will be no 
answer; for legislators will be too busy seeing what 
they can do for labor's employers, who have prob- 
ably done their knocking a little earlier. Labor 
thus finds itself in politics, and the carrying through 
of a political program presupposes qualified people 
to do the job. 

Again, labor is taking an interest in banking, in- 
surance, and other co-operative activities. Compe- 
tition with established enterprises immediately enters 
the equation. And finally, pioneers in labor progress 
are sponsoring such things as legal and health 
services for union men and women, are building 
up a more powerful labor press, are making sur- 
veys for the elimination of waste in industry, and 



IS 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 19. 



are even seeking for workers the partial or com- 
plete control of industry itself. 

The necessity of technically trained people for 
all these undertakings need scarcely be pointed 
out. The nature of one of the tasks ahead of 
workers' education is clear. Workers' education 
seems destined to perform at least as important 
functions in the field of labor as professional schools 
do in the fields of medicine, law, and engineering. 
But that is not all. 

3. Education for a Richer Life 

WOrkers' education does not exist solely to train 
an efficient leadership for the labor movement. 
Workers' education is also a movement for the rank 
and file. Collective action is the essence of the 
labor movement, and it is hard to carry on collective 
action intelligently without a well-informed member- 
ship. The more the workers know about social 
processes in general and the economics of their 
own industry in particular, the more intelligent 
union men and women they are going to be. 

The importance of the bread-and-butter side of 
workers' education, then, can hardly be over-em- 
phasized, either as it relates to the leadership or to 
the rank and file of the labor movement. But 
even workers' education does not live by bread 
alone. Workers' education is a movement for the 
cultural as well as the economic betterment of the 
working class. 

Enemies of organized labor used to say that it 
would be foolish to give a working man better wages 
or a short working day, for, they said, he would 
only waste his extra money in the saloon and his 
extra time beating his wife. From the point of 
view of his own interests, they argued, a workman 
was better off spending 16 hours a day in a nice, 
well-ordered factory than to spend half of his time 
wearing out his own body with drink and his 
wife's with blows. 

But the shorter work day came anyway, thanks 
to organized labor — the ten-hour day, the eight-hour 
day. and now, little by little, the five day week. 
And. strangely enough, it has been found that the 
workman who has leisure to rest from his day's 
labor is not nearly so likely to drink his wages 
away, or even to beat his wife, as the sweatshop 
slave who could snatch but a few moments a day 
from the irksome grind of toil. He is much more 
likely to use the extra time and money in fixing up 
his own stucco bungalow or in taking the wife and 
kiddies out for an airing in the family flivver. 

There is another thing that the new workman may 
do with some of his spare time, too, particularly if 
he is a modern, up-to-date workman. He can spend 
part of his time in reading and studying — at home 
if he has to, or in a workers' education class if there 
is one in his city. He can make up deficiencies in 
his early education; he can learn things which will 
help him to understand his movement better and 
consequently to be a better union man, and he 
can also learn things for the joy of learning, of 
knowing the best that has been said and thought in 
the world of becoming a happier, more understand- 
ing, more cultured member of the society in which 
he lives. 

For culture is not just something with which the 
idle rich wastes its time. We read more and more 
today about "working-class culture;" we are be- 
ginning to realize that labor too has a right to en- 
joy books. Education should not stop with the 
public school; it should be a life-long process. Not 
every one, of course, enjoys the same thing. If 
grand opera, or modern poetry, or the philosophy of 
Spinoza bore you. leave them alone. But look 
around for what you do enjoy. Workers' education 
is getting big enough to have something for every 
one. 



Workers' education, then, has both economic and 
cultural aims. In the beginning more emphasis 
must, of course, be laid on the economic aims. 
But the cultural aspects of workers' education 
should not be overlooked. As labor spends more 
time enjoying life and less time struggling for a 
living, as the "saving wage" supersedes the "living 
wage," labor is going to pay more and more atten- 
tion to finding out what life has to offer beyond 
the confines of mills, mines, and factories. 

4. Workers' Control of Workers' Education 

"No species of knowledge is necessary or fitting 
for the operative but such as respects the science or 
practice of his art, and tends to make him a better 
workmen and more useful to his employer." 

So read a clause from a Mechanics' Institute 
Constitution. Mechanics' Institutes were at their 
high point in England 75 or 100 years ago. They 
represented about all there was to "workers' educa- 
tion" in England at that time. They constituted 
"workers' education" subsidized and controlled by 
the employers of workers. It was natural that they 
imparted only such instruction as would make the 
workman "more useful to his employers. " 

This illustration brings up another important char- 
acteristic of workers' education. We have already 
noted that workers' education exists to promote the 
economic and cultural welfare of the working 
class. We can now go a little further and say that 
workers' education, in the truest sense of the wont, 
is not only education FOR workers — it is education 
BY workers. 

The workers, in other words, must control their 
own schools of higher learning, or take a chance 
of having the propaganda of their enemies handed 
down to them. There are liberal professors in 
existing universities, of course, who can be of aid 
by volunteering their services in the pioneer work 
of labor education. It has even been possible in 
isolated instances for labor unions to co-operate 
with universities of liberal tendencies in conducting 
evening classes and other educational activities. In 
such cases, labor frequently insists on having an 
equal voice with the university in the control of 
classes. But such expedients are likely to be the 
exception rather than the rule. In general, if labor 
wants to study what it pleases, it will have to build 
up its own schools, paid for and controlled by 
workers. 



ONLY TEN PER CENT 



The Peninsular & Oriental S. S. Co., of Lon- 
don, one of the big British .-hipping concern-. 
reports a "credit balance" of £919,096 for last 
year, against £955,002 in the previous year. 
The report states that "the poor state of trade 
generally, the unrest in China, and the loss 
caused by the labor troubles in Australia 
compelled the board a year ago to recom- 
mend a reduction in the dividend on the pre- 
ferred stock from 12 per cent to 10 per cent 
per annum, and this year, thanks to the con- 
servative policy hitherto adopted, and not to 
the profits made, the directors are prepared 
to propose 10 per cent per annum on the de- 
ferred stock for the year just ended." 



16 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



NAVIGATION LAWS CODIFIED 



The work of codifying the U. S. navigation 
laws has been completed by the Bureau of 
Law, U. S. Shipping Board. The draft code 
does not seek to change any of the existing 
laws, but the Shipping Board is now pre- 
paring a bill to amend the statutes and the 
code for the sole purpose of putting the 
entire legislation in workable form for en- 
forcement and interpretation. The present 
work consists of twenty-three chapters which 
will be later followed by a chapter twenty- 
four, devoted largely to the subject of express 
repeals of the laws used in the code in whole 
or in part application. The code itself is 
divided into 1444 sections. A committee of 
twenty or more leading admiralty attorneys 
throughout the country, members of the Mari- 
time Law Association, has been appointed by 
Hon. Charles M. Hough, Judge of the U. S. 
Circuit Court of Appeals, 2d cir., and presi- 
dent of the Maritime Law Association, to go 
over the printed codification and certify that 
the code sections express accurately and 
fully the statutes they are intended to cover 
and are susceptible of no further or other 
meaning than that contained in the statutes 
themselves. 



SHIPPING BOARD'S ANNUAL REPORT 



The government-owned merchant fleet was 
reduced during the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1926, by a total of 350 ships, representing 1,- 
671,390 deadweight tons, according to state- 
ments included in the tenth annual report of 
the Shipping Board as submitted to Congress. 

This reduction was accomplished by selling 
ships to private interests both for operation 
and for scrapping purposes. With these sales, 
the total government-owned fleet has been re- 
duced to 881 vessels of 6,876,069 tons in the 
aggregate. 

The tenth annual report of the Shipping 
Board constitutes largely a review of its work 
in the establishment and maintenance of an 
adequate merchant marine and its liquidation 
and marine development programs. Due to 
the fact that the Merchant Marine Planning 
Committee of the Board is preparing a report 
on the maintenance of American shipping, trie 



Board's annual report does not contain any 
new recommendations to Congress. 

Losses sustained by the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation, which operates the government 
ships for the Shipping Board, were reduced 
by more than 50 per cent from the fiscal year 
1924 to the fiscal year 1926, the report 
showed. During 1924, the amount of losses 
was about $41,000,000; in 1925 about $30,000,- 
000, and during 1926 less than $20,000,000. 

Reduction of these losses, it is shown by 
the report, is an important feature of the 
Shipping Board's program of liquidating the 
great emergency wartime fleet of which the 
Government found itself in possession at the 
close of the war. Part of the reduction in 
losses during 1926 and preceding years was 
the result of savings incident to the sale 
of ships. This was in accordance with the 
purpose of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 
of establishing a permanent merchant marine 
ultimately to be privately owned. A much 
greater part of the reduction, however, is 
directly traceable to improved operations, par- 
ticularly in the cargo services maintained by 
the Board. Better revenues were obtained 
and expenses were kept within reasonable 
limits, the report says, with the result that 
average losses on operations were materially 
reduced. 

Among the more important items sold dur- 
ing the fiscal year were four complete cargo 
and two complete passenger lines, these six 
services being disposed of in their entirety. 
One of the cargo lines, the American Pal- 
metto Line, was subsequently taken back by 
the Board in order that service might not 
lapse, some question having arisen as to 
whether operations would be continued under 
private ownership. 

The sale of the two passenger lines, the 
Pan American Line and the American Ori- 
ental Mail Line, completes the disposal of all 
passenger services established and operated 
by the Board, with the exception of the 
United States States Lines, operating from 
New York to the United Kingdom and Eu- 
rope, and the combination cargo and passen- 
ger service of the American Merchant Line 
from New York to London. 

Due in large measure to the southern in- 
dustrial development, about forty steamers 
of the type built on the Great Lakes during 



:? 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1927 



the war, were sold for use in coast-wise trade. 
Nor was the unusual demand for coastal and 
intercoastal vessels confined to the compara- 
tively small lake-built type. Fifteen ships of 
the 5,000-ton class, and twenty ranging in 
size from 7,500 to 12,000 tons each, were also 
sold for service in domestic waters. 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



SALE OF WHITE STAR LINE 



The Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., whose 
tonnage holdings of 2,100,000 tons already 
made it the largest shipowning group in the 
world, has by the purchase of the White Star 
line added another 500,000 tons of shipping to 
its fleet, including some of the finest ships 
afloat, and trading to the United States, Can- 
ada, South Africa, Australia and New Zea- 
land. The Royal Mail already had in the 
Asturias, which will come to New York short- 
ly to undertake an African cruise, the largest 
motor liner in the world. It now becomes 
the owner of the largest ship afloat, the 
Majestic. The purchase of the White Star 
Line, the most important shipping deal con- 
summated since the formation by the late 
J. P. Morgan of the International Mercantile 
Marine Co., was put through by Lord Kylsant, 
Chairman of the Royal Mail, who has risen 
from a subordinate position with a Glasgow 
shipping company to be the world's greatest 
shipping magnate, controlling over 500 ships. 
The services of the Royal Mail and affiliated 
companies radiate to all parts of the world. 
From the United States and Canada its ships 
ply to Europe, East and West coasts of South 
America, West coast of Africa, Bermuda, 
West Indies, and in addition de luxe cruises 
are operated from New York to the West 
Indies, Mediterranean, South America and 
South and East Africa. The Royal Mail 
Steam Packet Co. was founded in 1839 under 
a Royal Charter granted by Queen Victoria 
to carry the mail between England, the West 
Indies and South America. Its original fleet 
consisted of 14 steamers propelled by side 
paddles and sails. The White Star Line be- 
gan its career by running sailing ships to 
Australia and in 1870 created a new era in the 
transatlantic trade with its first steamer, the 
Oceanic. 



Extra Wages for Waiting Time — Dis- 
charged seamen who libel a vessel for wages 
are not entitled to extra wages for waiting 
time during the period following the ship's 
arrest. The U. S. District Court (E. D. X. Y.) 
has just held in the case of Thomas et al v. 
S.S. General George W. Goethals i No. Ad. 
8504) that Sec. 4529, U. S. R. S., which im- 
poses a penalty of two day-' pay for each 
day during which payment of seamen's wages 
was delayed beyond 24 hours after discharge 
of the cargo or four days after the seaman 
had been discharged, did not apply to arrests. 
The libelants were discharged May 31, 1925. 
The boat was arrested June L6, 1925, and 
was sold March 26, 1926, pursuant to order 
of the court. The special commissioner al- 
lowed for extra compensation from the time 
of the filing of their petitions to the date of 
payment, which was excepted to by other* 
lienors and ordered modified. 

A $10,000 Verdict — Thomas Hoy. water- 
tender, 33 years of age, wages $67.50 a month, 
<>n the S.S. Kroonland," received burn- from 
a back-fire from oil burner "No. 3 boiler, on 
May 10, 1924, while en route from New York 
to San Francisco. He complained that he 
had received a little treatment for hi- eyes 
after the accident; was compelled to work. 
That the injury was due to the negligence 
and compulsion of the officers in charge in 
making him light a fire in the boiler at a 
time when the tubes were clogged with soot, 
and when the blower fan was broken down 
and out of repair. 

Many witnesses were called on both sides. 
The jury, after a comprehensive charge on 
the maritime law by Judge Joseph M. Pros- 
kauer. brought in a verdict for the plaintiff 
in the full amount sued for, to-wit : $10,000. 
Silas B. Axtell was the attornev for Hay. 



The essential character of true liberty is 
that under its shelter many different types of 
life and character and opinion and belief can 
develop unmolested and unobstructed. — W. E. 
H. Leckv. 



I hate nothing except hatred. — Anatole Franc 



The employers will give time to eat, time to 
sleep; they are in terror of a time to think. — 
Chesterton. 



18 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



BOOK REVIEWS 



FOG AND CLOUDS. By William J. Humphreys, 
Metereological Physicist, U. S. Weather Bureau. 
Publishers: The Williams & Wilkins Co., Balti- 
more, Md. Price, $4. 

To those who love the fog that sweeps in 
through the Golden Gate over our own San 
Francisco Bay in the dead of night or the 
blaze of a July afternoon, this recent book, 
"Fog and Clouds," by William J. Humphreys, 
comes with all the force of inspired imagina- 
tion plus accurate analysis. So full of interest 
is it that the man on the street, the men ot 
the sea, hikers, nature lovers, metereologists 
and forestry experts alike, find a thrill of 
pleasure in its many profusely illustrated 
pages and simple, clear explanations. 

This "picture dictionary" of the heavens, 
with its hundred or more photographs se- 
lected from all parts of the earth, make the 
book unique, and tell the scientific story of 
the identification and interpretation of the 
cloud-formations in a delightfully readable 
and intimate way. Their shifting front, their 
various tones and contours, their foreboding- 
darkness or fleecy airiness, all have a tech- 
nical significance that is simply and interest- 
ingly explained for the layman as well as for 
the scientist. 

In addition to using the designation for 
various cloud forms, according to the Inter- 
national Classification, Dr. Humphreys has 
made a new departure in keying the various 
representations by means of an arbitrary sym- 
bol, in which the first letter stands for the 
type of cloud and the second for the class. 

Never before has the language of the 
heavens been so sweepingly paraded before 
our eyes. The book is a contribution to sci- 
ence as well as a delight to the nature lover 
and mariner. — Ekel. 



"THE LARGEST SHIPS IN THE WORLD." By 
V. S. Fellowes Wilson, London. Crosby, Lock- 
wood and Son, Stationers' Hall Court, Ludgate 
Hill, E.C. Price 10s 6d net. 

The author of this book endeavors to tell 
something of the eternal struggle between 
man and Nature, how disaster has been coun- 
tered by science, and of the rapid growth of 
the big liner during the last 25 years. Divid- 
ing his work into 10 chapters, Mr. Wilson 
first deals with the coming of giant ships and 
docks. Next he passes to consideration of 



the subject of the building of these huge ves- 
sels, describing briefly the necessary shipyard 
equipment and various systems of naval ar- 
chitecture and thence to the problems of 
launching. Engines and auxiliaries form the 
subject of Chapter IV, with notes on anchors, 
cables, hawsers, rudders, derricks, winches, 
cranes, baggage hoists, signals, insulation, 
funnels, etc. Chapter V is devoted to "how 
it works," and in these the author commences 
with the pilot and captain on the bridge, 
traces the passage of orders down to the 
engine-room, and describes the starting plat- 
form, speed indicators, the main engine-room, 
coal and oil fuel apparatus, boilers, stoke- 
holds, forced draught, ash ejectors, loud- 
speaker telephones, various types of 
steam engines, condensers and air pumps, oil 
separators, shafts and propellers. "How it 
works without" is the next phase treated, 
with reference to such things as compasses, 
course recorders, steering by hand and ma- 
chinery, sounding machines, position finding, 
chronometers and sextants, searchlights, sig- 
nal lights, etc. Safety at sea also has a chapter 
to itself, in which are descriptions of the mul- 
tifarious appliances invented by man for this 
purpose, and then comfort at sea is dealt with 
in a chapter which contains allusions to re- 
frigeration, wireless news, ventilation, shelter, 
decks, telephones, cabin and public room fur- 
nishing, gymnasia, swimming baths, cooking 
and children's rooms. In Chapter IX we read 
of numerous special features, and in the last 
chapter the author tells of "odds and ends" 
which do not fall within any of his previous 
categories. 



FISHERMEN IN JAPAN 



The people of Japan are generally regarded 
as silk growers or rice farmers, but, as a mat- 
ter of fact, a large proportion of the popu- 
lation are fishermen. It is estimated that 
more than 2,000.000 gain their livelihood from 
the sea. The value of marine products har- 
vested yearly is 251,000,000 yen. The Ameri- 
can value of a veil is 50 cents. 



The beginning of all good law, and nearly 
the end of it, is that every man shall do good 
work for his bread, and that every man shall 
have good bread for his work. — Ruskin. 



19 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 19. 



SHIPPING ARTICLES DEFINED 



(Continued from Page 4) 
choate causes of action in favor of that seaman 
against the ship or its owner, based on alleged torts 
or breaches of contract obligations. In the absence 
of a statute requiring a different result, after the 
entering upon the voyage provided for in the ship- 
ping articles the ship is pledged to the complete exe- 
cution of the contract, and may be proceeded against 
for non-performance, and if a seaman is discharged 
without justifiable cause before the termination of 
the voyage, he is entitled to full indemnity, which 
may be measured by the stipulated wages for the 
entire voyage and the amount of expenses in re- 
turning to the port of discharge, deducting what is 
earned, or reasonably could have earned, in other 
employment during the period of his engagement. 
The Topgallant, 84 Fed. 356; Waitsheair v. The 
Grargend, 42 Fed. 175; The City of New Orleans, 33 
Fed. 683; The White Seal, 184 Fed. 402. While in 
the cases of many discharges covered by R. S. 4527 
the amount thereby required to be paid to the sea- 
man on his discharge would be sufficient to afford 
him full indemnity, it is apparent that in many other 
cases covered by that provision that amount would 
be greatly less than enough to indemnify the seaman 
for the loss resulting from the violation of his con- 
tract rights. The discharge which was in question 
in the last above cited case was not covered by 
R. S. 4527, and no question as to the meaning or 
effect of that statute was considered in that case. 
The facts of that case, as disclosed by the report of 
it, show that if that statute had been applicable and 
the libellant therein had been an oiler engaged at 
wages of $80.00 a month for a voyage from Seattle 
to Fairbanks, Alaska, and return, and had been 
wrongfully discharged at Fairbanks thirteen days 
after the date of the shipping articles (as happened 
to the appellee in the instant case), the wages then 
accrued and $80.00 in addition would have been 
substantially less than enough to cover the cost of 
the seaman's transportation from Fairbanks to Seat- 
tle. If the statute in question has the meaning 
attributed to by the counsel for the appellant it has 
the effect of making it possible to discharge a sea- 
man engaged for a long voyage, without his consent 
and without fault on his part, at whatever place, 
other than a foreign port, where the ship may be 
before one month's wages are earned, without incur- 
ring any liability except to pay any wages he may 
have earned and in addition a sum equal in amount 
to one month's wages, though what is so paid is 
greatly less than enough to indemnify the seaman 
for the loss resulting from the violation of his con- 
tract rights. During the early part of a long voyage 
a new crew might be obtained at such wages as to 
make it profitable, by paying one month's extra 
wages, to get rid of the entire crew previously en- 
gaged for the voyage. Plain language would be re- 
quired to justify the imputation to Congress of an 
intention to permit seamen to be subjected to such 
treatment and to be deprived of adequate redress 
therefor. Frequently it is impossible at or about the 
time of the wrongful discharge of a seaman to ascer- 
tain what financial loss will result to him therefrom. 
In great measure the result depends on what, if 
any, opportunities he has of getting other employ- 
ment. It is reasonably to be expected that the sea- 
man will suffer loss in consequence of such a dis- 
charge. The language of the provision in question, 
considered with reference to the situation dealt with, 
shows that the lawmakers intended thereby to re- 
quire the payment, when the described wrongful dis- 
charge of a seaman is effected in the circumstances 
stated, of an amount ordinarily sufficient for his im- 
mediate needs; but an inference that such payment 



was intended to have the effect of satisfying all 
claims, accrued or inchoate, of the seaman against 
the ship or its owner is one not required by that 
language and is not in harmony with . the funda- 
mental purpose of the act of which that provision 
was a part to protect seamen and to safeguard rights 
they had prior to the enactment of that statute. 

We conclude that the provision in question did 
not give to the payment made to the appellee the 
of destroying his right to full redress for the 
alleged wrong to him, and that the only ground on 
which the decree was complained of i- not 
able one. 

That decree is affirmed. 

Note. — This case, known as Donald J. 
Adams vs. S. S. Steel Trader, is now in the 
Supreme Court of the United State.-, a writ 
of certiorari having been granted. So far, no 
time has been set for a hearing. 



RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENTS 



Following the decision of the U. S. Su- 
preme Court in the case of Haverty vs. Inter- 
national Stevedoring Company, holding that 
the Jones Act, which does away with the Fel- 
low Servant rule, applies to longshoremen, 
we find that steamship companies in New 
York City are conducting classes or schools on 
docks for foremen, longshoremen and signal- 
men, their employ 

For many years, Andrew Furuseth, the vet- 
eran leader of seamen, whose foresight and 
knowledge seems to have been largely influ- 
ential in forming whatever maritime policy 
Congress has, has preached that universal in- 
surance of marine risks is the worst known 
enemy to real seamanship. The effect of the 
Haverty decision would seem to support his 
contention. If this decision does have the 
effect of requiring a higher grade of skill for 
crews and ability and a better class of men. 
at incidentally better pay to operate our ship.-. 
it is a good thing for the shipping industry. 
Underwriters who have been paid premiums 
to defend suits and settle claims and who did 
not think that this act applied to longshore- 
men will face, it is true, substantial 1 
because of this decision, but the conservation 
of human life and limb that will otherwi-< re 
suit will constitute an immensely greater -ax- 
ing to society. — Silas B. Axtell in the Nau- 
tical Gazette. 



Most of the statin- are erected to men 
that thousands once yearned to hang. De- 
troit News. 



20 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Bureau of Navigation, Department of 
Commerce, reports 45 steam, motor, sail and 
unrigged vessels of 23,237 gross tons built 
in the United States and officially numbered 
during the month of November, 1926. 

Figures released at the close of business 
by the various governmental departments 
maintaining a check on the shipping business 
of the nation confirm the evidences of growth 
in the business of the port of San Francisco. 

President Coolidge, in his message to Con- 
gress, has expressed the belief that it is not 
wise for the government to enter upon any 
large building program at this time. This 
belief is taken by many to head off any ex- 
pression of the Shipping Board's for new ton- 
nage. 

Some 206,000 radio bearings were furnished 
vessels off the American coasts during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1926, by the U. S. 
Navy radio-compass stations, according to a 
statement issued by the Navy Department. 
It is also claimed that the radio-compass sta- 
tions have actually guided ships into port, 
and, unsolicited, have warned others of their 
dangerous position. 

The West Coast stands well up in the 
shipbuilding industry, California having the 
second largest number of shipbuilding plants 
among the states of the Union, and Wash- 
ington being fifth. Of the 564 establishments, 
ninety-six were situated in New York and 
fifty-one in California. Washington state has 
thirty-two. Last year the industry employed 
50,205 wage-earners, paid $75,000,000 in wages 
and did work to the value of $177,000,000. 

Development of the St. Lawrence waterway 
from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic ocean, 
at a cost of $173,520,000, divided between the 
United States and Canada, is a better invest- 
ment for the United States than the so-called 
"All-American" route from the Great Lakes 
to the Hudson river, at a cost of $560,000,000, 
for vessels of 25 feet draft, says a report of 
Maj. Gen. Edgar Jadwin, Chief of Army En- 
gineers, to the House Committee on Rivers 
and Harbors. 

An appropriation of $12,290,000 is set down 



in the 1928 budget estimates for the Shipping 
Board, as against $24,198,574 appropriated for 
the current year. After all, a matter of slightly 
over one million a month is a mere bagatelle 
to a nation with a total budget of $4,000,000,- 
000, of which close on to $2,000,000,000 is 
appropriated for the conduct of the govern- 
ment and the rest for the reduction of the 
public debt. The Navy alone will cost nearly 
$314,000,000 and pensions $475,400,000, so that 
it looks as if the Shipping Board were about 
the cheapest of all the encumbrances inherited 
from the war. 

An increase of over $1,000,000 in the collec- 
tion of customs at the port of San Francisco 
for the year 1926 over 1925 was registered, 
according to Collector W. B. Hamilton, who 
reported a total of $13,097,670 for the year 
just closed, against $12,073,522 for 1925. De- 
cember also outranked all other Decembers in 
collections, with a total of $959,753. Traffic 
through the Panama canal also showed an in- 
crease over previous years, and on December 
30 a record for a single day's transits through 
the canal was established when twenty-eight 
commercial vessels passed through the water- 
way. Sixteen were Pacific bound. 

The concrete steamer Faith, which was 
built in 1918 at Redwood City at a cost of 
$750,000, and which was sold in 1921 for 
$5735, has been abandoned at New Orleans. 
The Faith made but few voyages, most of 
which were on the Atlantic coast. The ves- 
sel sailed from San Francisco July 17, 1918, 
for Talara and Valparaiso, later going into 
the trade between New Orleans and the east 
coast of South America. It was expected 
by her builders that the Faith would revolu- 
tionize shipbuilding, but the performances of 
the steamer were never up to expectations 
and she was too slow for the work for which 
she was designed and built. 

Having already spent about $10,000,000 of 
the $25,000,000 appropriated by Congress for 
the conversion of steam freighters to motor- 
ships, the Shipping Board has been urged by 
real friends of American shipping to stop 
further waste of money and consider seriously 
the building of new units of 14/15-knot speed. 
The converted Shipping Board motorships 
will have a speed of only ll/\\y 2 knots, 
which is fast becoming inadequate in the long- 
voyage trades. Motorships of 14>^-knot serv- 



21 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 192> 



ice speed have lately been put on the run 
between New York and the Far East and a 
15-knot motorship, the fastest freighter in 
the world, has been built in Belfast recently 
for the trade to Australia. 

The steamships Eastern Light, Eastern Ad- 
miral and Eastern Mariner have been sold by 
the Shipping Board to the American Mer- 
chant Marine Steamship Corporation, a new 
concern headed by Cecil P. Stewart, are re- 
ported to have been chartered for a term of 
ten years to the Williams Steamship Com- 
pany, which will run them in its intercoastal 
service after they have been converted to the 
use of oil fuel. The boats are to be renamed 
AVillkeno, Willboro and YVillzipo, respec- 
tively, and the addition of the fine freighters 
to the Williams Line fleet is the best guar- 
antee to the shipping public of the perma- 
nency of this service which enjoys an envi- 
able reputation among shippers on both 
coasts. 

Popular response to special steamship tours, 
offered by several companies during the last 
year, has been so gratifying and general that 
an increasing number of such will be booked 
during 1927, according to prediction in ship- 
ping circles. The Holland-American liner 
Ryndam, "the university afloat," now on a 
cruise around the world, was the most pre- 
tentious undertaking along this line last year. 
A special tour of Europe during the coming 
summer by students of the San Francisco bay 
section is now being organized by Professor 
Ludwig S. Gerlough of Lowell High School. 
He is a Rhodes scholar graduate of Oxford 
University, and will conduct the tour over 
his course of travels in England, Germany, 
Switzerland, Holland and Belgium. 

Additional passenger accommodations are 
being built on the motorships Cellina, Leme 
and F.ella of the Libera line, operating be- 
tween Pacific Coast ports and the Mediter- 
ranean, and construction work on the new 
motor ships Rialto, Feltre and Rosandra, now 
building, is being speeded up, according to 
word received by the passenger department of 
the General Steamship Corporation, agents 
for the line. Each of the vessels will be fitted 
with cabins to accommodate thirty-six pas- 
sengers, all the staterooms being outside and 
having two and three berths. This is double 
the capacity vessels now in operation have 



been carrying and is made necessary on ac- 
count of the increasing passenger traffic of the 
line, officials of the General Steamship Cor- 
poration here said. 

A total of $63,463,786 was expended for the 
improvement of the more important rivers 
and harbors of continental United States, 
Porto Rico, Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands 
in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1926, accord- 
ing to the annual report of Major-Gen. Edgar 
Jadwin, Chief of Army Engineers. The fol- 
lowing works are provided for by permanent 
appropriations: Removing sunken vessels 
($185,381), operating snag and dredge boats 
on upper Mississippi river and tributaries 
($20,324), removing obstructions in Missis- 
sippi river ($90,387), gauging waters of the 
Mississippi river and its tributaries ($9,450), 
examinations and surveys at South Pass, Mis- 
sissippi river ($9,427), maintenance of South 
Pass channel, Mississippi river ($102,098), op- 
erating snag boats on Ohio river ($47,263), 
operating and care of canals, etc. ($5,170,570), 
and support and maintenance of the Perma- 
nent International Association of the Con- 
gresses of Navigation ($1,719). Estimates for 
the next fiscal year are $65,477,365. 

The Royal Dutch Shell Company, according 
to a reliable source of information, has cor- 
nered the oil tanker market. They have char- 
tered over 80 tankers on a long time basis, 
causing a situation where higher charter rates 
will prevail until the conditions are relieved 
by new construction. No better idea of the 
situation can be given than the action of the 
Standard Transportation Company in decid- 
ing to convert the freighters Tiger and Eagle 
into oil tankers. This undertaking, even by 
retaining the original machinery installations 
will amount to at least $300,000 per ship and 
it is reported that the contract for the work 
has been awaarded to the Robins Dry Dock 
and Repair Company of the Todd Shipyards 
Corporation. Lloyds shipbuilding report, is- 
sued the first of last September, stated that 
there were 39 tankers under construction of 
251,933 gro^s tons. This would equal about 
380,000 deadweight tons. Since that time, as 
far as we can gather from published reports, 
42 more tankers have either been contracted 
for or are building, bringing the total dead- 
weight under construction now up to about 
740.000 deadweight tons. 



22 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The sale of French tonnage to foreigners, 
which is subject to official approval, has been 
made free as regards vessels under 100 tons 
gross. 

German inland shipping craft may now be 
sold to foreigners under certain conditions. 
At the close of the war such sales were 
strictly forbidden but the prohibition ban has 
now been lifted. 

The German ships confiscated by Uruguay 
during the war will shortly be disposed of. 
Eight of them will be handed over to Great 
Britain, in accordance with the decision of 
the Reparation Commission in Paris, the 
value of the ships being deducted from the 
German debt. 

The Polish government has approved a con- 
tract for the purchase of five freighters at a 
total cost of £150,000 from a French com- 
pany which originally ordered them and 
could not complete payment. The ships will 
be delivered before the end of the year and 
will be used for coal transport. 

Conditions at German shipyards have im- 
proved considerably by reason of the impor- 
tant orders for new construction received in 
recent weeks. Employers and workers have 
accepted an arbitration finding extending the 
nine-hour day until October 1, 1927, and the 
present wage scale until April 1, 1927. 

One of the principal features of the Dutch 
treaty with Belgium is the obligation on 
Holland's part to dig a canal across Dutch 
territory from Antwerp to Dordrecht, which 
will connect Antwerp directly with Germany. 
Not only will this cost Holland several mil- 
lion guilders but it will neutralize the privi- 
leged position which Holland has enjoyed for 
a long time in regard to the German hinter- 
land. 

The recent deepening of the river Weser 
has greatly improved the prospects of the 
port of Bremen, Germany. Hitherto Bremer- 
haven and other towns at the mouth of the 
river have reaped a rich benefit because 
Bremen was difficult of access to large ships, 
but now all that is altered. The new state 
of affairs makes a very big difference, and 



the firms established down stream are now 
seeing their most lucrative business going up 
to the mother city. 

The Hamburg-South American Line held 
an extraordinary general meeting December 
10 to approve an increase in share capital by 
5,000,000 mk. to 30,000,000 mk. The new 
shares will be issued on the ratio of one new 
to five old shares at 150 per cent premium. 
The new capital will be used to finance sev- 
eral new freight and passenger vessels and 
a motor vessel of the Monte Sarmiento type, 
14,000 tons gr., to be ready for service at the 
beginning of 1928. The steamship Cap Ar- 
cona, the sister of the Cap Polonio, will be 
completed in November, 1927. 

The new Peruvian law restricting the 
coastwise trade to Peruvian ships, has passed 
both houses of Congress. The law provides 
for the creation of a "National Council of 
Navigation" to reserve shipping along the 
coast to Peru to ships flying the national 
flag, and which are, in addition, owned by 
Peruvians or by foreigners who have re- 
sided in the country for over 10 years, and 
with two-thirds part of their crew of Peru- 
vian nationality and commanded by Peru- 
vians. If the vessels belong to a company, 60 
per cent of the capital stock must be owned 
by Peruvian citizens. 

The annual conference of the International 
Hydrographic Bureau, established five years 
ago for the co-operation and mutual benefit 
of all hydrographic offices, was held at Mon- 
aco, October 26-November 11, about 40 dele- 
gates representing 21 nations being present. 
The agenda included a number of questions 
relative to wireless telepathy, and the unifi- 
cation of ocean charts, nautical instructions, 
and hydrographic methods. Vice-Admiral Ni- 
black, U. S. N. (ret.), was elected chairman 
of the permanent bureau. Captain de Vanas- 
say, French Navy, and Captain Touta, Italian 
Navy, were elected assessors. 

President Coolidge, in his annual message, 
urges Congress to consider higher pay for 
Federal judges. The President seems far 
more concerned over more pay for members 
of the highly paid Federal judiciary than he 
does over more pay for common, ordinary 
Federal employes. He says nothing about in- 
creasing the wages of grossly underpaid Fed- 
eral workers, who number many thousands. 



23 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1927 



The President, in another part of his message, 
remarks that "the Federal Government should 
continue to set a good example for all other 
employers." This sounds good but to really- 
set a good example the Federal Government 
should raise the wages of the rank and file of 
its poorly paid employes. Their need of 
higher wages is far more urgent than the 
need of the Federal judiciary for the same 
thing. 

Senator Jones, of Washington, has intro- 
duced a bill (S 4730) creating a government 
controlled fund of compensation insurance for 
seamen. The fund would be created by means 
of premiums paid in by shipowners, accord- 
ing to a scale of rates determined by the haz- 
ard in the different classifications of employ- 
ment. Compensation for injuries would be 
paid at the rate of $10 a week minimum dur- 
ing the period of disability, in a sum equal to 
two-thirds of the seaman's earning capacity, 
the number of weekly payments depending on 
the nature and seriousness of the injury. The 
bill also provides that the injured seaman 
may refuse the compensation awarded and 
instead start proceedings in the United States 
Courts under the provisions of section 33 of 
the act, of June 5 ,1920, commonly referred to 
as the Jones Act. 

An interesting underwriting transaction 
took place in the London market when un- 
derwriters assumed liability for over £1,000,- 
000 on a risk covering the lifting of the Turk- 
ish cruiser Yavouz in a new dry dock which 
has recently been sent out to Constantinople 
in sections from Germany and has now been 
assembled at Goldjuk, says The Shipping 
World. The Yavouz is better known under 
her former name of the Goeben, the German 
cruiser which fled for refuge to Constanti- 
nople and was instrumental in bringing Tur- 
key into the great war. As the vessel under 
international law would have had to be in- 
terned and dismantled by Turkey, the Ger- 
man Government transferred her to the Turk- 
ish flag and, as she was subsequently em- 
ployed in raiding Russian Black Sea ports, 
this was regarded as an act of war on the 
part of Turkey. She is a vessel of 22,640 tons 
displacement and the process of lifting is ex- 
pected to occupy from two to three hours. 

In his introductory speech at the annual 
meeting of the Norwegian Shipowners' As- 



sociation, the chairman, Mr. Westfal-Larsen, 
dealt with the characteristics of Norwegian 
tonnage in comparison with the world ton- 
nage. Of vessels between 1,000 and 2,000 
tons gross in 1914, the world total amounted 
to 3,909, of which Norway owned 538. In 
1926 the world total was 3,892, practically 
the same as before the war, while the Nor- 
wegian figure had been reduced to 470. In 
smaller vessels, between 500 and 1,000 tuns 
gr. the world total increased from 2,814 in 
1914 to 3,105 in 1926, while the Norwegian 
share thereof decreased from 292 to 225. 
Yet it was with small ships that the Nor- 
wegian shipping industry had been built up. 
Most Norwegian owners had started with 
them, and Norwegian shipbuilders had been 
able to build in spite of foreign competition. 
But now Norway was losing its strong posi- 
tion in the European timber trade owing to 
the loss of such ships. 

Three timber rafts were sometime ago 9ent 
from Finland to Amsterdam in tow of a tug. 
The rafts had a length <>\ MX. 295 and 229 ft., 
respectively and consisted of logs of a length 
of 40/50 ft. ; the width of the rafts was about 
23 ft., their draft 12 ft. and height above the 
surface of the water 3 ft. They were towed 
by a tugboat one behind the other, and the 
entire length of the tow was 2,150 ft. During 
the voyage it proved impossible to go on 
board the rafts to fix pilot lights, the rafts 
being continuously washed over by waves. 
Owing to the bad weather encountered on 
various occasions the situation became critical 
and the tugboat lost two of the rafts during 
the voyage, only one of them arriving at des- 
tination. The German journal from which 
the above report is taken, suggests that such 
transport ought to be prohibited by interna- 
tional agreement, as it involves a great dan- 
ger to shipping. A ship crossing the tug's 
course could probably see only her lights, but 
would be quite unable to see the rafts and 
could not be expected to imagine that the 
length of the tow was 2,150 ft. For a steamer 
overhauling the tug the situation would be 
still more difficult and critical, a- she would 
see only the stern light of the tug and would 
be quite unaware that she has the rafts right 
ahead. Another great danger t<> -hipping is 
caused by the thousands <>f lo drift 

from the raft. 



24 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



LABOR NEWS 



If a person invested $1,000 in the 5- and 10- 
cent store corporation of S. S. Kreske & Co. 
in 1913 that stock would now be worth $73,- 
260. The same investment in Woolworth 5- 
and 10-cent store stock would now have a 
market value of $18,400. Both corporations 
are noted for low wages paid to unorganized 
women and girls. 

Five western states — Nebraska, Iowa, Min- 
nesota, Washington and Oregon — had an in- 
fant death rate of 60 or below per 1,000 in 
1925, the lowest reported for the country, 
said Miss Grace Abbott, chief of the United 
States Children's Bureau, in her annual re- 
port. The infant mortality for the entire 
country was 72 per 1,000. 

Wages of Delaware & Hudson Railroad 
shop men have been advanced 2 and 3 
cents an hour. This road, together with the 
Pennsylvania, are leaders of the nation's anti- 
union transportation systems. Because of 
unrest among their "contented" shop men, 
both followed the wage-increase lead of the 
organized, New York Central and Baltimore 
& Ohio systems. 

Mill owners of Vancouver, British Colum- 
bia, are using Chinese strikebreakers to en- 
force a wage reduction of 5 cents an hour. 
The provicial government set a rate of 40 
cents an hour, but the mill owners object. 
The Chinese previously agreed with organ- 
ized white employes that they would co- 
operate in holding the 40-cent rate. When 
the reduction took place and the white men 
suspended work the Chinamen stuck to their 
jobs. 

Twenty-seven lynchings, nine more than in 
the whole of 1925, occurred in the United 
States up to November 15, 1926, the commit- 
tee on race relations reported to the Federal 
Council of the Churches of Christ in America. 
"This," said the report, "represents the se- 
verest setback since 1922 in the campaign to 
marshal churches against lynching. The plea 
of the churches for a lynchless land seems 
farther from realization than any year since 
that time." 

The workers' greatest accomplishment through 



organized effort is the independence he has 
secured, said Criminal Judge Lusk, in an ad- 
dress in Chattanooga, Tenn. The jurist cited 
a long list of gains made by trade unions, but 
the greatest, he said, was the manly spirit 
that has been inculcated in workers. Judge 
Lusk told of having worked as a railroad 
clerk before these workers were organized. 
"We had the eight-hour then, too," he said. 
"But the trouble was we had to come back 
after lunch every day and work eight more." 

Magnus Johnson, candidate of the Min- 
nesota Farmer-Labor party for governor in 
the recent elections polled 266,845 votes as 
compared to the 395,779 given to the suc- 
cessful Republican, Governor Theodore Chris- 
tianson, candidate for re-election, and the pal- 
try 38,008 given to the two candidates of the 
disappearing Democratic party. The vote 
held fairly well for the other Farmer-Labor 
party candidates on the state ticket. The 
quarter of a million votes cast for Magnus 
Johnson was not a popularity vote. It was a 
party vote, the vote of the Farmer-Labor 
party. 

A report by the commissioner of pensions 
shows that last year's operation of the fed- 
eral retirement law for civil service employes 
resulted in the collection of $10,000,000 more 
than expenses. Under the law the govern- 
ment is supposed to make up any deficit to 
meet retirement charges, but it is estimated 
that it will be at least 25 years before the 
government will be called upon to pay. When 
the act was passed in 1920 provision was 
made for an assessment of 2 J / 2 per cent on 
wages of all employes. Last July this assess- 
ment was raised to Z l / 2 per cent. The surplus 
totals $55,000,000. 

Organized labor has gained one more ob- 
jective point with the opening of the Brother- 
hood bank at San Francisco, 26 O'Farrell 
Street, in the heart of the business district of 
the city. The significance of the latest ad- 
dition to coast banking is noted by those in- 
terested in the affairs of organized labor. 
This is the first invasion of California by the 
Engineers Co-Operative Bank, with head- 
quarters at Cleveland, Ohio. The latest branch 
or addition to the bank plan is capitalized at 
$500,000, and opened its doors to the public 
on December 18. At the close of the day's 
business over a million and one-half in de- 



25 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1927 



posits had been credited to the new in- 
stitution. 

Kentucky enacted an old age pension law 
during the past year, thus becoming the 
fifth American state that has adopted this 
method of caring for aged dependents in 
their own homes instead of in poorhouses. 
The Kentucky act provides a maximum pen- 
sion of $250 a year, and is similar to the 
Wisconsin plan in depending upon accep- 
tance by the various counties. Old age re- 
tirement systems for public employees were 
strengthened in Massachusetts, New Jersey 
and New York, and by Congress for federal 
employee-. A commission to investigate the 
condition of aged dependents was created in 
New York. 

"America's much-vaunted prosperity means 
sheriff's sales for the farmers," said Senator- 
elect Brookhart, in commenting on the re- 
cent closing of 19 Iowa banks in one week. 
'The census value of Iowa lands in 1920 was 
$227 per acre," the senator said. "In 1925 
this had declined to $149 an acre. During 
the same period nearly all stocks on the Wall 
street market advanced. Perhaps railroad 
stocks alone advanced as much as real estate 
values declined in Iowa. "The situation means 
that Iowa farmers received over $300,000,000 
a year less than they were entitled to receive 
for their products. The Wall Street boom 
increased the prices farmers had to pay for 
what they bought and decreased the price of 
their products." 

The Mississippi law that limits the work 
day for women to 10 hours is 33 per cent in- 
effective, according to a study of working 
conditions in that state by the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics. "Over one-third of the 
women employed in the plants surveyed were 
expected to put in a regular working day 
longer than 10 hours." the report states. The 
weekly wage for white women in the plants 
visited averaged $8.60 and negro women aver- 
aged $5.75 and $5.90. "In respect to plant 
conditions, also, there was much to be de- 
sired. Too many plants were reported with 
no washing facilities, or with equipment that 
was inadequate, with no towels. In not far 
from one-fourth of the establishments com- 
mon drinking cups were found, while in 
others no cups were provided." 

As considerable interest has been aroused 



in the question of the five-day week by the 
recent announcement of the reduction in the 
working time in the Ford industries, an 
analysis has been made of the information 
obtained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 
the course of various studies and surveys to 
show the extent to which the shorter working 
week is the practice in different industries. 
An article in the current issue of the 
"Monthly Labor Review," giving the results 
of this study, shows that the five-day week 
is more common than has been generally 
believed. It is found that in the manufacture 
of men's clothing, among several of the build- 
ing trades, and in the paper box-board in- 
dustry, the five-day week is well established, 
while to a lesser extent it was found to be in 
force in foundries and machine shops, the iron 
and steel industry, the newspaper printing 
trades, and among bakers and laundry work- 
ers. In addition, recent years have seen a con- 
siderable extension of the practice of Satur- 
day closing in various lines of business during 
the summer months. 

Missouri voter.-, in a referendum in Novem- 
ber, ratified by 561,898 to 252.882 votes the 
workmen's compensation law of 1925. accord- 
ing to the association's summary. The state 
employers' association joined with organized 
labor in support of the law, urging that it 
would attract new industries to the state. 
During 1926 Louisiana. Rhode Island. Wash- 
ington, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Virginia 
and Xew York increased the benefits and ex- 
tended the coverage of their compensation 
acts. Xew Jersey added radium necrosis to 
her list of compensable occupational dis< 
Xew York extended the provisions for as- 
sistance to physically handicapped children, 
and made the special fund for vocational re- 
habilitation of industrial cripples available for 
administrative expenses instead of for com- 
pensation and maintenance only. Uninsured 
employers in Xew York, instead of insurance 
carriers only, were made contributors to the 
special fund in case of death of employees 
who left no dependents. Massachusetts, Vir- 
ginia and Rhode Island created commissions 
to study the operation of workmen's com- 
pensation legislation. Xew York established 
a legislative commission to investigate con- 
ditions and legislation affecting the health. 
safety and welfare of employees. 



26 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



Unemployed in Auckland, New Zealand, 
have grown to such numbers that local labor 
bodies have appealed to the Governor that 
immigration to this section be stopped until 
normalcy of employment is again enjoyed. At 
present there is a steady flow of approxi- 
mately 300 immigrants per month. 

Of the total number of immigrants enter- 
ing Brazil during the past eighteen years, 
1908-1925 inclusive, the Italian quota 
amounted to 16 per cent, or 237,299 of 1,- 
484,338. This number was exceeded only by 
Spaniards and Portuguese, these three Latin 
races forming 70 per cent, of the total 
movement. 

The increased development and greater 
production of the European plantation indus- 
ties in the Sumatra East Coast district was 
reflected in a considerably increased number 
of oriental contract laborers employed in 1925 
on the estates in this district, the number of 
these laborers amounting to 196,669 in 1925, 
as compared with 175,481 in 1924. 

It is reported that Captain Giulietti, for- 
mer president of the Italian Sailors' Federa- 
tion and former Socialist Deputy, has been 
arrested. Giulietti refused to turn over or 
divulge the whereabouts of 11,000,000 lire in 
the treasury of the Federation, which was 
dissolved under the recently enacted law for 
defense of the Fascist regime. Several of his 
friends were also arrested. 

Financial support of 1,600,000 unemployed 
in Germany is costing an average of $23,000,- 
000 a month. Eleven per cent, Minister of 
Labor Heirich Brauns says, are receiving 
more money in doles than they did on their 
last jobs. Directly or indirectly employers 
of labor and their employes virtually support 
their less fortunate brethren. Employers and 
employes each directly contribute $5,500,000 
a month. By special taxes federal and state 
governments collect another $4,300,000 each, 
while the burroughs raise $2,500,000. 

As a result of increases agreed upon as 
from November 1, the monthly wages of deck 
and engine-room hands of French vessels are 
now as follows : Boatswains, 610 fr. ; petty 



officers, 595 fr. ; able seamen, 540 fr. ; ordi- 
nary seamen, 470 f r. ; boys, 215/285 fr. ; fire- 
men, 580 to 610 fr. ; stokers, 540 fr. Rates for 
overtime have been increased, every hour 
in excess of the legal eight-hour day being 
considered overtime : Petty officers, 3.60 fr. 
per hour; firemen, 3.30 fr. ; able seamen, 
stokers, 3.00 fr. ; ordinary seamen, 2.60 fr. ; 
boys, 1.20-1.60 fr. 

In pursuance of a decision of the German 
Reichstag, the Federal Ministry of Labor has 
reduced the number of foreign agricultural 
workers who may be admitted into Germany 
by fixing it at 100,000 in 1927, as against 130,- 
000 in 1926. Simultaneously, a circular has 
been issued laying down the conditions for 
the admission of foreign workers. As a gen- 
eral rule, foreign agricultural workers col- 
lectively recruited may be admitted only for 
the cultivation of sugar-beet and immigra- 
tion in small groups of less than five work- 
ers is to be forbidden. 

According to figures published by the Brit- 
ish People's League of Health, under the 
king's patronage, 82 per cent of the recruits 
for the British army in 1924 were rejected as 
unfit, and only 5 per cent of the men exam- 
ined for the police force were found able to 
reach the standard required. These defects 
are attributed to malnutrition in childhood. 
The report points out that one of every seven 
men of working age dies of tuberculosis. One 
million children in the United Kingdom in 
1917 — the latest period for which figures are 
available — were so physically and mentally 
defective as to be unresponsive to education. 
A further infusion of Nordic blood into 
the Chilean race will be brought about if 
plans now under consideration by the Ger- 
man colony in Chile are developed. Impor- 
tation of 2000 additional German families to 
settle in the agricultural regions of South- 
ern Chile has been suggested. The Chileans 
already are more or less a race apart, as 
German and English blood has been mixed 
to a great extent with the Latin during many 
years. It is not unusual to find persons 
bearing such family names as Helfmann, 
Lundstedt, Walker, Martin, Edwards and 
O'Brien and O'Reilly, who cannot speak 
English. 

British capitalists are in theoretical accord 
with the high wage theory, but they lower rates 



27 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1927 



on every occasion. In the five years from 
1921 to 1925 wages in the main industries were 
reduced over $50,000,000 a week. This does 
not include farm laborers, government em- 
ployees, shop assistants, clerks and domestic 
servants. The government has encouraged 
these wage cuts, while joining with capitalists 
in professing faith in a fair day's pay. While 
these forces proclaim their loyalty to the high- 
wage system, they use every weapon — indus- 
trial, political and propagandist — to lower 
wages. "Many of these hypocrites are piling 
up unheard-of wealth," says the Daily Herald, 
organized labor's official newspaper. 

The controversy between the extreme and 
the moderate wings of the trade union move- 
ment in Japan, which led to a split in the 
General Federation of Japanese Labor and 
the formation of a Council of Japanese Trade 
Unions as a rival organization in May, 1925, 
has had its counterpart recently among the 
members of the Union of Tokyo Municipal 
Tramway workers. This union, which has 
some 15,000 or 16,000 members, is the lead- 
ing organization of the transport workers' 
movement in Japan. At a meeting of the 
Central Committee of the Union, on August 
21, last, it was decided by a majority to expel 
all the members of the motor omnibus sec- 
tion, numbering about 900, together with four 
members of the tramway section who were 
regarded as being responsible for fomenting 
extremist agitation. 

From August 28 to September 4 the Swedish 
trade unions held a Congress at Stockholm, 
which can safely be described as one of the 
most important trade-union Congress ever 
held in Sweden. Thorberg, the president, sub- 
mitted a report which showed that, during the 
four years since the last Congress was held, 
the Swedish trade-union movement has made 
excellent progress. The membership has risen 
from 292,917 in December, 1922, to 397,354 in 
June, 1926 (360,000 men and 37,000 women). 
In spite of trade slump and unemployment, 
the trade unions have gone steadily forward. 
The wage policy pursued turned chiefly on the 
maintenance of the wage level. The Trade- 
Union Center succeeded in calling a halt to the 
reduction of wages in the period of the trade 
slump, so that by 1925 the real wages had 
come to be 22 per cent over the wage level 
of 1913. 



According to figures just available it is 
estimated that out of a population of 40,- 
000,000 France is now harboring 5,000,000 
unnaturalized foreigners. Italy is without 
a free acre of land and her increasing popu- 
lation has been flooding the land of south- 
ern France since the war, where vacant 
areas exist because Frenchmen, who saw their 
country for the first time with army service, 
lost the call of the soil and are flocking 
into the cities. French law has neither re- 
quired a questioning of this flood of immi- 
grants regarding their political learnings, 
moral turpitude, health nor intention of be- 
coming citizens. Italians, men, women and 
children, cross the French . mtier daily, set- 
tling in the provinces of southern France 
which once were Italian, until whole districts 
are no longer French cither in language 
or character. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVE ROBERTS, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Elliot 11"^ 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM SHERIDAN, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574. Phono 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE. Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203. Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214. Phone Main 2«S3 

SAN PEDRO, Cal Ill Sixth Street 

JOE WADE. Agent 
Phone 1317J 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

Headquarters: 

3AN FRANCISCO, Cal.. !:• Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

Phone Elliot 3425 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

Phone 147 



MONTEREY HOOK AND LINE FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

MONTEREY, Cal 409 Alvarado Street 

J. PIETROBONO. Secretary 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Phone Elliot GT:^ 
Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

Phone Black :il 
KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

OAKLAND. Cal 219 Federal Telegraph Bldg. 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
TeleiMnne Lakeside 3591 



28 



January, 192', 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



WHY DELAY 
WHEN IN PORT 

Guaranteed service performed by spe- 
cialists where work is completed with- 
out delay, and you are assured the 
price will be reasonable — and Satisfac- 
tion Guaranteed. When in port, first 
have your teeth examined, without 
cost. 

So Convenient to Seafaring Men 

A Great Dental Organization to Serve 
You with 18 modern dental offices in 
13 ports. Dental work started in one 
Parker office may be completed in any 
office of the Parker System. 

PAINLESS PARKER DENTIST 

Using E. R. Part [ i j System 

Offices in the following forts 
San Diego, Fourth and Plaza; Long Beach, 
Third and Pine Sts.j San Pedro, "06 Palos 
Verdes; San Francisco, 15 Stockton ft., 1012 
Market St., 1802 Geary St.; Los Angeles, 
5 50 So. Broadway, 104*4 W. 7th St., 432 
So. Main St.; Oakland, 1128 Broadway; 
Eureka, 210 _F St.; Santa Cruz., 121 Pacific 
Ave.; PortlaTTtt, Ore., cor. Washington and 
Broadway; Seattle, 206 Union St.; Tacoma, 
1103J4 Brond.way; Bellingham, Holly and 
Commercial S't's. ; Vancouver, B. C, 101 
Hastings St. E.; Boston, Mass., 581 Wash- 
ington St. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Frank H. O'Brien, inquiries are 
being made'for you by your mother, 
Mrs. P. H. O'Brien. Kindly com- 
municate with her, 169 Wendell 
Street, Providence, R. I. 

If John Colsen sees this or any- 
one knowing . his whereabouts, 
please communicate with Chris 
Olsen, 208 Dorland Street, San 
Francisco, Calif. 



At Night 



Complete Banking Service from 
9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 



Liberty 



Market 
at Mason 



Bank 



San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Davenport 537 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

"We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Officers, Engineers and Seamen 
S. S. City of Everett. Having been 
retained by widows and orphans of 
the ill-fated Steamship City of 
Everett, if you have served aboard 
this ship within five years prior to 
October 11, 1923, please communi- 
cate with Silas B. Axtell, 11 Moore 
Street, New York City, N. Y. 



Buy Union Stamped Shoes 



We ask all members of organized labor to 
purchase shoes bearing our Union Stamp on 
the sole, inner-sole or lining of the shoe. We 
ask you not to buy any shoes unless you 
actually see this Union Stamp. 

Boot & Shoe Workers' Union 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 

246 Summer Street, Boston, Mass. 

COLLIS LOVELY CHARLES L. BAINE 
General President General Secretary-Treasurer 



.WORKERS UNION. 



UNION^STAMP 

Factory j 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union ef 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 

531 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Marke* 

Streets, San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney For 

Marine Firemen and Waterter.c~r.«' 

Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
10 Embarcadero Tel. Davenport 3134 
676 Mills Bldg. Tel. Douglas 1058 
San Francisco, California 



Telephone Garfield 306 



Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

(Heidelberg & Murasky) 

Flood Building, San Francisco 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damage*. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Ray Murphy, who has a personal 
injury suit against the United 
States Shipping Board Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, please communi- 
cate with your attorney, Silas B. 
Axtell, at 11 Moore Street, New 
York City, N. Y. . 



Oscar Lewis (formerly of the 
S. S. "Pachet"), please communi- 
cate at once with your Attorney, 
Frederick R. Graves, 29 Broadway, 
New York City, N. Y. 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

No. 14 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 
in 

San Francisco 



29 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 192/ 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

More No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2— Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Crematory and Columbarium in 
Connection 



Broadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



u 



nion 



Store 



Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



Easily Pleased. — Smith— "Did I 
leave an umbrella here yesterday?" 

Barber — "What kind of um- 
brella?" 

Smith — "Oh, any kind. I'm not 
fussy." — Yonkers Statesman. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



TAXI 



CALL GASPEE 5000 
Red Top Cab Co., of R. I.. Inc. 
67 Chestnut St. Providence. R. 



UNION MADE 
CLOTHING 

For Less Money Than Sweatshop 
Made Clothing 

Rogers Co. 

35-37 Richmond St. 
Providence, R. I. 



DR. JAMES E. HARDEN 

DENTAL SURGEON 

212 Union St., opp. Outlet Co. 

Special attention given to Seafaring 

men. For appointment call Gaspee 

1189, or call at office. 

Providence, R. I. 



Bill's Smoke Shop 

Right alongside the Sailors' Union 
Hall 



Complete Line of Smokes 
371 Richmond St., Providence, R. I, 



Matty's Union Barber 
Shop 

Special Attention to Seafaring Men 
95 Point St. Providence, R. I. 



HARVEY'S UNION 
SHOE STORE 

Complete Line of 
UNION-MADE SHOES 

Four Blocks from Sailors' Union Hall 
85 Richmond Street, Providence, R. I. 



Eastern Restaurant 

Corner Point and Eddy 
H( >ME O il IKED MEALS 

The Best Cup of Coffee in the Port 

One block from Union Hall 
Corner Point and Eddy Streets 

30 



Telephone Garfield 594 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 
Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 
San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

JACOB PETERSEN & SON 
Proprietors 

Established 1880 



COFFEE AND LUNCH 
HOUSE 

7 Market St. and 17 Steuart St. 
San Francisco 



GEO. A. PRICE 

— SAYS — 

Our success is due to the fact that 
our merchandise is superior and our 
are right. Boss of the Road 
and Can't i'.ust 'Em Union-made 
products are sold with money's worth 
a :i> y back guar; i 

First-Class Seamen's Outfitters 
19 The Embarcadero 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



United States Laundry 

Telephone MARKET 1721 

1148 Harrison Street 
San Francisco, California 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 



HUMBOLDT RANK. 783 Market Street, 
near 4th ; Hush and Montgomery Branch, 
Mills Building. For the half-year ending 
December 31, 1926, a dividend has been 
declared at the rate of four (4) per cent 
per annum on savings deposits, payable 
on and after January 3, 1927. Dividends 
not called for bear interest from January 
1, 1927. Money deposited on or before 
January 10, 1927, will earn interest from 
Januarv 1, 1927. 

II. C. KLEVESAHL, 
Vice-President and Cashier. 



Wild Oats for All.— M other 
(coming in at 2 a. m.) — "You 
needn't have waited up for me, Yso- 
bcl. I have my own latchkey." 

Ysobel — "I know, mother, but 
somebody had to let Grannie in." — 
London Opinion. 



January, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



BOSS ™ TAILOR 

NOW AT 

1048 MARKET STREET 

Five Doors Below Granada Theater 

We Use the Only Label Recognized by The American Federation of 
Labor. Accept no Other. 



IUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

at Popular Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



You May Remember My Name, But Sure Would Like to Have You 
Remember the Number 

1048 MARKET STREET 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 

Kearny 3863 San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES 

One Minute from Ferry Building 

The 

ANCHOR CHAIN 

SAFE DEPOSIT CO. 

11 Steuart Street 
San Francisco, California 



RELIABLE TAILOR 

Popular Prices 

TOM WILLIAMS 

48 CALIFORNIA ST., near Davis 

Phone Douglas 4874 

San Francisco 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

88 Third Street, at Mission 




KODAKS and CAMERAS 

Exchanged, Bought, Sold, 

Repaired and Rented 

Developing and Printing 



TACOMA, WASH. 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 

UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front' 



GEO. LONEY, President 
H. O. HAUGEN, Sec.-Treas. 

HAUGEN & LONEY 
TAILORS 

High Grade Custom Tailoring 

942 Pacific Avenue 

PHONE MAIN 8000 

Tacoma, Wash. 



Phone Davenport 505 With Morgen's 

BEN HARRIS 

Formerly of 218 East Street 

125 MARKET STREET 

Bet. Spear and Main Streets 

WORK AND DRESS CLOTHES 
SHOES, HATS, CAPS 



SMOKE 

SAN TEX CIGARS 

Union Made 

San Tex Cigar Co. 937 Tacoma Ave, 
Tacoma, Wash. 

31 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUB/ IC 



Phone 263 

NIELS JOHNSON 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS* REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



MAHNCKE & CO. 

PIONEER JEWELERS 

Established 1883 

919 Broadway, Tacoma, Wash. 
Telephone Main 5868 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Charles Ware, L. Johnson, Albert 
Larsen, C. J. Lindquist, Jack Pa- 
tallis, Wm. Barlo and Eric Ljund- 
gren who were on the schooner Ella 
"A," Captain Killman, in 1921, when 
the second mate, Carl Liedke was 
injured, are respectfully requested 
to communicate with Attorney 
James Kiefer, 327 Colman Building, 
Seattle, Wash. Their testimony is 
needed to secure justice for Liedke. 



True Humility. — "So you are go- 
ing into your father's business now 
you're graduated? I suppose you'll 
have a pretty soft time there." 

"No, indeed. I'm going to start 
right in at the bottom as one of the 
vice-presidents." — Life. 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Janu ti\ , I9i 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House. San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL. Is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now. 
in addition *o being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how Ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of Ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




White Palace Shoe Store 



34 MARKET STREET, 0pP 
JOE WEISS, Prop. 

Phone Davenport 7895 
Large stock of men's Nunn, Bush and 
Crossett shoes. Repair work done neatly 
while you wait. 

COME AND GIVE US A TRIAL 

Branch Store at 92 Fourth Street near 
Mission Street 



S. P. Bldg., SAN FRANCISCO 




Established 1917 by U. S. i. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



NAUTICAL SCHOOL 

696 W. Second St., San Pedro, Cal. 

PHONE 1341 

Masters, Mates, Pilots and Engi- 
neers carefully prepared for U. S. 
Steamboat Inspectors' Examination. 

J. A. JOHNSON 

Graduate of the Norwegian Naval 

Academy, Master of American Steam 

and Sailing Ships 



Established 1896 After Christmas 

SALE OF JEWELRY 
During January 

We offer big reductions throughout the store in 

Jewelry and Silverware, affording many oppor- 
tunities to save. A visit during this time will 
prove profitable. 

£cremenCa 

715 MARKET STREET, Bet. 3rd and 4th Sts. 
James Jt.Sorensen jewelers and opticians 

fres and Jreoa. "An Equal Square Deal to All for 30 Years" 

32 




hale Bros 

Genuine Cowhide 
Suit Cases 

$13.50 



The sort of case 
you'll want when 
you step ashore at 
Shanghai! Sturdy, 
well-made, and neat- 
appearing. Of brown 
or black cowhide, 
made on a strong 
frame, with hand- 
sewed corners — and 
in the popular sizes 
— 24 or 26 inches. A 
real value for the 
money. 

— Fourth Floor. 

Market at Fifth 

Fourth Floor 

SAN FRANCISCO 




852-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 

Opposite The Emporium 



UNION LABEL 
WORSTED $QO 
SUITS &V 

Unconditionally Guaranteed to 
Wear and Wear and Wear 
See Them In Our Windows 



THE SUM 

After all. your large savings of 
a year are only the sum of your 
little weekly savin.u-. A Hum- 
boldt "Ambition Bond" will 
make saving easier. Ask for a 
copy. 



HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

Savings - Commercial - Trust 

783 Market Street, near Fourth 

San Francisco, California 



WWMJHNIA 




r 



£ 



Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

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A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Ju 



Contents 



THE SEAMEN'S CONVENTION 
PAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS 
LABOR'S POLICY ENDORSED 
EDITORIALS: 

CHANCES FOR AMERICAN BOYS 38 

INTERNATIONAL NAVY RIVALRY 38 

IMPORTING CHINESE CREWS 39 

THE CALL OF THE DOLLARS 39 

REPORT LAW EVASIONS 40 

PANAMA CANAL A MONEY MAKER 40 

LOYALTY OF MEMBERS 41 

A NOTABLE SWIMMING RECORD 41 

BILL WILSON CONTESTS ELECTION 41 

UNDECLARED WAR 42 

KEEPING WATCHES AT SEA 43 

WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING 44 

LABELING THE ALIENS 44 

WHEN ARE STRIKES LEGAL? 45 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 50 

BOOK REVIEW (Out of the Past) 51 

WHAT IS A HURRICANE? 52 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 53, 54, 55, 56 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 57, 58, 59, 60 



VOL. XLI, No. 2 
WHOLE No. 1957 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
FEBRUARY 1, 1927 



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International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 
359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR. Secretary 

iy 2 Lewis Street. Phone Bowling Green 0524. 
Branches: 

PROVIDENCE. R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Dexter 8090. 

NEW YORK, N. Y CHRIS RASMUSSEN, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa S. HODGSON. Agent 

216 S. Second Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE. Md M. A. SCHUCH, Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 5910. 

NORFOLK. Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk. 

MOBILE, Ala 

68*6 Dauphine Street 

NEW ORLEANS. La .....CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Jackson 5557 

GALVESTON. Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street, Phone 2215 

PORT ARTHUR. Tex WM. ROSS, Agent 

131 Proctor Street 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON. Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE. R I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa OTTO A. OLSSON, Agent 

216 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

735 So. Broadway 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WILLIAM ROSS, Agent 

222 Proctor St. 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 
Branches: 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch) TAS. ALLEN, Agent 

Phone Cortlandt 1979 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE. Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WM. ROSS, Agent 

131 Proctor Street. 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass WM. H. BROWN. Secretary 

288 State Street. Phone Richmond 0827. 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass THOMAS COVE, Agent 

209 Main Street. Phone Gloucester 1045. 

NEW YORK. N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton Street. Phone John 4539. 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR EM- 
PLOYES UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 

NEW ORLEANS, La S. C. OATS. Secretary 

910 N. Dorgenois S treet. P hone Galvez 6210-J 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, Til 359 North Wells Street 

VICTOR A. OLANDER. Secretary 
Phone Superior 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN. Agent 

. 55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

:;0S Superior Avenue. W. Phone Main 1841, 

MILWAUKEE. Wis CHAS. BRADHERTNG. Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich GEORGE HANSEN. Agent 

652 Jefferson Ave. W., Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

TWOS. CONWAY. Secretary 
ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 308 Superior Avenue, W. 

PATRICK ADAMS, Agent 
Phone Main 1843 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ERNEST ELLIS, Agent 
Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 652 Jefferson Avenue, W. 

I VAX HUNTER, Agent 
Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, III 359 North Wells Street 

CHARLES GUSTAFSON, Agent 
Phone State 5175 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. BECORD, Secretary 

Telephone Seneca u8'J6 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 25 W. Kinzie Street 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis., 162 Reed St., Phone Broadway 4S9 

DETROIT. Mich 

652 Jefferson Avenue. W. Phone Randolj 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2207 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE. Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN. Wash JOHN A. FEIDJE, Agent 

502 East First Street 
P. O. Box 280, Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND. ORE: JOHN M. MOORE, Agent 

242 Flanders Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO. Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 So. Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68, Telephone 1713W 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on page 28) 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



35 



THE SEAMEN'S CONVENTION 




URSUANT to the Constitution, the 
Thirtieth Annual Convention of the 
International Seamen's Union of 
America was called to order by Presi- 
dent Andrew Furuseth, Monday, 

January 10, 1927, 10 a. m., in the National 

Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

President Furuseth, as an introductory to his 

annual report, said : 

President Furuseth's Report 

In bidding you welcome to our thirtieth annual 
convention, I am able to report that the process of 
disintegration resulting from disappointments and 
apathy is gradually passing away. The capacity for 
that gruelling and persistent effort that- is the mother 
of success is not acquired in prosperity. It is the 
result of a will hardened in adversity mixed with 
hope. But even that is not sufficient. There must be 
loyalty to the covenant into which the sufferers en- 
tered with themselves, when they vountarily came 
together to exercise mutual aid in order that they 
may redress the grievances which they hoped to 
remove by joint effort. While a majority failed in 
the hours of real trial, there were enough remaining 
to keep steadily towards the aim, which we had 
adopted as our objective. Those who remained faith- 
ful and struggled onward the best they could were 
in sufficient numbers to obtain forgiveness for those 
who straggled and lost their way until they recognized 
that they were wandering in the wilderness and began 
looking for the main body in order that they might 
join it again. Lack of strength of one kind or an- 
other made it impossible to function as we should and 
we were compelled to stand by looking at wrongs, 
that we could not redress and at opportunities which 
we could not use; yet we did function to some extent 
and the utter failure of those who promised much 
but had done nothing, did convince and is now con- 
vincing a gradually increasing number that the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America is the organiza- 
tion toward which the seamen of America must look 
when they are really anxious for some relief from 
the grievances under which they suffer. And so 
there is more faith, more effort and a better prospect 
than at any time since 1921. 

President Furuseth reported at length on his ob- 
servations in Europe, dealing in detail with the con- 
ditions of seamen in the various maritime countries. 
He submitted a separate report on the General Con- 
ference. 

(Note — The transactions of this meeting have been 
reviewed in various issues of The Journal.) 

As regards measures pending in Congress, Presi- 
dent Furuseth reported as follows: 

Congress and the Seamen 

Congress has had before it three bills, which were 
introduced at our suggestion: "Senate 1383, A Bill 
to transfer from the Department of Commerce to the 
Department of Labor the duty and power to enforce 
so much of the navigation laws and laws governing 
the Steamboat Inspection Service as relate to per- 
sons employed in seafaring occupations; and for other 
purposes." We offered this bill as an amendment to 
or substitute for H. R. 7245. and explained it at the 
hearing held by the House Committee. Beyond that, 



nothing has been done. "Senate 1087, A Bill to pro- 
vide seamen on American vessels with a continuous 
discharge book; to provide for improved efficiency and 
discipline; and for other purposes." On this bill there 
have been full hearings and it has been reported fa- 
vorably with amendments. It is now on the Senate 
Calendar. One of the amendments is, however, of 
such nature that its adoption would repeal Section 
4 of the Seamen's Act and destroy the main purpose 
of that act. Patrick O'Brien called attention to that 
fact and was assured that there was no such inten- 
tion. As a result the bill went over to this session. 
On my return from Europe, I met Senator Jones out 
in the State of Washington and took the matter up 
with him. He assured me that there was no inten- 
tion to accomplish any such purpose and further as- 
sured me that there would be no difficulty in getting 
that amendment stricken out. The other amendment 
-—striking out of Section 5 — would make the bill very 
difficult to enforce. I have written a memorandum 
on this bill and submitted it to Senator Jones of 
Washington, La Follette of Wisconsin, Fletcher of 
Florida, and some others. With the memorandum I 
have submitted the Supreme Court decision in the 
Cornelius Anderson case, because that decision ought 
to help us in getting the bill amended properly and 
then passed. Senator La Follette has promised to do 
everything possible to get the bill to a vote just after 
the recess. The memorandum is hereby submitted for 
your action, without being made a part of this report. 
"Senate 3475, A Bill to provide for the deportation 
of certain alien seamen; and for other purposes." This 
is the Raker amendment to the Immigration Bill, 
which became a law in 1924. The present bill was 
introduced in the Senate by Senator King of Utah. 
It has the indorsement of the Commissioner General 
of Immigration and the Department of Labor, which 
sent Mr. Hurley to the hearings before the Senate 
and the House Committees to urge its passage. A 
full opportunity for hearings was granted by the chair- 
man, Senator Johnson of California. All interests 
were heard. The bill was reported favorably and 
is now on the Senate calendar. In the meantime 
the House Committee on Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion was considering a deportation bill. The commit- 
tee had a great number of hearings, at some of 
which O'Brien and I were present, endeavoring to 
induce the committee to include the Senate bill in 
the one which the committee was preparing. We 
failed in that and the committee reported a bill, H. 
R. 11489, which is described in a memorandum of 
protest, which I wrote and submitted to the Com- 
mittee on Rules and which, together with a minority 
report from Mr. Sabath of- Illinois, resulted in a rule 
being refused. The memorandum will be submitted 
to the convention. The bill was reintroduced some- 
what amended, adopted by the committee under num- 
ber H. R. 1244-4 — Mr. Sabath still in opposition — and 
then reported to the House and passed. It is now in 
the Senate Committee on Immigration. On these two 
bills— H. R. 12444 and S. 3574—1 have prepared a 
memorandum, which I have submitted to Senator 
Johnson of California, Reed of Pennsylvania, King of 
Utah, and some others. It is hereby submitted to you 
for such action as you may think proper, except that 
I do not think it should be made part of this record. 
Senator King has promised that he will call up this 
bill immediately after the recess. 

On June 7 a bill, S. 4171, was introduced to create 
a sixth great collection district on the Great Lake-, 
etc. There was some fear that this bill would alter 
the law relative to seamen on the Great Lakes. At- 
tention was called thereto by O'Brien, and to make 



36 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February. 1927 



sure, Congress inserted the following amendment: 
"That nothing herein shall affect the rights or priv- 
ileges reserved to seamen under existing law." 

The longshoremen caused the introduction of a 
Compensation Bill in each House. In the Senate, 
where it was introduced first, it is S. 3170; in the 
House it is H. R. 12063. These bills were identical 
and did not apply to seamen, but the shipowners 
sought to make them applicable to the seamen and 
urged that upon the Judiciary Committees of the two 
Houses. The net result was that the committees made 
sure that they would not apply by inserting unmistak- 
able language to that end. There was no necessity 
for us having any hearing before the Senate Commit- 
tee, but we were heard before the House Committee. 
The bill, much amended in the interest of smaller com- 
pensation, passed the Senate and is yet before the 
Committee of the House. In the meantime the Su- 
preme Court has handed down a decision under which 
the court holds that stevedores are entitled to the 
protection of the same law that now protects seamen 
— Section 33 of the Jones Act of 1920. The court uses 
the following language: "that in this statute 'seamen' 
is taken to include stevedores employed in maritime 
work on navigable waters as the plaintiff was." It 
is likely that the longshoremen will insist upon at 
least the House provisions for the law, before they 
shall be willing to accept it. 

On December 13 Senator Jones of Washington, by 
request, introduced a bill, "S. 4730, to provide com- 
pensation for seamen," etc. This bill seems to save 
to the seamen all existing remedies, but I am not 
certain, and I hereby submit it without opinion to the 
convention. A copy of a Compensation Bill for sea- 
men, supposed to have been drawn by representatives 
of shipowners, has also come to me and that, too, is 
hereby referred to the convention. Representative 
Free of California introduced two bills in the House. 
One is H. R. 9399 and that seeks to amend Section 2 
of the Seamen's Act so that the shipowners may con- 
tinue to operate vessels without complying with said 
Section 2 and the decision in the case of O'Hara vs. 
Luckenback. The other is H. R. 10009 and seeks to 
amend Section 4 of the Seamen's Act, so that the 
master may exercise his discretion about paying to 
the seaman any of his earned wages in a port where 
the vessel may enter. There have been no hearings 
on either of these bills, though it was reported that 
Mr. Free asked for hearings during the latter part of 
the last session. 

Secretary Orlander's Report 

Secretary-Treasurer Olander's report contained an 
itemized statement of receipts and disbursements for 
the past year and showed the International Union to 
be in a sound financial condition. 

The financial report of the Seamen's Journal also 
showed a substantial revenue for the fiscal year. 

Full details upon the financial statements will be 
available to the membership in the published conven- 
tion proceedings. 

Secretary Olander also submitted a full account of 
the executive board's transactions, as well as a com- 
plete summary of his many activities as secretary- 
treasurer of the International Union. 

With respect to the new Railway Labor Act, pro- 
viding for voluntary arbitration, Secretary Olander 
made this interesting comment: 

Seamen Under "Railway Labor Act" 
The act of 1920, creating the Railway Labor Board, 
did not contain the specific limitations of the acts of 
1907 and 1913 and was somewhat more general in its 
nature. 

In the new Railway Labor Act, that of 1926, how- 
ever, there is a specific reference which includes "all 
floating equipment" which is "used by or operated in 
connection with" any such carrier by railroad. The 



term "employee," in the new act, includes persons who 
perform ' any work defined as that of an employee or 
subordinate official in the orders of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission now in effect, and as the 
same may be amended or interpreted by orders here- 
after entered by the commission, pursuant to the 
authority which is hereby conferred upon it to enter 
orders amending or interpreting such existing orders." 

The rules of the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
governing the classification of employees, include not 
only all classes of workers on ferryboats, towing ves- 
sels, barges and lighters, but also "deck and engine- 
room officers and workers (steamer)," as distinct from 
the other classes referred to. It seems, therefore, 
that the present law covers within its jurisdiction ships 
and seamen when the vessels are "used by or in con- 
nection with" any railroad. The ship need not be 
owned by the railroad. 

The new law provides for entirely voluntary action 
by all parties except on the two following points: (1) 
an agreement to arbitrate having been voluntarily en- 
tered into, the award must be lived up to; (2) if an 
emergency board is appointed by the president in any 
given case, neither side is permitted to change existing 
conditions for a period of sixty days. 

I recommeiKl that the International Union and its 
various district and local unions proceed in accord 
with the new law to seek agreements with the steam- 
ship lines under the jurisdiction of this law. 

The Three-Watch System 

Secretary Olander referred to the legal controversy 
over the watch and watch system and strongly advo- 
cated the division of the crew into three watches. 

Secretary Olander ventured to predict that "the 
time is not far distant when it will be very difficult, 
if not impossible, to induce either sailors or firemen 
to accept employment under the old two-watch or 
twelve-hour day system." 

Olander also dealt at some length with law enforce- 
ment relative to "Able Seamen's Certificates," "Life- 
Boatmen's Certificates," etc. 

A highly interesting analysis of the recent Geneva 
conference was a feature of Secretary Olander's re- 
port. This part of his report will appear in the March 
issue of the Journal. 

Among the many important subjects referred to by 
Secretary Olander the following are outstanding fea- 
tures: 

The Right of Association 

The United States Shipping Board not only per- 
mits but encourages and actually participates in the 
formation of combinations or so-called "conferences" 
of steamship lines, in which foreign steamship com- 
panies are included as well as American companies. 
Under Section 15 of the Shipping Act of 1916 all 
agreements reached in such conferences, when ap- 
proved by the Shipping Board, are exempted from 
the anti-trust laws. Under Section 29 of the Mer- 
chants Marine Act of 1920, immunity from the anti- 
trust laws is granted to shipowners and marine in- 
surance companies for marine insurance purposes. 
These rights of association, granted by the govern- 
ment to the shipowners and exercised by them with 
the aid of the United States Shipping Board, are used, 
in part, to deny the right of association among sea- 
men. This fact ought to be brought to the attention 
of the people of the United States by every means 
within our power. The discrimination by the law and 
the action of government authorities against one class, 
the seamen, in favor of another class, the shipowners, 
is certainly not in accord with basic American prin- 
ciples which call for equality. 

"Amalgamation" 

All who are familiar with the history of changing 
(Continued on page 46) 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



?>7 



PAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS 



While Secretary of State Kellogg is doing 
his best to alienate every friend the United 
States may have in Latin-America, the Pan- 
American Federation of Labor comes forward 
with a plea for peace and good will among the 
people of the Western Hemisphere. 

The fifth Pan-American Labor Congress 
will convene at 10 o'clock a. m., July 18, 1927, 
at the Executive Council Hall of the American 
Federation of Labor in the city of Washington, 
and will continue in session until all of the 
business before it has been transacted. 

The official call is signed by William Green, 
president of the American Federation of Labor, 
who is also president of the Pan-American 
Federation of Labor ; Louis N. Morones, Sec- 
retary of Labor in President Calles' Cabinet, 
chief of the Mexican labor movement and vice- 
president of the Pan-American Federation ; 
Matthew Woll, treasurer of the Pan-American 
and also vice-president of the A. F. of L. ; 
Chester M. Wright, English language secre- 
tary, and Santiago Iglesias, Spanish language 
secretary. 

"The problems of the working people of one 
country are identical with those of all coun- 
tries with which their country has inter- 
course," says the international call. 

''Every problem of international relations 
has its human phase — for nothing can be done 
without human agents ; hence, the problem of 
human welfare. 

"The safety for the liberty and democracy of 
the working people of every country of Pan- 
America depends upon the existence of an in- 
dustrial organization among the workers and 
the close relationships between those organ- 
izations." 

Continuing, the call says : 

"Until a short time ago there had been no 
means of communication between the masses 
of the people of the American countries. 

"The only relations existing were those es- 
tablished by the financial, commercial and 
industrial interests, and, as every one knows, 
these interests are not always actuated by a 
desire to promote the welfare of the people, nor 
do they represent the higher and nobler ideals 
of the peoples of the American countries. 

"Those interests are actuated bv three mo- 



tives, namely : profits, profits and more profits. 

"In their mad rush for material aggrandize- 
ment, they completely lose sight of the rights 
and the interests of humanity. 

"Since the financial, commercial and indus- 
trial interests of Pan-America are so closely 
allied and are every day extending their activ- 
ities over a wider field opened up by the con- 
ditions created by the late war, it is all the 
more evident that the wage earners of Pan- 
America must unite for their own protection 
for in our present day the organization of the 
wage earners on a purely national scale will 
not be adequate." 



LABOR'S POLICY ENDORSED 



Wisdom from the seats of the Mighty! 
Along comes the National City Bank, that 
largest of banking combinations in the world, 
and backs up labor in its economic program. 
In its review of the business year it seeks to 
confound pessimists who see a slump in 1927 
because in some lines the records of last 
year's amazing finish are not being main- 
tained. 

Two things have contributed to our rise in 
prosperity since 1920 — making up normal 
peace-time growth that was retarded by the 
war, and a great increase in industrial effi- 
ciency. The impetus from the first is losing 
its force, but that derived from the second 
is inexhaustible, say these financiers. Yet they 
also point out the wants of the American peo- 
ple are no nearer satisfied than they were a 
year ago or five years ago, nor is there the 
slightest prospect that they will be satisfied 
in the near future. Right again ! And then 
they observe : "The secret of continued pros- 
perity is in a fair and even distribution of it." 

People to satisfy their wants need good 
wages and to keep up with the output of 
American industry they need not only a ris- 
ing wage level, but more leisure to use up 
the enormous output of industry. Better 
houses, better clothes, better cars, better food 
can be bought with better wages. More than 
that, industry needs the five-day week where 
efficiency is too great to give steady employ- 
ment and a stable market. Labor believes in 
co-operation for the nation's continued pros- 
perity. When capital continues to take more 
than its share it imperils the future of all. 



38 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL February, 1927 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



INTERNATIONAL NAVAL RIVALRY 



EXECUTIVE BOARO 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

THOMAS CONWAY, Second Vice-President 

71 .Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Third Vice-President 

81 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fourth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
OSCAR CARLSON, Fifth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York. X. Y. 
PATRICK O'BRIKX. sixth Vice- President 

56 -Main Street, Buffalo, X. Y. 

PETEK K. OLSEN, Seventh Vic. •-President 

4!i clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

v. a. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

359 North Wells Street, Chi. ago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price 11.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHA RRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURNAL 
is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 



">© 



FEBRUARY 1, 1927 



CHANCES FOR AMERICAN BOYS 



The following illuminating item appeared in 
the marine news column of a local daily : 

S. A. Warner, 33, wealthy contractor, of 850 Cleve- 
land avenue, Oakland, completed a round trip as an 
ordinary seaman on the steamship President Lincoln. 

"You see," he said " I was considerable overweight 
and I decided some good hard work aboard ship 
would have a reducing effect. It was efficacious. I 
recommend this treatment to all men who feel that 
their figure has become too rotund." 

When corpulent, "wealthy contractors'' take 

jobs as ordinary seamen and urge other fat 

men to do likewise, just what chances does this 

leave to the plain American hoy who wants to 

train for a career on the sea? 

In days gone by the question was frequently 
asked: Why don't American boys go to sea? 
This query has become antiquated. There are 
plenty of American boys anxious to try out 
for a life on the ocean wave. But the oppor- 
tunities are few and far between. College boys 
on a vacation and "wealthy contractors'' are 
given the first chance. Why? 



While the statesmen who speak for the big 
powers are debating the size of their respective 
navies, the minor power- of Europe, and par- 
ticularly those created under the Treat} of 
Versailles, are showing an extraordinary am- 
bition to shine as naval powers. The republics 
of Finland, Latvia and Poland have started 
fleets of their own. Finland has plans for one 
gunboat and four submarines, but credits are 
awaited to start the work. Poland has pro- 
gressed further, and two destroyers are being 
built by a French firm at Blainville, near 
Caen. The one and only vessel of the Latvian 
nav) -the gunboat Virsaitis — formerly tin- 
German Ninensucher will shortly have con- 
sorts in the shape- of the minesweepers Imanta 
and Viersturs, and two submarines — the Ronis 
and Spinandola — all built in France. The Ital- 
ian government i> reported to have offered a 
loan to the Rumanian treasury, provided Ru- 
mania will order a cruiser from Italian yard-. 

The big nation- that cannot pay the debts 
incurred during the last war have funds avail- 
able to loan to -mailer nations if the latter 
will build warships. 

The financier-statesmen of the various na- 
tional groups are unable to compose their dif- 
ference.-. They cannot agree- on the division of 
the world's resources. They behave- toward.-, 
each other as treacherously as rival pirate- in- 
flamed b\ the contemplation of rich prey. The 
signing of a treaty seems to be a mere gesture. 
The hand that hold- the pen i> ready all the 
time to pull the trigger. 

Some day the worker- of the world will un- 
derstand their own strength and importance 
and realize that warships cannot be built with- 
out their consent! 

In the meantime naval rivalry goes on. And 
the workers pay for it all. First they pay in 
cash and later they will pay in blood. 



The General Council of the Internationa! 
Federation of Trades Unions has adopted a 
resolution stating that it was watching with 
keen interest events in Mexico. "Our sym- 
pathies are with the Mexican people and gov- 
ernment," the resolution said, "and we assure 
the Mexican people of the support of the inter 
national organized labor movement in resisting 
acts of foreign aggression and interference." 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



39 



IMPORTING CHINESE CREWS 



Our esteemed contemporary "Nauticus" 
makes this refreshing observation on the em- 
ployment of cheap alien crews: 

Lascar seamen signed on in India for British and 
German vessels are demanding the same rate of wages 
as white seamen. It is only a question of time when 
Chinese seamen will have acquired such arrogance 
through the success of the Cantonese movement for 
the abrogation of extra-territorial rights in China, that 
their employment on board vessels of American 
or European ownership will be as much out of the 
question as the employment of Russian Communists. 
When sea labor ceases to be a commodity and the 
manning of fleets is exclusively in the hands of na- 
tionals, a great step will have been taken towards the 
division of maritime trade among the nations which 
have a natural right to share in it. 

It is to be hoped that our contemporary's 
prediction regarding the acquisition of arro- 
gance by Chinese crews will be fulfilled at an 
early date. 

For the present the outlook is rather dubi- 
ous. 

The Dollar liner President Wilson, recently 
sold at bargain rates by the Shipping Board, 
has just sailed from San Francisco on a round- 
the-world trip with a full Chinese crew. The 
President Wilson had been carrying an Ameri- 
can crew, but on her last visit to China she 
picked up a complete crew of Chinamen, duly 
signed on before American Consular officers, 
and transported this yellow crew (as steerage 
passengers) to San Francisco. At the latter 
port the American crew was forced to walk 
ashore and the $6.00 per month Chinese sea- 
men are now manning this ocean liner, which 
was built and paid for by the American people 
in the fond hope that our country was to have 
an American-manned Merchant Marine. 

The American motorship Carisso, scheduled 
on a trip from the Pacific Coast to Australia, is 
another vessel that has recently driven ashore 
her American crew and substituted an im- 
ported Chinese crew for good American sea- 
men. 

So, again, let us hope that the awakening of 
China will have a tendency to stimulate the 
organization of labor. And, if because of such 
organization the docile Chinese seamen shall 
acquire a spirit of independence, the American 
Merchant Marine will be decidedly the bene- 
ficiary. 

Short-sighted captains of industry and blind 
statesmen may imagine that ah American Mer- 
chant Marine can be developed and maintained 



with cheap alien crews. But all the lessons of 
history tell a different story. A nation that 
cannot man its ships with its own sons will 
never have a worthwhile merchant fleet. 



THE CALL OF TFIE DOLLARS 



Once upon a time there was in each of us a 
still small voice that we could hear above the 
commercial roar of life, calling us to be true to 
ourselves, and not merely "yes-men" and door- 
mats for others. 

But as time has gone on, we have found it 
easier to label ourselves outwardly, once for 
all, than to keep listening for that still small 
voice which at times is so faint. And so it has 
come to pass that the sign of the dollar is seen 
in the land and the call of the dollars is in our 
ears. 

In the Philippines it is the "stretchy" dollar 
that stands for rubber. In Mexico it is the oily, 
earthly dollar that symbolizes oil reserves and 
land grants. In Latin-America it is the watery 
yet stimulating dollar that spells naval bases, 
canals and coffee plantations. In the Orient 
it is the sweating dollar that typifies special 
privilege and preferential tariffs. 

At home it is the airy dollar that hides away 
in the Radio Corporation of America; the 
crumby dollar of the bread trust ; the gigantic 
dollar of the power monopoly, that dots prac- 
tically every state of the Union with its plants ! 

And on and on we go, listening to this call, 
rationalizing our conduct in terms of dollar 
diplomacy — as if it weren't enough to openly 
admit its lure, without, creating extenuating 
circumstances for it in the name of diplomacy ! 

AVhere is that voice of old, crying in the wil- 
derness? The world today needs more dis- 
senters — men and women who will stand 
against this flood-tide of dollars that is sweep- 
ing us off our feet and out of our heads — men 
and women who are not afraid to stand alone 
— in whose shadows, like that of a great rock- 
in a weary land, others may pause for strength 
and courage to keep on climbing upward. 



The raging "open shoppers" can find naught 
to say against the Union Label. It serves 
only to guide men to industrial justice and is 
available to any employer who wants union 
men and women for his friends. 



40 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL February, 1927 

REPORT LAW EVASIONS! PANAMA CANAL A MONEY MAKER 



According to reports, it is evident that in 
many instances United States local inspectors 
have certified vessels for less men than are 
needed to operate them. In a number of cases 
shipowners do not even attempt to operate 
with the ridiculously small crew called for by 
the inspection certificate, but always carry 
more men. The evident purpose of this under- 
certification is to permit the ship to go short- 
handed whenever it pleases the owner to do so. 
It is, however, an evasion of law. Secretary 
Olander, of the I. S. I*, of A., therefore re- 
quests all local Union officials to report to this 
office the names of American vessels arriving 
at their respective ports whose inspection cer- 
tificates provide for a smaller number of men 
than are actually employed in the deck and 
engine departments. In each case state the 
number of men required by the inspection cer- 
tificate in each of the two departments named 
and the number of men regularly employed 
therein. To obtain the desired results it will 
be necessary to keep up the search for the right 
sort of cases for some time to come. 



WINDJAMMER'S SPEEDY PASSAGE 



It is quite reminiscent of bygone days to be 
able to chronicle a good passage by a sailing 
ship. The five-masted bark Kobenhavn, be- 
longing to the East Asiatic Company of Copen- 
hagen, passed the Lizard on September 20, 
1926, en route for Australia. She arrived at 
Adelaide early on December 6, the voyage thus 
occupying sixty-six days only. She proceeded 
via South Africa, and. passing Cape of Good 
Hope on November 10. she actually attained 
an average speed of more than nine knots on 
the passage from South Africa to Australia, a 
result which compares very favorably with 
that of many a steamer. 

The Kobenhavn. which was built in 1921 by 
Messrs. Ramage and Ferguson of Leith, and is 
considered the largest sailing vessel afloat 
with a carrying capacity of 5175 tons. She has 
a Burmeister and Wain Diesel motor, capable 
of developing 650 i. h. p. in order to carry her 
through the calm zones. She carried a large 
complement of cadets undergoing training for 
the service of the East Asiatic Company. 



Transits of commercial vessels through tht 
Panama Canal in the year ending December 
31, 1926, totaled 5420. This establishes a new 
high record for number of commercial transits, 
as compared with the previous record of 5230 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1924. 

Tolls collected dining the year 1926 
amounted to $23,901,540.04. This is less than 
the $24,290.9<>3.54 collected in the fiscal \ ear 
ending June 30, 1924, and is the second Largest 
amount collected in a year. 

From the opening of the Panama Canal to 
traffic on August 15, 1914, to the close of busi- 
ness on December 31, 1926, a total of 37.599 
commercial vessels have transited the canal. 
paying $154,064,037.71 in tolls. 

The interesting fact in connection with these 
figures is that Uncle Sam is making money out 
of his publicly-owned and publicly-managed 
Panama Canal. Even when the cost of the 
canal is charged in, the Big Ditch under public 
control is paying a handsome return. 

Government reports place the total invest- 
ment in the canal at $387,000,000, of which 
$112,000,000 is chargeable to national defense 
and $275,000,000 to coirimercial use. Most of 
the canal bonds draw only 3 per cent interest. 
At that rate the interest charge on the total 
cost of the canal is something like $11,610,000 
per annum. The operating profit for the past 
year was more than $15,000 .000. That leaves 
the government a surplus of more than $3,000.- 
000 to apply on the principal. 

A fairer way to figure the problem would be 
to exclude the amount invested in the canal for 
military reasons, but the -bowing is so good 
there is no need to quibble. In forty year- or 
less, under the present system, Uncle Sam will 
have a canal all paid for without a dollar of 
capital charge standing against it, and can then 
reduce rates till they just cover operating 
charges and depreciation, or turn a handsome 
profit into the national treasury each year. 



If men would but live up to reason's rule.-. 
They would not bow and scrape to wealth) 
fools.— Lucretius, 95-52 B. C. 



Truth is as impossible to be -oiled by any 
outward touch as the sunbeam.— John Milton. 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



41 



LOYALTY OF MEMBERS 



Whatever gains organized labor makes in 
the industrial world it must make through 
the loyalty and activities of the members of 
trade-unions. Here and there it may be 
possible to find men who are willing to help 
in the struggle for better things, but if the 
workers themselves do not lead the way it 
is not at all likely that even those who sym- 
pathize with them will exert themselves to 
any great extent to get things for them. 
Unions are organized to give the workers a 
chance to help themselves through the instru- 
mentality of collective bargaining, and if they 
tail to take advantage of that opportunity 
to the fullest extent they have no right to 
complain of the conditions that surround 
them, because after all if a thing is worth 
having it is worth a long struggle to acquire 
and he who fails to put forth his best efforts 
to improve his conditions is not deserving of 
much sympathy at the hands of others. The 
way to get the best results out of the union 
is for each member to participate in its ac- 
tivities and guide its course in the right direc- 
tion. Things in the labor movement do not 
just happen. Every forward step is the re- 
sult of the thoughtfulness and exertion of 
some member, and every member ought to 
add something to the sum total of results 
achieved. 



A NOTABLE SWIMMING RECORD 



Canada is a great country. It is a land that 
produces real men, including George Young, 
the first human being to swim the Catalina 
channel, and a lad whose nerve, daring and 
dogged endurance make him a prize for any 
country to own. 

The Catalina channel is that body of water 
which separates Santa Catalina Island from the 
mainland of California. The shortest distance 
from the mainland to the island is approxi- 
mately twenty-three miles. 

George Young was amateur champion 
swimmer of Canada, and by contending for a 
money prize he would lose his amateur stand- 
ing, but his mother needed the money and 
George let the standing go. He did not have 
the price of a railroad ticket, so he made the 



trip from Canada to California on a wheezy 
motorcycle. That broke down en route and the 
lad was working to raise money for carfare 
when a honeymoon couple picked him up and 
carried him through. He doesn't know their 
name. 

He reached the scene of action, studied the 
tides, decided on his course, and held to it for 
15 hours and 45 minutes, till he won. He was 
the only one of 102 contestants to finish the 
swim across the channel. 

George Young is the stuff of which national 
greatness is made. There is a saying in the 
sporting world that youth will be served, but 
this time, tenacity and the spirit of high ad- 
venture were served as well as youth. The 
question now to be answered is: What will 
George do with that $25,000 prize he has won ? 
Many a young man can stand up under ad- 
versity, but very few can hold their own under 
sudden prosperity. 



BILL WILSON CONTESTS ELECTION 



The United States Senate has ordered an 
investigation of the election of William S. 
Vare as Senator from the state of Pennsyl- 
vania. This action followed a challenge to the 
legality of the election by William B. Wilson, 
which the former Secretary of Labor and old- 
time friend of the seamen, filed with the Senate. 

The Wilson statement charges that Vare 
was not legally elected in the November elec- 
tion, and the petitioner was chosen "by a 
majority of the votes legally cast." It is alleged 
that gross fraud and corruption are responsible 
for the majority accorded Vare, and that the 
latter's majority of 200,000 in Philadelphia 
made it possible to overcome Wilson's major- 
ity in the balance of the state. 

The petition includes this testimony before 
the Senate investigating committee : 

With respect to the general election itself, gross 
and widespread registration frauds were perpetrated 
in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and other cities of the 
commonwealth. In the Vare areas of influence it 
was a saturnalia of political corruption. The regis- 
tration lists were padded with the names of dead 
men and women; with those of voters sick and help- 
less in hospitals; with the names of minors; with the 
names of former residents in voting precincts, as 
well as with the names of mythical and non-existent 
persons. 

"The senatorial election." the petition states, "was, 
as regards the cities of Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, 
a grotesque and fantastic travesty on the orderly 
procedure of American political life. It was worse, 



42 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1''. 



in that it was a tragedy as respects American politi- 
cal ideals. 

"In one section of Philadelphia alone, out of 1,500 
districts for the whole city, 326 districts exhibited 
the remarkable phenomena that in 31 precincts a 
solid vote was recorded for Mr. Vare, with one vote 
in each allowed to the petitioner; and in 45 precincts 
two votes each out of an otherwise solid vote for Mr. 
Vare were allowed the petitioner; while in 220 dis- 
tricts but from three to ten votes were accorded the 
petitioner. 

"Bulwarking these methods of corrupt registration 
and illegal voting, there prevailed a systematized ter- 
rorism, none the less deadly because silent and adroit, 
for the intimidation of voters known to be opposed 
to the candidacy of Mr. Vare." 

Before he signed Mr. Vare's certificate of 
election, Governor Pinchot of Pennsylvania 

changed the words, •'duly chosen by the quali- 
fied voters" to read "appears to have been 
chosen by the qualified voters." 

Some interesting developments ought to be 
forthcoming when the Senate committee be- 
gins to look under the cover of Philadelphia's 
system of balloting. 



UNDECLARED WAR 



Under the Constitution of the United State- 
Congress has the sole power to declare war. 
The constitutional limits on the power of the 
President as Commander in Chief of the Army 
to send troops or marines into a foreign coun- 
try, or to assemble fighting units of the navy 
in water adjacent to any foreign country, 
whether for coercion or for the alleged pur- 
poses of protecting the lives and property of 
American citizens therein, is not equally clear. 
Presidents have waged war and weaker coun- 
tries have been coerced by such action. A 
President, by making war upon a foreign na- 
tion, may jockey Congress into a position 
where members feel they have to vote to de- 
clare war or be regarded as "disloyal." 

The constitution should be amended to give 
Congress more power over our foreign rela- 
tions, but in the meantime the Senate might 
appropriately express its sense that the Presi- 
dent should not use the armed forces in such a 
way as to make the declaration of war logical 
— when Congress is not in session. If he fore- 
sees any serious complication, he should sum- 
mon Congress back in special session. It can 
be done in a w r eek. A war can be started in a 
second; it can't be stopped in — well, there was 
once a "Thirty- Year" war. The "War to End 
War" lasted four years formally, but seventeen 
or more minor wars have been going on since. 



HELP YOURSELF 



WORKERS' FAVORITE STUDIES 

The Workers' Education Bureau, indorsed 
by the A. F. of L., reports that the follow- 
ing studies are favorites of organized workers : 

Trade Unionism— The aim and functions of 
workers' organization-. 

Economics — Problems which involve wages, 
prices, cost of living and profits. 

History — Facts which indicate how institu- 
tions, nations, customs, etc.. came into being. 

Psychology — Facts which reveal how and 
why people behave as they do. 

General Science — The basis of life ami the 
explanation of natural forces. 

Sociology — Political, legal and social move- 
ments ; group living. 

Art — Literature, drama and the creative 
works of man. 

The bureau urges workers to form study 
groups and select any of the above or other 
subjects. The bureau will gladly assist these 
groups on application to its offices, 47f> Wesl 
Twentv-fourth street. New York. 



Xothing in this life worth having was ever 
obtained without personal application and 
diligent, sustained action. Good wage> are 
worth obtaining and maintaining. They can- 
not be obtained unless we unite with our 
fellow-workers and through organization dili- 
gently work to that end. 

No employer no matter how just or fair- 
minded will increase wages or shorten the 
hours of labor of his own volition. Employers 
are governed by the desire to make money 
and more money. It is just as natural for the 
shipowner to want more as it is for th< 
man to want better wages. 

There is an old saying, "The Lord helps 
those who help themselves." We say, "The 
union helps those who help themselves by 
joining the union." .Alter all, there is no 
means whereby labor under existing condi- 
tions can obtain and maintain decent living 
wages and decent working condition- except 
through their unions. Help yourself by join- 
ing the union. 



( Organize, agitate and educate 



10 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



43 



KEEPING WATCHES AT SEA 



Federal Judge Awards Double Pay to Seamen 

When Master Fails to Divide Crew 

Into Watches 



In the District Court of the United States for the 

Southern District of Texas, at Galveston. 

Fred Hair et al. vs. American S. S. El Estero. — 
A. D. 1277. 

This is a suit for wages brought by two seamen 
to recover their wages and the statutory penalty for 
non-payment under Section 2, Seamen's Act 1915, 
Comp Stat: 8363b. 

Justifying, respondent replies that it offered the 
seamen half wages at the Port of Galveston, but that 
the seamen without right demanded full wages and 
upon its refusal, quit and are therefore not entitled 
to recover. 

The seamen invoke the W. O'Hara vs. Luckenbach 
S. S. Co., U. S. Supreme Court Adv. Opinions No. 7, 
page 160, construing the Act invoked by them. 

Respondent seeks to avoid the force of that decision 
by the claim that in accordance with the certificate 
of the local inspectors, the steamship El Estero was 
required to carry only six seamen; four able seamen 
and two seamen. That while in addition to the re- 
quired crew they did have other seamen, these addi- 
tional men were needed for and set to do the neces- 
sary work of keeping the ship in proper shape, paint- 
ing, cleaning, etc. That they were not needed for 
navigation; that they were not taken on as sailors 
and were never at any time employed about the ship 
for such purpose. 

That if these additional men had been divided into 
watches the ship would have been deprived of their 
services in the work of keeping the deck of the ship 
in condition, etc. In other words, the captain says 
he would have lost their labor, and if he could not 
have worked them in the daytime for the purpose for 
which he employed them, he would not have employed 
them at all, for the full services of the additional men 
were required in keeping the ship up. 

In short, the respondent's position is, if the ship 
can satisfy the local inspectors as to her navigation 
requirements, she may employ as many additional 
seamen as she wants, without any of them having the 
protection of that part of the Act providing for their 
division into watches. 

I think this position unsound both as contrary to 
the letter and the spirit of the Act. The only distinc- 
tion between this case and O'Hara's, where the seven 
sailors kept at day work only, were held to be entitled 
to their discharge because not divided into watches, 
is the matter of this certificate. 

It will certainly not do to say that by a device as 
transparent as this, the provision for watches may be 
nullified, unless in the law which provides for a cer- 
tificate of inspection there is expressed or implied a 
limitation of the operation of the Act under consider- 
ation. This I cannot find. 

Respondent also asserts that at least the libelant 
should not recover double wages, because, as is shown 
by the only testimony in the case, that of the master, 
the libelants did not assign as their reason for leaving 
the ship the violation of the law, but assigned a differ- 
ent reason, their desire to ship to England. 

I do not think this position sound; for if it be 
taken for true that the seamen when they quit did 
not state as a ground for quitting the violation of the 
law, that would not avail him, for it is the violation 
of the law and not the claim of its violation that gives 
the sailors a right to their discharge and their wages. 

Besides, it is plain here that the master not only 



failed to comply with the section, but that he deliber- 
ately undertook to defeat it.' Having done so, even 
though under a mistake of law, he must abide the con- 
sequences of his mistake. 

I therefore conclude that a decree should go for 
libelants for their month's wages, and for double wages 
as penalty, to the date of this trial. 

(Signed) J. C. HUTCHESON, Jr., 

Judge. 

W. E. Price of Galveston, Attorney for Libelants. 

Armstrong and Cranford of Galveston, Attorneys 
for Respondents. 



DATA ON IMMIGRATION 



A total of 496,106 aliens were admitted in 
to the United States and 227,755 departed in 
the last fiscal year, ended June 30, 1926, ac- 
cording to the annual report of Secretary of 
Labor Davis. Two-thirds of the exodus was 
of temporary visitors. 

While the Old World sent more to this 
country, more of those coming from the 
New World remained. The result is of the 
net increase in popuulation the Old World 
contributed 94,588 while the New World, 
principally the non-quota countries of Canada 
and Mexico, sent 132,908, mainly workers who 
came to stay. The number of Mexicans ad- 
mitted was 60,620. The non-quota countries 
are becoming the major factors in the alien 
influx since there is no restriction under the 
present immigration laws, Secretary Davis 
points out. 

The number of Chinese admitted during 
the fiscal year was 8,622, a decrease over the 
previous year. 

Of the 496,106 aliens admitted, 157,432 
came in as immigrants charged to the quota 
and 150,299 as natives of non-quota coun- 
tries, principally Canada and Mexico, and 
83,754 were home-coming residents of Amer- 
ica. 

Deportation of undesirable and "bootleg- 
ged" immigrants is becoming an increasing 
function of the Immigation Service. A total 
of 10,904 were arrested. Sixty large depor- 
tation parties were moved last year at heavy 
expense to the government, for transporta- 
tion and upkeep. This is the greatest num- 
ber sent out of the country in history. De- 
portees were sent to every part of the world, 
Europe, with 5,088, receiving the largest num- 
ber; 2,588 went to Mexico, 2,102 to Canada 
and Newfoundland, 430 to Central and South 
America and the West Indies, and 589 to 
Asia. 



11 



44 



THE SEAMEN 



WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING 



A decline in the world's production of mer- 
chant vessels last year of over half a million 
gross tons, as compared with 1925, is shown 
in the return just issued by Lloyd's Register 
of Shipping, covering ships of 100 gross tons 
and upwards in all countries. While launch- 
ings for 1926 (1,674,000 gross tons) were only 
about half the total for the last pre-war year, 
1913 — they were less than a quarter of the 
figure for the post-war peak year, 1919 — and, 
with the exception of 1923, the 1926 total is 
less than that for any year since the war. The 
United States was one of the few countries 
to show a gain last year, in comparison with 
1925. Great Britain and Ireland showed a pro- 
nounced loss, and a decline was also registered 
by other countries. The figures follow, in 
gross tons : 

1926 1925 

United States 150,613 128,776 

Great Britain and Ireland 639,568 1,084,633 

Other countries 884,796 979,995 

World total 1.674,977 2,193,404 

Shipbuilding variations, in recent years, as 

compared with the pre-war position, is shown 

in the following table: 

G. Tons Yearly Difference 

1913 3,332,000 

1919 7,144,000 +3,812,000 . 

1920 5,861,000 —1,283,000 

1921 4,341,000 —1.520,000 

1922 2,467,000 _i,874,000 

1923 1,643,000 —824,000 

1924 2,247,000 +604,000 

1925 2,193,000 —54,000 

1926 1,674,000 —519,000 

Tonnage launched in the world during 1926 
under the supervision of Lloyd's Register, and 
intended to be classed with that society, to- 
taled 1,077,883 gross tons, or nearly two-thirds 
of all the shipping launched in all countries. 
In Great Britain and Ireland alone, Lloyd's 
supervision represented approximately 80 per 
cent of the total 639,000 gross tons. In other 
maritime countries, 560,114 tons, or about 55 
per cent of the total launched, was to Lloyd's 
class. The total tonnage constructed to 
Lloyd's class in the latter case was slightly 
greater than in 1925, despite the decrease in 
production. Of the shipping launched in Great 
Britain and Ireland during 1926, 89,908 gross 
tons were intended for other countries. 

Tanker construction last year showed a de- 
crease of about 15 per cent, though there was 



' S JOURNAL February, 1927 

a gain in American shipyards. Figures for the 

past two years follow in gross tons: 

1926 1925 

United States 10,166 1,217 

Great Britain and Ireland... 100,020 134,766 

Other countries 136,311 150,886 

Weld total 246,497 286,869 

The decrease in the construction of sailing 
ships and barges was continued last year, only 
44,843 gross tons being launched, against 
51,079 tons in 1925. The launchings of motor- 
ships was about 140,000 gross tons. 



LABELING THE ALIEN 



The idea that the alien in America ought 
to be penalized seems to have prompted a 
series of bills that have been introduced at 
each session of Congress since 1922. 

Beginning at that time, the Secretary of 
Labor has steadily maintained that in order 
to keep a watch on the foreigner so that we 
may know he is surely a desirable citizen, 
and in order to prevent crime, it is absolu- 
tely necessary to inaugurate a system of 
registration of all aliens. This proposition 
has been outlined in various bills, most of 
which have been so obnoxious that they have 
roused wide opposition and therefore been 
dropped or modified. But Secretary Davis 
seems determined that registration of aliens 
and — according to the terms of certain pro- 
posed measures of naturalized foreign-born 
citizens, shall be put into effect even in 
spite of the protests from all over the country. 

Last spring, Representative Aswell from 
Louisiana, introduced a bill requiring that 
all aliens must be finger-printed arid photo- 
graphed, must register every year — paying 
$10 the first time and $5 each succeeding 
year; must report to the officials any change 
in his personal appearance ( such as the rais- 
ing of a beard, or shaving it off) ; must report 
any charge of residence, or any intention to 
travel ; must be ready at any time to show 
his identification card upon the demand of 
a federal, state, city or county officer; and at 
any time he must respond immediately to 
the order of the President that he report 
wherever he is required, or else he will be 
deported. 

At the same time that Mr. Aswell intro- 
duced this bill, two other Representatives 



12 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



45 



brought in bills proposing to deport any one 
who did not become a citizen within a speci- 
fied time. There was no consideration of 
whether an alien had good reasons for not 
wishing to become a citizen. He must do so, 
or get out. These bills are still in committee 
waiting to be brought up at this session of 
Congress. 

Back of all these proposed bills seems to be 
the idea that any alien who comes to America 
is a suspicious character. 

While it is quite true that in some coun- 
tries of Europe natives as well as foreigners 
are required to be supplied with identification 
cards, such a system savors too much of Rus- 
sia or Turkey to appeal to Americans. Con- 
sidering that by far the vast majority of 
aliens residing here consists of working peo- 
ple, with but little education, it is probable 
that a system of registration would result 
only in imposing hardships upon otherwise 
honest folk too ignorant to protect themselves 
against imposition. 

Moreover, to introduce any such espionage 
system as the proposed registration measures, 
would be to make the aliens a segregated, 
despised class from the moment they reached 
our shores. To assume that the foreign-born 
make up the bulk of our criminals is both 
untrue and unfair, and any legislation based 
on such an assumption is absolutely unsound. 
The alien who is lawfully admitted to Amer- 
ica should be made to feel that he is a part 
of our country, and should be helped on to 
citizenship if he wishes, instead of having ob- 
stacles constantly put in his way. 



WHEN ARE STRIKES LEGAL? 



AXTELL STOOD PAT 



Attorney Silas B. Axtell was fined $250 for 
contempt of court December 19 by Federal 
Judge Inch in Brooklyn. Axtell objected to 
Judge Inch's ruling in a case involving a claim 
against the Shipping Board and W. A. Blake 
& Co., by Joseph Howarth, who lost a finger 
while at work on a vessel owned by the board 
and operated by the company. Judge Inch in- 
dicated that he would dismiss the action and 
Axtell called the ruling "an outrageous per- 
formance." Axtell refused to apologize ! More 
power to him ! 



The United States Supreme Court has re- 
fused to review its decision in the Dorchy- 
Kansas case, wherein it was held that a strike 
to enforce a wage claim is not a permissible 
purpose, and that the most orderly suspension 
of work by wage earners may be illegal. 

The court said that "neither the common 
law nor the Fourteenth Amendment confers 
the absolute right to strike," and that the 
wage dispute should be determined by a court. 

"The right to carry on business — be it called liberty 
or property — has value. To interfere with this right 
without just cause is unlawful. The fact that the 
injury was inflicted by a strike is sometimes a justifi- 
cation. But a strike may be illegal because of its 
purpose, however orderly the manner in which it is 
conducted." 

Thus the Supreme Court declares it is 
within its power to decide when employes may 
suspend work. It is reasonable to assume that 
if the court is permitted to say that workers 
must sue in a civil court to collect a wage 
claim, rather than suspend work as a last re- 
sort, the court can extend this principle until 
workers must secure the court's approval be- 
fore they can strike for any reason. 

If the court can say one strike is not for a 
"permissible purpose," the same power can be 
applied in all strikes. 

In upholding the Adamson railroad eight- 
hour law in March, 1917, the Supreme Court 
said Congress has the right to pass a compul- 
sory arbitration act for these employes. 

This was one of the court's famous obiter 
dictums — a side remark that only has an in- 
direct bearing on the case in question. 

The first of these obiter dictums was 125 
years ago when Chief Justice Marshall held, 
in the insignificant Marbury case, that the 
Supreme Court has the right to pass on the 
constitutionality of acts of Congress. 

In after years, when the obiter dictum has 
passed out of the popular mind, it is resur- 
rected by the court and applied. 

The John Marshal obiter dictum remained 
unused for more than half a century. Now it 
is considered part of our Federal Constitution. 

The latest obiter dictum — that courts have 
the right to pass on the legality of a work 
suspension by wage earners — will not be for- 
gotten by the Supreme Court. 



Always insist upon the union label! 



Your union is your protection 



13 



46 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February. V)27 



THE SEAMEN'S CONVENTION 

(Continued from page 36) 



conditions in the International Union over a long 
period of years, will recall that whenever the treas- 
uries of the district unions reached a low ebb, sug- 
gestions would be made for some sort of "amalga- 
mation" as a means of reducing expenses and thus 
conserving funds. History is repeating itself in this 
respect at present, although there is no very active 
agitation on the subject. Under the circumstances, 
I believe it wise to remind the officers and members 
generally that our present form of organization pro- 
vides all possible means for joint action between its 
various divisions without the restrictions which would 
certainly result if the so-called "amalgamation" theory 
is carried to the Extent of putting all members in a 
single gigantic local union in each one of the three 
districts. The result would be an organization so 
cumbersome and unwieldy that action of any kind 
would be extremely difficult. It should be remem- 
bered that the district and local unions and branches 
are not separated from each other, but that they 
are parts of one general organization, the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America. 

National Seamen's Union of Great Britain 

The friendly relations between the International 
Seamen's Union of America and the National Sea- 
men's Union, formerly the National Sailors and Fire- 
men's Union of Great Britain and Ireland, remain as 
firm as ever. The efforts of the destructionists to 
injure the National Seamen's Union in Great Britain 
have failed utterly. That Union and its great leader. 
President Joseph Havelock Wilson, are to be con- 
gratulated upon successfully weathering one of the 
stormiest periods in the history of the organization 
during the past year, resulting from the British gen- 
eral strike, which the Union declined to join. 

International Seafarers' Federation 

The International Seafarers' Federation is the one 
effective medium through which the various national 
and international organizations of seamen throughout 
the world can maintain direct affiliation with each 
other. In accord with the instructions of the Balti- 
more convention, our per capita tax arrearage to the 
Federation was paid up. The last report received 
from the Federation headquarters contains the follow- 
ing information: 

In England a large number oi stamen were thrown 
out of work as a result of the general strike on shore. 
The seamen of Finland and Denmark have joined a 
Scandinavian transport workers' federation. In Nor- 
way and Sweden a large number of seamen are un- 
employed. The seamen's organizations in Germany 
are not making much progress and that is also true of 
Holland. The Belgium seamen recently received an 
increase in wages. Comparatively little information 
is received regarding the French seamen and this is 
also true of the Italian seamen. 

The report also ventures the opinion that a demand 
will shortly be made to dissolve the Joint Maritime 
Commission elected last June at Geneva because tin- 
representatives of the workers on that commission 
are mostly all shore workers. 

International Transportworkers' Federation 

The Paris Congress of the International Transport- 
workers' Federation, in 1926, furnished ample proof 
that the rights and interests of seamen are seriously 
jeopardized by affiliation with that federation. I 
quote the following interesting paragraph from a re- 
cent issue of the News Letter of the Transportwork- 
ers' Federation: 

"The Congress instructs the Secretariat, acting 

in conjunction with the Advisory Committee for 

the Dockers' Section of the I. T. F., to take such 



measures as many be necessary to secure the 
abolition of the practice, in operation in certain 
countries, of crews performing work connected 
with the handling of cargoes on ships in ports." 
Not only has the federation congress declared 
against the handling of cargoes by the crews, but also 
against the performance of any duties connected there- 
with. That is merely a way of insisting that the em- 
ployment of seamen on board ship shall cease immedi- 
ately upon arrival in port. It is this peculiar policy, 
which is almost certain to wreck the merchant marine 
of any country that accepts it, that is being injected 
by the International Labor Office into the Joint Mari- 
time Commission by the appointment on that commis- 
sion of federation supporters and longshore represen- 
tatives in place of seamen's representatives. The sub- 
ject of freedom — the greatest need of seamen — was 
apparently ignored at the federation congress. 

Under the present circumstances it would be de- 
cidedly unwise for the International Seamen's Union 
of America to resume its lormer affiliation with the 
International Transportworkers' Federation. 

The greater part of Secretary Olander's report was 
taken up with a most interesting and illuminating ac- 
count of the general conditions now prevailing in the 
various district unions and branches. 

In closing his report Secretary Olander said: 
Again, as on past occasions, let me remind you 
that the true source of real strength is to he found 
in the faith and confidence in each other which we 
develop within ourselves and not in any cowardly 
dread of those whom we conceive to he our enemies. 
It is necessary, of course, that we warn against the 
sins of others, but in doing so we must not overlook 
nor cease to develop virtue within and among our- 
selves. Through our great Union we can and will 
shape our own destiny. 

"One ship drives east, and one drives wist, 
By the selfsame wind that blows; 
It's the set of the sails, and not the gales 
Which determines the way it goes." 
In conclusion, permit me to express my earnest ap- 
preciation of the willing co-operation which I have 
received from the International president, the vice- 
presidents and from practically all officers of the dis- 
trict and local unions and branches. 
Fraternallv submitted, 

V. A. OLANDER, 

Secretary -Treasurer. 

Synopsis of Convention's Work 



Attitude Toward Seamen's Compensation Bills 
The convention agreed that proposed legislation to 
substitute "workmen's compensation" in place of 
shipowners' liability in cases of injury or death must 
be watched with great care. 

While the convention was in session information 
was received that the House Committee on Judiciary 
bad \oted to report out the Longshoremen's Compen- 
sation Bill with an amendment proposing to include 
the seamen in that bill. It was agreed that every 
effort should be made to prevent the passage of the 
amendment referred to. 

The convention urged that a careful study of S. 
4370, proposing a Federal Seamen's Compensation 
Law, be made by President Furuseth and the legis- 
lative committee with a view of reporting thereon to 
the next convention concerning the character and 
scope of said bill. The committee further reaffirmed 
the declarations of the Baltimore convention on the 
subject of so-called "Workmen's Compensation" as 
affecting seamen — namely, "that the Legislative Com- 
mittee is hereby directed to work for the enactment 
of a Federal Seamen's Compensation Law, provided 
that such a law shall not modify any existing remedy, 
including the choice between compensation and the 



14 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



\7 



right to sue for damages after the injury has taken 
place." The report of the committee was adopted. 

The Lure of Amalgamation 

After considering that part of the report of the 
secretary-treasurer under the caption, "Amalgama- 
tion," the convention declared: "Any discerning stu- 
dent of labor unionism will readily observe, however, 
that the International Seamen's Union of America, 
together with its district affiliated organizations, is as 
closely a woven unit as any so-called 'amalgamation' 
theory would reasonably bring it." 

"The word 'amalgamation,' if men are to accept its 
generally assumed definition, has come to mean, in 
this instance, the merging of the various district 
unions, in one locality, into a single district unit. 
Consequently, it would mean, in this case, the merging 
of Sailors, Firemen and Cooks and Stewards' unions 
in one district into one single unit, where they would 
be swallowed up and completely lose their depart- 
mental autonomy. Indeed, while such fusion sounds 
highly romantic and somewhat reasonable in theory, 
nevertheless, in relation to seamen, it has never yet 
been a success unless complete authority rests upon 
an executive board. It is an easy task to imagine 
those three or more departments all assembled in one 
meeting discussing controversial points of view. 'The 
result would be,' as our secretary-treasurer so ably 
describes, 'an organization so cumbersome and un- 
wieldly that action of any kind would be extremely 
difficult.' " 

The committee recommended approval of the senti- 
ments as expressed by the secretary under the cap- 
tion "Amalgamation," and suggested that the presi- 
dent, secretary-treasurer, the vice-presidents and the 
editor of the Seamen's Journal should visit the dis- 
trict unions on the Atlantic, Great Lakes and Pacific 
and present oral and written arguments relative to the 
"amalgamation" theory in accord with the viewpoint 
and fundamental policy as laid down by the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 

Proposed Load-Line Legislation 
The delegates attended a hearing in the National 
Capitol building on the so-called "Load-Line Bill." 
The bill pending does not present any effective load- 
line provisions. Arguments were made against the 
provisions of the bill by President Furuseth and Sec- 
retary Olander, assisted by Delegate Flynn. The 
shipowners' side in favor of the bill, and against any 
real load-line provisions, was presented by Walter J. 
Peterson, San Francisco, Calif., employment agent 
representing the Pacific coast shipowners and also 
claiming to express the view of the Lake Carriers' 
Association and other shipowners; by Charles A. Mc- 
Allister, president of the American Bureau of Ship- 
ping, New York City, and also by the Assistant 
Secretary of Commerce. 

Government Ownership Opposed 

The convention unanimously approved the reply of 
President Furuseth to the questionnaire recently 
issued by the Shipping Board. The convention also 
agreed, emphatically, that President Furuseth accu- 
rately stated the position of the International Union 
when he declared against government ownership of 
the merchant marine and favors the development of 
the merchant marine under private ownership, con- 
struction and operation, properly regulated by law. 

The committee commended the statement of Presi- 
dent Furuseth, as submitted by him to the Shipping 
Board, to the attention of all who are interested in 
the American Merchant Marine. 

The committee recommended that the statement of 
President Furuseth suggesting that the government 
should be prepared to protect American ships against 
conspiracies — or so-called conferences — through which 
foreign shipping interests may try to drive American 
vessels out of certain trades, which he had presented 



to the Shipping Board, be endorsed and approved and 
made a part of the printed records, and also that it 
be printed in pamphlet form for distribution. 

Developing the Merchant Marine 

The convention adopted the summary of the meas- 
ures compiled by Secretary Olander under the cap- 
tion: "For the Development and Support of the 
American Merchant Marine." (This summary was 
printed in the November, 1926, issue of the 
Journal.) The convention also decided that an addi- 
tional paragraph be added for the purpose of urging 
the government to be prepared to protect and assist 
such American ships as are made the subject of as- 
saults upon their legitimate business by foreign ship- 
ping interests acting through so-called conferences or 
other forms of conspiracy." 

The Right of Association 

As regards that part of the secretary-treasurer's 
report under the caption, "The Right of Association," 
relating to combinations or so-called "conferences" of 
steamship lines, including foreign steamship com- 
panies, the convention made the following declaration: 
"It is apparent that under Section 15 of the Shipping 
Act of 1916, all agreements reached in such "confer- 
ences," when approved by the Shipping Board, are 
exempted from the anti-trust laws. These rights of 
association, granted by the government to the ship- 
owners, are used, in part, to deny the rights of asso- 
ciation among seamen. It is, therefore, advisable and 
necessary that the greatest amount of publicity within 
our power be given to such un-American principles 
which discriminate by law against one class, the 
seamen, in favor of another class, the shipowners." 

In this connection Secretary Olander submitted a 
compilation showing the names of the various steam- 
ship lines comprising the membership of nine so- 
called "conferences" or combinations whose agree- 
ments have been exempted from the anti-trust laws by 
the United States Shipping Board, acting under 
authority of Section 15 of the Shipping Act of 1916, 
which authorized the board to take such action. 

Eight of the so-called "conferences" regulate mat- 
ters in connection with the foreign trade. These eight 
"conferences" consist of 114 lines or steamship com- 
panies of which a very substantial majority are for- 
eign. The relative figures are: 73 foreign concerns. 
2 mixed and having ships under both American and 
foreign flags, and 39 American lines. The Intercoastal 
Conference consists of seven American lines, foreign 
ships not being permitted in the coastwise trade. 
Greetings from British Seamen's Union 

The following cablegram was read and ordered 
made part of the record: 

Sunderland, January 12, 1927. 

Olander, 

Washington. 

Industrial peace winning all along the line. 

War on the Reds declared by all good Union men. 

Addressing a meeting of five thousand workers 

tomorrow night in my native town, Sunderland. 

Success to your convention. Keep the constitu- 
tional flag flying at the masthead. 

HAVELOCK WILSON. 

Compensation for Disability or Death 

The following resolution w,as adopted: 

Whereas, S. 3170, "An act to provide compensation 
for disability or death resulting from injury to em- 
ployees in certain maritime employments, and for 
other purposes," as amended by the Judiciary Com- 
mittee of the House of Representatives, is made ap- 
plicable to seamen; and 

Whereas, The bill as it passed the Senate specific- 
ally exempted masters and seamen as defined in Sec- 
tion 4612 of the Revised Statutes; be it 

Resolved, That the Convention of the International 



15 



48 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, V>27 



Seamen's Union of America most respectfully but 
firmly protest against the seamen being included in 
any form in this compensation bill; be it further 

Resolved, That the chairman of the Legislative 
Committee be and is hereby instructed to bring this 
action to the attention of the Committee on Rules, 
insofar as that be possible, to the House if needed, 
and to the Committee of Conference of two 
houses if the bill should pass the House, together with 
such quotations or the bill itself and such reasons 
for our actions as may be pertinent to accomplish our 
purposes, which is to be entirely exempted from this 
bill. 

Ship Subsidy Propaganda 

The attention of the convention was directed to a 
brief entitled "The Future of the American Merchant 
Marine," submitted by a committee of the "League for 
Industrial Democracy" at a hearing of the United 
States Shipping Board held in New York City No- 
vember 18, 1926. The "League" referred to is de- 
scribed by the authors of the brief as "an organiza- 
tion composed of professional men and women, mem- 
bers of organized labor and business men." The con- 
vention analyzed the brief and adopted the following 
statement with reference thereto: 

The brief consists mainly of propaganda borrowed 
from statements of subsidy advocates and intended 
to prove that American vessels cannot be successfully 
operated under private ownership without heavy 
financial subsidies from the government and that the 
only alternative is government ownership. 

While purporting to consist of a membership which 
includes members of organized labor, the league has 
apparently not troubled itself to seek information from 
any of the organizations of workers in the maritime 
industry. 

The fact that the committee of this "League for 
Industrial Democracy" quotes approvingly from the 
majority report of the Merchant Marine Conference 
and ignores the minority report presented at that 
conference is significant. The report quoted by the 
league represents the viewpoint of the United States 
Chamber of Commerce and the associations of em- 
ployers. The minority report, which the league ig- 
nores, represents the viewpoint of the American 
Federation of Labor and the organized workers. The 
fact that the minority report of labor is published in 
the same document which contains the majority report 
of the employers warrants the suspicion that the fail- 
ure of the league to take into consideration any in- 
formation available from trade union sources is not 
to be attributed to mere ignorance of the situation. 

The brief in question is a sort of crazy quilt ar- 
rangement, a patchwork of irresponsible and unsup- 
ported statements, varied as the colors of the rainbow, 
and apparently culled from any publication (except 
labor publication) that came within the reach of the 
scissors used by the authors. 

The fact that great issues of human freedom are in- 
terwoven in the merchant marine problem of the 
world has been overlooked by this "democracy" 
league. 

The league aspires to a reputation for so-called 
"radicalism" and includes among its officers a few 
well-known trade union officials. Unless advised to 
the contrary, some labor papers to which the news 
releases from the league headquarters are sent may 
be led to believe thai the brief in question can be 
safely accepted as a basis for editorials and news 
articles. It is, therefore, necessary that the labor 
papers of the United States be warned against the 
sort of propaganda contained in the league brief con- 
cerning the American Merchant Marine. It should 
be made clear to the labor papers of the country and 
to all others interested that the so-ealled "League for 
Industrial Democracy" does not in any degree repre- 
sent the attitude of the American trade union move- 



ment on the subject dealt with in the brief submitted 
by a committee of that league to the Shipping Board. 
We recommend that the secretary-treasurer be in- 
structed to send a copy of this statement to the Inter- 
national Labor News Service, to the American Federa- 
tion of Labor and to all labor papers in the United 
States and to the "League for Industrial Democracy." 

Seamen and the Immigration Acts 

The following self-explanatory resolution was 
unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, Foreign shipowners are using the sea- 
men's freedom, as given to bona fide seamen by the 
United States, for the purpose of earning income by 
violating our immigration laws; and 

Whereas, Those shipowners are increasing the num- 
ber of men that they would otherwise carry for the 
purpose of landing immigrants as seamen; and 

Whereas, The price paid by such immigrants is in 
proportion to their difficulty in coming within the 
quota, and thus obtaining a passport to the United 
States; and 

Whereas, Some of those could not enter at all be- 
cause they are excluded from United States for the 
reason that they cannot read or write, or because of 
their physical or mental condition, or because they 
are believers in polygamy or anarchy, or because of 
their occupation as procurers and violators of the 
Mann act; and 

Whereas, The Department of Labor, when such 
men are arrested and sentenced to be deported, per- 
form such duty by 

(a) conveying those men into seaports, usually to 
port of New York or Galveston, Texas, and 

(b) by condoning their offense and shipping them 
as seamen on vessels bound for foreign ports; 
and 
Whereas. Such action, while it saves money for the 

United States Government, gives aid and assistance 
to the foreign shipowner by furnishing him with cheap 
men, whom are in fact working in involuntary servi- 
ture imposed upon them by the Department of Labor; 
and 

Whereas, This system creates an endless supply of 
men, in violation of law, to the advantage of the for- 
eign shipowner and to the disadvantage of the Ameri- 
can shipowner; and 

Whereas, By this system the bona fide seaman is 
deprived of his opportunity for honest employment 
and is, therefore, often compelled to violate our laws 
and regulations so as to become subject to deporta- 
tion; to be, in fact, sent aboard of a vessel and there 
to work together with men who have neither experi- 
ence now aptitude for seamen's work; and 

Whereas, This system of so-called deportation has 
no basis in any law now on our statute books, and has 
no other excuse except that it saves money for the 
United States Government regardless of the evils that 
follow therefrom; therefore be it 

Resolved. By the Thirtieth Annual Convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America that this 
system is absolutely indefensible. And it ought to be 
stopped at once in the interest of decency and respect 
of human freedom and for the good of the United 
States. And, in lieu thereof, be it further 

Resolved, That vessels arriving in United States 
from any foreign port be carefully examined so as to 
segregate bona fide from mala fide seamen; with the 
purpose of compelling such vessels to pay expenses 
of mala fide seamen while detained here in the United 
States and to pay their passage as passengers aboard 
some other vessel to be sent back whence they came; 
and be it further 

Resolved, That the arresting and safekeeping of 
either real or so-called mala fide seamen in the immi- 
gration detention stations, for the purpose oi surren- 
dering them back to the vessel from which they 



16 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



49 



were removed (as in the case of the S. S. "Braziiien," 
in Portland, Oregon, and in various other vessels in 
the Atlantic seaports) is nothing but an aid to such 
foreign vessels in violating our laws, which aid cannot 
be defended under any law enacted by the United 
States. 

Other Convention Decisions Summarized 

Limitation of space forbids an extended review of 
the convention's work in this issue. Herewith is a 
summary of decisions arrived at and not heretofore 
dealt with: 

Secretary Olander and the executive board were 
instructed to gather such information as is obtainable 
pertaining to injuries to seamen and the rights and 
methods of collection of damages, under the Employ- 
ers' Liability Law, and to distribute such information 
to all district unions and local branches. 

Attention was repeatedly directed to the dangerous 
complications which may result from the codification 
of the navigation laws and suitable amendments were 
agreed to so as to safeguard the established legal 
rights of seamen. 

Convention directed President Furuseth to keep a 
careful watch to prevent the passage of such pro- 
posals as FT. R. 9399 and H. R. 10009, introduced by 
Representative Free of California and aiming to de- 
stroy certain important sections of the La Follette 
Seamen's Act. 

It was decided to purchase a share of the stock of 
the Union Labor Life Insurance Company and call 
the attention of the district unions to the subject. 

Secretary Olander was directed to call the atten- 
tion of affiliated unions to the fact that per capita 
tax payments should be made monthly, as expressly 
specified in the constitution. 

With respect to "monthly dues" the position taken 
by the Baltimore convention relating to increase of 
membership dues in the district unions to $1.50 was 
reaffirmed. 

It was concluded that the matter of adjusting the 
relations between the various fishermen's unions in the 
states of Washington and Oregon, the necessity for 
which has been expressed by the Pacific District 
Committee, be left to the discretion of the secretary- 
treasurer. 

It was decided to affiliate with the Marine Section 
of the National Safety Council. 

District secretaries and the branch agents were 
requested to submit reports to Secretary Olander 
relative to violations of the law regarding inspection 
certificates. 

The convention unanimously agreed that in relation 
to the work performed by the international president 
at the ninth session of the International Labor Con- 
ference that the expenditures of funds connected 
therewith was fully justified. 

By unanimous vote the delegates extended sincere 
appreciation to Secretary-Treasurer Olander for the 
painstaking efforts made by him to keep the various 
district and local unions and branches thoroughly 
informed concerning all activities of the international 
office. 

On Monday, January 17, the entire delegation called 
on Senator Shipstead of Minnesota and Senator La 
Follette of Wisconsin, after which the delegates di- 
vided into groups and visited other senators and 
congressmen. 

It was agreed that the subject matter contained in 
the secretary-treasurer's report relative to the "Rail- 
way Labor Act" be approved and the recommenda- 
tions contained therein relative to form of procedure 
to be taken by district unions be adopted. The dis- 
trict unions are instructed, however, to consult with 
the secretary-treasurer before proceeding in this 
matter. 

It was reported that the jurisdictional dispute which 
existed between the International Union of Steam and 



Operating Engineers and the International Seamen's 
Union of America had clarified. 

William Yates, national president of the Marine 
Engineers' Benevolent Association, addressed the con- 
vention briefly, presenting fraternal greetings of the 
M. E. B. A. 

The officers of all districts* and branches were again 
instructed to keep the editor of the official publica- 
tion, the Seamen's Journal, informed regarding acci- 
dents, shipwrecks and other matters of interest. 

Election of Officers 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing 
year: 
President — Andrew Furuseth, Sailors' Union of the 

Pacific. 
First Vice-President — Patrick Flynn, Marine Firemen, 

Oilers and Watertenders of the Pacific. 
Second Vice-President — Thomas Conway, Marine 

Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders of the Great 

Third Vice-President— P. B. Gill, Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific. 

Fourth Vice-President — Percy J. Pryor, Eastern and 
Gulf Sailors' Association. 

Fifth Vice-President — Oscar Carlson, Marine Fire- 
men, Oilers and Watertenders of the Atlantic and 
Gulf. 

Sixth Vice-President — Patrick O'Brien, Sailors' Union 
of the Great Lakes. 

Seventh Vice-President — Peter E. Olsen, Alaska Fish- 
ermen's Union. 

Secretary-Treasurer — Victor A. Olander, Sailors' 
Union of the Great Lakes. 

Editor — Paul Scharrenberg, Sailors' Union of the Pa- 
cific. 

Legislative Committee — Andrew Furuseth, Victor A. 
Olander, Patrick Flynn, Thomas Conway and Percy 
J. Pryor. 

Delegates to American Federation of Labor — Andrew 
Furuseth, Victor A. Olander and Paul Scharrenberg. 

Committee on Education — Paul Scharrenberg, Victor 
A. Olander and Percy J. Pryor. 
Next convention — Second Monday in January, 1928. 

The selection of the convention city was left in the 

hands of the executive board. 



FASCIST REGIME CONDEMNED 

A resolution characterizing the Fascist 
regime in Italy as a tyrannical dictatorship 
and affirming "the hearty support of the 
American labor movement of all institutions 
of representative government." was unani- 
mously approved by the American Federa- 
tion of Labor in its convention. 

"In Fascism we find merely another form 
of dictatorship and autocracy, a principle of 
government which can never find anything 
but opposition in the minds of free people," 
said the committee's report on the resolution, 
which also was unanimously approved. 



As labor is the common burden of our 
race, so the effort of some to shift their share 
of the burden on to shoulders of others is the 
great durable curse of the race. — Lincoln. 



17 



50 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL February, 1927 

ANOTHER "IDEAL" UNION CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



General Motors at Flint, Mich., has a com- 
pany union. John P. Frey of the Molders 

Union, who writes as well as he thinks, and 
who thinks as well as he writes, told the re- 
cent A. F. of L. convention about it. 

Employes pay 45 cents a week dues. The 
company doesn't take any chances about get- 
ting the money. It sees the pay envelope 
first and takes it at the source. 

In this way it gets $1,755,000 per year from 
75,000 employes. 

The employers, in turn, get $1,000 in insur- 
ance, when they die. and a club house. If 
they don't shut up and behave they get a 
dirty look and maybe lose their jobs, insur- 
ance, club house and all. as Mother Goose 
would say. 

If they strike for more pay — but this is no 
fairy story. 

Members of company unions are never per- 
mitted to talk about higher wages or shorter 
hours. That is distinctly understood by all. 
Company unions are formed for the sole pur- 
pose of deceiving the workers. Company un- 
ions are merely substitutes for the real thing. 
As a substitute they are about as satisfying 
as is warm soda water to the man who wants 
a real cool glass of beer. 



President Grace of the Bethlehem Ship- 
building Corporation has recently declared 
that the volume of wages governs the volume 
of consumption of manufactured products. 
Xot long ago the steel monguls said that 
seven 12-hour clays for a week was essential 
to the existence of the steel industry. Now 
steel workers work in three shifts of eight 
hours each and the industry is more pros- 
perous than ever before. 



There is no real short cut to trade-union 
success. The betterment of the workers can 
only be accomplished through hard work to- 
gether for all. Time can only be saved if 
more of the workers embrace unionism, and 
improvement made more rapidly by whole- 
heartedness. The more the workers join in 
unionism and the harder they work for their 
common good the faster their success. 



Painting Over the Side — Earl Arthur was an 
A. 1'... hired aboard the steamship Tuxpanoil 

on or about the 28th day of January. 1925. He 
did not sign article-. 

lie was ordered to go over the side to chip 
rust and paint on a staging about twelve feet 
long, made of cross pieces, fastened to the rail 
about ten feet above the level of the deck and 
just forward of the well deck. The .-cuppers 
were blocked and water and ice had dropped 
on the plank, and when Arthur went to the 
other end he stepped into this accumulated 
slippery material and fell to the dock, about 
ten feet below, lie did not think much of it at 
the time, but mentioned it to his shipmates. 
He left the ship that day. but returned to the 
vessel the next day and asked the mate for ;i 
hospital slip, but was refused. Two days later 
he again made a request and was paid oft. 
going to the hospital, where he remained for 
two months. 

The staging did not have a life line on it or 
a rope leading to the deck above to assist the 
plaintiff in moving about. The case was tried 
in the City Court of the City of New York, 
and resulted in a verdict of $2500.00. The case 
was tried by Mr. Lucien V. Axtell. 

Damages for Negligence — John Black was a 
butcher on the steamship Finland, and on or 
about the 10th day of December. 1924, while 
carrying a piece of meat and while just out- 
side the icebox, he slipped and fell, sustaining 
injuries to his left arm. The defendants were 
negligent in failing to provide grating. lie 
recovered $lo(X).00; was laid up for about three 
months, and at the present time has some 
disability in the arm. 

Assault by Officer — Joseph Murphy signed 
on the steamship Mexico, and on «-r about the 
12th day of February. 1925, he was assaulted 
by the third assistant engineer. He was >t ruck- 
in the ear. and by reason of such injury the 
hearing of that ear being impaired. Ik- re- 
ceived a verdict of $1000.00 in the City Court 
of Xew York, on the 15th day of December. 
1926. This case was also tried bv Mr. Lucien 
V. Axtell. 



The secret of life is to stand bv your friends, 

stand up to your enemies, tell the truth, and 
damn the consequences. — \ T anoc. 



is 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



51 



BOOK REVIEW 



OUT OF THE PAST. Some Revolutionary Sketches. 
By R. W. Postgate. Vanguard Press Inc., Pub- 
lishers, New York. Price 50c. 

Life whirls successive generations by with 
a terrific speed and tends to cover up in its 
welter many deeds of heroism, both physical 
and moral, so that every once in a while 
some one must call a halt and go back to 
pick up the story of the lives of these forgot- 
ten men and women, which can fill us with 
inspiration and admiration and give us that 
greatest of all attributes — Courage ! 

Such a contribution has recently been 
made by R. W. Postgate in his book, "Out 
of the Past." There are many interesting- 
sketches of minor revolutionary characters 
described in this book, but the one which 
has a particular appeal for the readers of the 
Journal is Richard Parker, the Admiral 
of the Nore Mutineers, in the great British 
naval mutiny of 1797. 

Young, well educated, "robust of form", 
and with an alert and questioning mind, he 
could not help but be something of a fire- 
brand in his capacity of acting lieutenant on 
the "Mediator," and so in 1793 he was court- 
martialed for refusing to obey the order of 
a superior officer which he thought unrea- 
sonable — even as today — and was given the 
rank of common seaman and a year later dis- 
charged from the navy, ill. 

Restless and undaunted, he took the King's 
bounty money of twenty pounds and subse- 
quently re-enlisted as a common seaman and 
joined his fellows in the fleet at Nore. Here 
conditions of misery were not so different 
from those found a hundred or more years 
later by our own crusader for the rights of 
seamen the world over — that Grand Old Man 
of the Sea — Andrew Furuseth ! Kidnapped 
by press-gangs, forbidden leave wheir in port, 
if the captain so desired, half-starved, under- 
paid, wages in arrears, the Nore seamen 
wrote in their address to their countrymen : 
"Rome had her Neros and Caligulas, but how 
many characters of their description might 
we not mention in the British Fleet?" 

The story of how Parker organized the fleet 
under .the title of "Admiral", formulated de- 
mands for port leave, payment of wages in 
arrears, indemnification of re-enlisted desert- 



ers, advance of wages to pressed men ; how 
he led the mutiny in the teeth of the British 
Admiralty with the usual opposition from 
within his own ranks, sends a thrill through 
our needlessly humdrum lives. "Nothing 
succeeds like success," and so gradually other 
ships joined the mutineers when they saw 
that they were not to be crushed and their 
number soon was doubled. In four days "a 
hundred or more graceful, high-pooped ships 
of the time with red flags fluttering from 
the rigging," were in their hands drawn up 
across the mouth of the Thames, blockading 
London with a forest of masts and rigging! 

The crafty plans of the mutineers for turn- 
ing their ships over to France ; the way the 
Admiralty finally outwitted them with the 
aid of some of the weak-kneed mutineers 
themselves, is a dramatic and tragic story. 
Parker, himself, who held everything in his 
own hands, when deserted by some of the 
men who had formerly acclaimed him, sud- 
denly seemed no longer upheld by any en- 
thusiasm for the cruelly oppressed seamen 
whom he had led, and lacked the determina- 
tion to see the thing through, in spite of his 
former genius for leadership. 

At his subsequent trial he weakly pleaded 
that "he had always secured respect for the 
officers and had never shown any disloyalty 
to the King!" On June 30th he was con- 
demned to death, to be hung at the yardarm 
of the Sandwich, for the admitted fact of the 
mutiny. And so, though brave, he was not 
brave enough to stand firm in the face of 
desertion by some of his own fellow sea- 
men. — Ekel. 



LAWLESSNESS IN MEXICO 

Down in Mexico they shot ten men who 
were implicated in the murder of one Ameri- 
can citizen. On this side of the line we 
should have arrested ten, tried four, con- 
victed one and paroled the convict. — Louis- 
ville Times. 



If the State is governed by the principles of 
reason and justice, speak boldly and worthily, 
act nobly and honorably. If the State is not 
governed by justice and reason, still act nobly 
and honorably, but speak moderately and with 
precaution. — Confucius. 



19 



52 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL January, 1927 

PENSIONS FOR BANK CLERKS WHAT IS A HURRICANE? 



Officials of the twelve Federal Reserve 
banks are urging the House Committee on 
Banking and Currency to favor a Senate bill 
which provides for old-age pensions to officers 
and employes of all banks holding membership 
in the Federal Reserve system. The govern- 
ment will not contribute to the fund. 

These hard-headed financiers are not at- 
tempting to fool themselves or members of the 
House committee. They frankly state that the 
pension is a cold-blooded business proposition, 
When they talk for public consumption, old 
age pensions is a philanthropy, just as Garyism 
would create a popular belief that welfare 
work and employes' stock ownership are im- 
pelled by humane ideals. 

With two exceptions, the twenty-one mem- 
bers of the House committee are either bank- 
ers or lawyers. They cannot be swayed by 
what is popularly known as "the bunk," so 
the financiers acknowledge that their purpose 
is to hold employes, instead of having their 
banks serve as training schools for attractive- 
positions elsewhere. 

If workers would take this realistic view of 
questions that affect their material well being, 
they would make greater progress. 

Realism is a sure antidote for "the bunk" 
that so well serves those who would confuse 
the popular mind. 



JAPAN'S IMMIGRATION POLICY 



A recent Tokyo telegram to the Seattle 
Times declares on authority of the Osaka 
Mainichi, Japan's largest paper, that Japan has 
not changed her emigration policy, but has 
temporarily abandoned aid to emigrants be- 
cause of lack of funds; that she is enlarging 
her plans for the purpose in South America 
and Mexico; that California Japanese are plan- 
ning to invest $1,500,000 on colonization in 
Mexico, and that there is planned a $5,000,000 
plantation project in San Luis Potosi, Mexico, 
and a similar project near Mexico City; that 
preparations are being made for an extensive 
emigration to Mexico, and 6000 adults are to 
be sent to Brazil this year. The previous Diet 
voted 800,000 yen for emigrants, notwithstand- 
ing retrenchment, and more is expected this 
vear. 



A statement calling attention to the com- 
mon misunderstanding of such terms as tor- 
nado, cyclone and hurricane, has just been 
issued by the U. S. Weather Bureau. 

The commonly accepted definition of a tor- 
nado, often found even in dictionaries, is 
erroneous. 

The "funnel-shaped cloud like a water- 
spout, sand column, or dust whirl" is not the 
tornado itself, but a phenomenon that occurs 
with it, a product of the violent and destruc- 
tive winds that constitute the tornado. In 
meteorological terms a "tornado'" is a small 
violent, rotating windstorm, sometimes con- 
fined to an area of a thousand feet or less. 

A "cyclone," as meteorologists understand 
it, is a system of winds accompanying an 
extensive region of low barometric pressure. 
It may cover an area of a thousand miles 
or more, and is usually characterized by 
clouds and precipitation. 

A "hurricane" is a cyclone, which usually 
originates in the warm waters of the South 
Atlantic or Caribbean Sea, and consists of 
violent destructive winds that damage prop- 
erty and endanger life. This same type of 
storm is called a typhoon when it occur- in 
the vicinity of the China Sea and the Philip- 
pines. 

The probable direction of a hurricane can 
be predicted from observations, and the speed 
of its progress is reckoned from its measured 
wind velocity. The Weather Bureau sends 
out by radio and telegraph warnings of ap- 
proaching hurricanes, so that ships at sea and 
persons at all points in their paths may take 
steps to protect themselves. 



A DANGEROUS MAN 



President Calvin Coolidge, in Bruce Barton's 
interview, indorses marriage unequivocally. 
"What other visionary project," the Emporia 
Gazette demands, "will this reckless radical 
advocate next?" 



The trade of governing has been monop- 
olized by the most ignorant and the most ras- 
cally individuals of mankind. — Thomas Paine. 



20 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



53 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The extent of the traffic handled on the 
rivers of the country is seen in the estimate 
of 482,000,000 tons handled last year. The 
value was $23,940,000,000, and the capital in- 
vestment represented is $985,000,000. 

An agreement between the United States 
Government and Estonia provides for reciproc- 
ity in registration of ships. The agreement, 
therefore, relieves Estonian vessels of the ne- 
cessity of paying tonnage dues at the rate of 
$1 per ton on each arrival at a United States 
port. 

Several large shipments of apples and other 
fresh fruits have recently passed through the 
canal en route from west coast ports to United 
Kingdom and Continental ports. The steam- 
ships Parana, Nichteroy and Lochkatrine car- 
ried together approximately 300,000 boxes of 
apples. 

The combination passenger and freight 
steamship Iroquois, built by the Newport 
News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company 
for the New York and Miami Steamship 
Company, was launched on Saturday after- 
noon. The vessel will be completed early in 
the year and will be put in the New York- 
Miami service in the spring. 

The Shipping Board has made a recommen- 
dation for the abolition of the Army, Navy and 
transport services, which, together, comprise 
about thirty vessels costing about $10,000,000 
a year to handle. The Panama colliers are now 
laid up because the Panama railroad has found 
it cheaper to give its coal to the Bethlehem 
Steel Company to carry in its ore carriers 
bound for Chile, which would otherwise have 
to sail in ballast. 

The G. Harrison Smith, which was built by 
the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation at 
Sparrows Point, Md., in 1921, for the Interna- 
tional Petroleum Company, Ltd., of Toronto, 
as a combination petroleum and ore carrier for 
the South American trade, has been renamed 
the Charles G. Black and transferred from 
Canadian to United States registry. The ves- 
sel is now engaged in transporting oil from 
Baton Rouge to New York. 

The United States Circuit Court of Appeals 



has affirmed the order of the District Court 
denying the petition of the Neptune Associa- 
tion for an injunction to restrain the Cunard 
Steamship Company from bringing stores of 
wines and liquor under seal into American 
water. The court did not pass upon the ques- 
tion of constitutionality, but held that the 
petition failed to show that the plaintiffs 
had been injured by reason of the acts com- 
plained of. 

The Oregon-Oriental Line will discontinue 
its service from California to Far Eastern ports 
via Columbia River after February 1. The 
Portland freighters will run direct to North 
and South China ports. Portland will be a 
regular port of call for the vessels of the Amer- 
ican-Australian-Oriental Line, beginning with 
the West Henshaw, from Portland January 21. 
This will give a Shipping Board sailing from 
Portland to Australia every twenty-eight days. 
Ships in the New Zealand service may call at 
Portland occasionally. 

In explanation of statements by the Garland 
Steamship Corporation that the Shipping 
Board had prevented the sale of its fleet to the 
Soviet government, the board intimates that 
it is willing to hear arguments by the owners 
on the proposition. Admiral Benson is said to 
be opposed to the transfer because the Soviet 
government has not been recognized by the 
United States. The Garland fleet of seven 
freighters, totaling 38,537 tons d. w., was ac- 
quired by purchase from the Shipping Board 
about four years ago for about $30 a ton d. w. 

Users of the rivers and harbors of the 
nation went on record at their recent conven- 
tion as opposed to the suggestion that the 
water-borne traffic of the United States, and 
traffic on the highways, be regulated by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, or any 
other administrative body. In that regard 
they have joined with many coastal and 
intercoastal shippers in opposing any enlarge- 
ment of the powers of the I. C. C. A growing 
recognition of community of interest between 
shippers using the inland waterways and 
those sailing the seven seas was becoming 
manifest, it was stated. 

Two all-steel Diesel-electric towboats, 125 
feet long, 28 feet beam and approximately U J / 2 
feet draft, 750 s.h.p., are now being built in the 
Balboa shops of the Panama Canal. It is 
hoped to launch these boats May 1 next. The 



21 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1923 



boats have been designed primarily as seago- 
ing craft, and the bulkhead arrangements will 
permit them to remain afloat with one main 
compartment bilged. The deadwood aft has 
been cut away and a simple casting installed 
instead. This is expected to improve the han- 
dling qualities of these large tugs and make 
them just as handy as the small harbor tugs 
now employed on the canal. The main propell- 
ing machinery is now being manufactured in 
the United States. 

Supplies for the islanders of Tristan da 
Cunha, in the South Atlantic Ocean, were 
taken by the Royal Mail Steam Packet Com- 
pany's motor liner Asturias, which sailed from 
New York January 15 on a cruise to South 
Africa. Years ago sailing vessels made it a 
practice when the weather was propitious to 
stand off the island and wait for the islanders 
to come out in boats to exchange sheep and 
fresh vegetables for clothing, tools, rope and 
books, but the island is now off the beaten 
track of steamers and when the liner Orca 
called there last year on the first R. M. S. P. 
cruise to South Africa it was found that two 
years had elapsed since the last boat, a Jap- 
anese freighter, had called there. 

Although 190 more commercial vessels 
passed through the Panama Canal in 1926 than 
in any previous calendar year, the tolls fell 
$389,423 below the collections for the fiscal 
year 1924. The total number of commercial 
transits in 1926 was 5420, paying in tolls $23,- 
901,540, the average per vessel being about 
$441. The amount of tolls collected during the 
year was the second largest in the history of 
the canal. The reduction was probably due to 
the decline of oil tanker traffic in intercoastal 
trade and the coal strike in Great Britain. The 
increase in the number of vessels probably 
ivas the result of additional small vessels in 
the banana trade. From the opening of the 
canal on August 15, 1914, to December 31, 
1926, a total of 37,599 vessels has passed 
through, paying $154,064,037 in tolls. 

Great things are to result from the recent 
/'an-Pacific Congress, held at Tokyo, accord- 
ing to Dr. George H. Parker, professor of zo- 
ology at Harvard University, who arrived at 
San Francisco on the Dollar liner President 
Lincoln. Dr. Parker, after attending the con- 
ference and touring the Orient, visited the 
Straits Settlements, where he spent several 



weeks in observatory work. As a result of the 
union of scientists from the countries border- 
ing on the Pacific Ocean, Dr. Palmer said the 
coming research work, which will delve into 
the food conservation possibilities offered by 
the Pacific Ocean, will show that the Atlantic 
Ocean is not the only ocean where such possi* 
bilities are manifest. He said within the next 
few months the Pacific Ocean will come into 
its own as a result of the research and discov- 
eries of the scientists. 

Marine equipment owned by several rail- 
roads terminating at the port of New York is 
to be pooled in order to reduce expenses. It 
is reported that $75,000,000 worth of tugs, 
lighters and carfloats is to be brought into the 
pool which, in order to become effective, will 
have to be approved by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. There are now said to be 
138 tugs, 36 steam lighters, 338 carfloats and 
1119 barges in used by the railroads for trans- 
ferring freight in New York harbor. This 
fleet employs an army of pilots, engineers and 
deckhands, and is the mainstay of a host of 
small drydocks, repair plants and ship supply 
concerns. It is also said that only one railroad, 
the Lehigh Valley, owns its marine equipment 
outright, all other Xew York terminal rail- 
roads having issued equipment trust certifi- 
cates against their floating property and roll- 
ing stock. Shippers' opposition to the pooling 
plans has already developed.' 

Sales of government tonnage negotiated by 
the Shipping Board during the calendar year 
1926 totaled ninety-one cargo ships, aggregat- 
ing 621,093 tons d. w., and five passenger- 
cargo vessels aggregating 70,730 tons gross 
register. The total cash consideration for these 
sales was $14,366,996. In addition, the board 
disposed of five drydocks for $420,000. The 
sales for operation were in approximately the 
same volume as similar sales made during 
1925. During that year, however, 199 ship- 
were sold to Ford Motor Company for scrap* 
ping. Last year's transactions included the sale 
of seventeen cargo boats, of 141,063 tons d. w.. 
besides all the passenger-cargo ships men- 
tioned, under guarantee of operation over 
specified routes for periods of five years. The 
passenger-cargo ships, which comprised the 
American Oriental Mail Line, from Seattle to 
the Orient, were sold to the Admiral Oriental 
Line of Seattle for $4,500,000. 



22 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The French budget estimates of the mer- 
chant marine department for 1927 total about 
200,000,000 francs, including 83,520,000 francs 
for subventions to the mail lines. 

Idle steamers in Japanese ports November 
15 totaled 243 vessels, an increase of fifty-three 
in number and 11,000 in tonnage compared 
with the previous month. Three vessels were 
launched during November, having a gross 
tonnage of 6100. 

The Italian government has decided to 
finance the construction of the first Italian 
rotor ship of 6000 tons. The amount allocated 
for shipping subsidies during 1926-27 exceeds 
150,000,000 lire, compared with 38,000,000 in 
1925-26, and 80,770,000 in 1924-25. 

The Anglo-American Oil Company has 
placed orders for two gasoline motor tankers 
of about 12,500 tons d. w. Sir James Laing & 
Sons, Sunderland, and Workman, Clark & Co., 
Belfast, will each build one. The vessels will 
have Diesel engines of about 3500 b.h.p., giving 
them on a trial speed of about 1VA knots. 

The China Merchants' Steam Navigation 
Company have withdrawn their coastwise and 
Yangtze River steamers. These vessels are 
tied up at Shanghai to await assurance from 
the Seamen's Union and warring factors that 
there will be no more delay of their vessels, of 
which ten out of twenty-eight are now tied up. 

Norwegian owners have contracted with 
Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, New- 
castle-on-Tyne, for a fruit-carrying vessel 
254x35.6 feet, to steam 13^ knots on trial. 
The contract price is believed to be about 
£62,500, with terms. The vessel has been 
chartered for five years in the West India fruit 
trade. 

The French Line's flagship Paris has in 
the past forty-two months made more trans- 
atlantic voyages than any other capital liner, 
having effected 116 crossings, steaming 370,- 
000 nautical miles. During an unbroken pe- 
riod of twelve months she has run so evenly 
that her longest time was only 3 3-4 hours 
more than her average of six days, 23 hours 
and 35 minutes. 

France is disturbed by the rising cost of 



warships. It is officially stated that at the end 
of 1925 the average cost per ton displ. of 
all classes of new ships was 13,275 francs 
without their reserve stores, and 15,213 with 
them. The submarine mine-layers work out 
at 22,706 and 29,456 francs per ton, respec- 
tively, the 10,000-ton cruisers 12,522 and 14,- 
637 francs, while the naval oil tankers cost 
3,171 and 3,627 francs per ton, respectively. 

A line of dirgibles to fly across the Atlantic 
and down the coast of South America to 
Buenos Ayres has been authorized by the 
Spanish Council of State. A subsidy has been 
authorized to the Sociedad Colon Transaerea 
Espanola. Under the terms of the concession 
the service would be carried out with dirgibles 
with capacity for forty passengers and ten tons 
of freight. On each voyage two passages and 
space for 500 kilos must be reserved for the 
Spanish government. 

A "Medical Book for Sailors" has been 
published by the Norwegian Red Cross. The 
book is intended for ships of all nations, and 
the directions for sickness and injuries are 
written in all European languages except 
Slavic. It is the work of five leading phy- 
sicians of Norway; 50 pages are devoted to 
sanitary science, 46 to nursing on board, 51 
to internal sicknesses, injuries, accidents, 137 
to surgical ailments, eye and ear diseases, 
71 to skin and venereal diseases, and 19 to 
the nursing of insane persons. 

Wages on German vessels are higher than on 
French and Belgian craft, and crew expenses, 
other than wages borne by German owners, are 
also higher. It is stated that some time ago, 
when two passenger liners were bought by a 
German company from a foreign owner, the 
crew quarters had to be so much extended in 
order to comply with German law that 
seventy-four berths in the second-class had to 
be removed in one vessel and seventy-two in 
the other. The berths, if occupied by pas- 
sengers on at least six crossings annually, 
would have brought the owners a gross reve- 
nue of $99,000 per annum. 

The Navigazione Generale Italiana 15,000- 
ton motorship Virgilio has been launched at 
the company's shipyard at Baia, near Naples, 
for the Italy-Central America-South Pacific 
service. During the past month the Naviga- 
zione Generale Italiana has launched three 
motor liners of an aggregate of 63,000 tons; 



23 



56 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February. 1927 



the Augustus, the world's largest motor ves- 
sel; the Orazio and Virgilio. Plans have been 
completed for the construction of three other 
liners of 33,000 tons each to maintain weekly 
express sailings from New York to Italy. 
With this addition the total tonnage of the N. 
G. I. will reach 400,000 tons. 

After the trying experiences of last winter 
the Russian authorities decided not to attempt 
to keep the port of Leiningrad open this season 
by means of icebreakers and proposed to han- 
dle the bulk of Russian exports and imports 
this winter by way of Reval. According to 
late reports from Russia, however, the question 
as to whether Reval is to be used for winter 
transit instead of Leningrad has not yet been 
finally settled. The Leningrad authorities are 
making representations to the central offices 
at Moscow to keep Leningrad open, but even 
should the Moscow government, contrary to 
expectations, determine to use Leningrad, it is 
hardly likely that foreign owners will again be 
induced to expose their boats to the dangers 
of the ice on this route. 

A sensation has been caused in Hamburg by 
the discovery that for years past an official in 
the employ of the Marine Board had supplied 
forty-five master's certificates to men who had 
not passed the prescribed nautical examina- 
tion. The culprit and forty-four of the spuri- 
ous captains have been tried by the Hamburg 
court. The evidence showed that in conse- 
quence of his incompetence, one of these cap- 
tains had run clown a trawler in the North Sea 
and caused the loss of eleven lives, while an- 
other "captain" had by similar inefficiency 
caused a serious collision in the Elbe. The 
court sentenced the official to two years' im- 
prisonment for accepting bribes and for forg- 
ing official documents. Of the forty-four "cap- 
tains" a number were acquitted on legal 
grounds, while others are to be prosecuted on 
a charge of bribery. 

The Hamburg-American Line will probably 
increase its fleet considerably. The building 
program is said to comprise mainly vessels for 
services other than the North Atlantic. The 
first of the contracts under this program has 
just been placed with the Deutsche Werft for 
two motor vessels of 9000 tons d. w., each for 
the American-Pacific service. These vessels 
will probably carry a limited number of pas- 
sengers. A third vessel of 9200 tons d. w. for 



the Australian service, also fitted for paw 
sengers, is to be built by the same yard. A 
turbine steamer of 9500 tons d. w. is to be 
built by the Flensburg yard and will have a 
speed of 14^ knots. A fourth motor vessel of 
9000 tons d. w. will probably be contracted for 
in Bremen. New contracts included, the Ham- 
burg-American Line will have about 130,000 
tons gross of motorships. 

The commission which for some years has 
been considering the question of establishing a 
train ferry service between Norway and Den- 
mark has now decided unanimously in favor of 
the proposal, and selected Frederickshaven in 
Denmark and Larvik in Norway as the mod 
suitable terminal ports. The use of large ves- 
sels with three sets of tracks is recommended, 
and it is proposed that they shall make two 
trips a day. The crossing will take seven 
hours, and it will be possible to make the jour- 
ney between Oslo and Hamburg in twenty-] 
four hours. Two boats will be required for the 
regular traffic, with a third in reserve. Harbor 
construction and the building of the ferries is 
expected to take about five years. The work- 
ing of the new route is not likely to be self- < 
supporting, and after the first five years of 
operation a deficit of about kr. 1,000,000 for 
Denmark and half that amount for Norway is 
anticipated, including sinking fund and in- 
terest on capital. 

The Russian State Mercantile Fleet consists 
of (1) The State Baltic Shipping Company, 
with headquarters at Leningrad ; (2) the State 
North Shipping Company, with headquarters 
at Archangel; (3) the Black Sea & Sea of 
Azov Shipping Company, with headquarters at 
Odessa; (4) the Caspian Shipping Company, 
witli headquarters at Baku. The Central 
Board of Management for the first three of 
these companies is in Moscow, while the Cas- 
pian Shipping Company, although included 
within the framework of the whole organiza- 
tion, is independent. The Volunteer Fleet is 
attached to the Department of the People's 
Commissary for Foreign Trade. It is, theo- 
retically placed upon a "commercial" basis — 
that is, it is supposed to be self-supporting and 
not to require any state subsidies. It has its 
own Mag and docks, repair yards and work] 
shops. The Volunteer Fleet possesses in Rus- 
sia and abroad no fewer than sixteen brandies 
and 200 agencies. 



24 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



57 



LABOR NEWS 



The American Federation of Labor Execu- 
tive Council has called a conference of trade 
unions having jurisdiction over automobile in- 
dustry to plan organization campaign ; confer- 
ence to be held in Washington in the near 
future. 

In investigating the living expenses of farm 
families, the United States Department of 
Labor found that the average length of the 
work day of the farm operator was 11.3 hours, 
not including time spent at meals and in read- 
ing and resting. The length of work day of 
the farm woman is 11.4 hours. 

At least 75 per cent of the employes of any 
business establishment in the Republic of Pan- 
ama must be Panamans by birth or naturaliza- 
tion, according to Law No. 6 of October 13, 
1926. Enterprises whose personnel requires 
certain technical knowledge which is unobtain- 
able in Panama are exempt from this require- 
ment. 

The Labor Sports Union of America held a 
four-day indoor athletic carnival in Detroit, 
ending on January 16. The games which in- 
cluded apparatus work, indoor jumping, group 
work and basketball, were held at the Finnish 
Labor Temple. Teams from New York, Illi- 
nois, Ohio, Minnesota and Massachusetts par- 
ticipated. 

A bill to end convict labor in Alabama will 
be presented to the Alabama legislature. 
When the $25,000,000 highway bond issue is 
ratified, state officials plan to set aside one- 
fifth of the amount to establish cement, as- 
phalt and brick plants at strategic points 
and manufacture road-building material that 
pvill be laid by convicts. 

Governor Richardson of California, who 
was defeated at the recent primary election, 
took a parting shot at organized labor in his 
reappointment of Mrs. Katherine Phillips Ed- 
son as a member of the State Industrial Wel- 
fare Commission. Mrs. Phillips attracted 
state-wide attention by voting to reduce the 
women's weekly minimum wage of $16. 

By a unanimous decision of the United 
States Board of Mediation, the 60,000 em- 
ployes of the American Express Company 



have been awarded a wage increase averaging 
two and a half cents an hour. The higher 
wage scales are retroactive to January 1. The 
decision awarding increased pay to the tens 
of thousands of workers has been made under 
the Railway Labor Act, which w r as passed last 
May. 

The new Philadelphia agreement with the 
International Longshoremen's Association, 
covering working conditions from January 1 
to September 30, 1927, provides for a regular 
scale of 80 cents an hour and $1.20 for over- 
time, with the usual differential for loading 
case oil and general cargo. Double overtime 
rate for the midnight and breakfast hours will 
be paid when it is necessary to work during 
those periods. 

Production of passenger automobiles and 
trucks in the United States rose to 4,480,000 
vehicles in 1926, the National Automobile 
Chamber of Commerce reports, an increase of 
143,000 cars over the preceding year. At 
wholesale, the 1926 output was valued at 
$3,057,000,000, which is believed to exceed the 
value of the output of any other industry. 
Thus the average wholesale value per car is 
to be reckoned at $682. 

Minnesota employes protest to the governor 
against increasing rates that private liability 
insurance companies are permitted to charge. 
The employers show that of the $5,000,000 
collected in premiums, $2,000,000 is absorbed 
by the "expense" account, leaving but $3,000,- 
000 to pay for industrial accidents and deaths. 
Rates are the highest in the country. Trade 
unionists point to the saving if a state fund, 
silimar to Ohio's, were adopted. 

Some 22,000 members of the Brotherhood of 
Railway Trainmen and the Order of Railway 
Conductors employed on a number of railroads 
in the Southeastern Region are completing a 
vote on the question of going on strike for 
higher wages. It is known that the feeling 
among the workers is overwhelmingly in favor 
of a walkout in the event that the heads of the 
two Brotherhoods fail to reach a satisfactory 
understanding with the railroad companies. 

An average of ten years has been added to 
human life as a general average during the 
past twenty-five years, but it has not been 
distributed evenly, said Dr. George David 
Stewart, president-elect of the American Col- 
lege of Surgeons. "The diseases conquered 



25 



58 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1927 



have been those of children and young people. 
The greatest scourge of the age is heart dis- 
ease in one form or another. This takes twice 
as many lives as the dread cancer," Dr. Stew- 
art said. 

The American Society of Mechanical Kngi- 
neers is interested in the elimination of waste 
and not in "high" wages. At their annual 
meeting in New York discussions revolved 
around this announcement by the society : 
"How the national materials-handling bill can 
be reduced a billion dollars a year by utiliza- 
tion of equipment now available, relocation 
of stock rooms and a proper co-ordination of 
production with equipment for moving ma- 
terials." 

A bill providing for a minimum salary of 
$1,500 a year for government employes has 
been introduced in the House by Represent- 
ative Welsh of California. These employes 
would be placed in four groups — clerical, ad- 
ministration and fiscal, with salaries ranging 
from $1,500 to $7,500 a year; professional and 
scientific, with salaries ranging from $1,860 
to $7,500; custodial, with salaries ranging 
from $780 to $3,300, and clerical and mechan- 
ical, from 60 cents an hour to $3,600 a year. 

In an unofficial report, President James C. 
Shanessy of the International Barbers' Union 
says that the membership in the organization 
has reached the 54,000 mark. He regretted 
that the union failed to reach 60,000, the mark 
set for membership at the close of 1926. Presi- 
dent Shanessy calls on the membership for 
renewed efforts to progress in organization 
work. The union is paying especial attention 
to the women members of the profession, now 
that the bar has been let down in respect to 
their joining the union. 

By a vote of 70 to 9 the U. S. Senate has 
accepted the House recommendation that im- 
peachment charges against Federal Judge 
English be dropped because he resigned rather 
than face trial. Under the Constitution the 
House has the sole power of impeachment 
and the Senate has the sole power to try the 
rase. While accepting the House views, sev- 
eral Senators expressed regret that the trial 
will not proceed "for the purpose of warning 
other men holding the position of federal 
judge." English was a notorious labor in- 
junction judge during the shop men's strike. 
He was charged with being involved in a 



bankruptcy ring and with other misdemean- 
ors. 

Consumers' co-operative societies in this 
country suffered in the general depression of 
1920-21, but the survivals more than held their 
own, according to the Monthly Bulletin, issued. 
by the United States Bureau of Labor Statist 
tics. Between 1920 and 1925 the average 
membership of all store societies increased 39 
per cent, and that of grocery societies 50 per' 
cent. Average sales per member increased 22 
per cent (making allowance for the decrease 
in retail prices) and average sales per society 
37 per cent. Total sale- of societies reporting 
amounted to nearly 550.000,000. Patronage 
rebates averaged 3.8 per cent on sales and _ )( '.3 
per cent on share capital. 

A strike of some 200,000 miners in the soit*. 
coal fields is one of the possibilities after the 
expiration of the present agreement between 
the United Mine Workers of America and the 
mine owners, on April 1 next. The United 
Mine WOrkers is now holding its convention 
in Indianapolis. A policy for the forthcoming 
negotiations with the mine owners is expected 
to be agreed upon there. The conferences with 
the mine owners having in view the renewing 
of the collective agreement will begin on Few 
ruary 14. A number of industrial establish- 
ment.-, fearing a strike, are reported to be j 
accumulating large supplies of reserve coal 
against the possible emergency. 

The National Civic Federation presents the 
following amazing figures on the proportion 
of voters to non-voter.-: "In round numbers, 
the vote in 1922 was more than 21,000,000; in 
L924, nearly 30,000,000; and in 1'0>. Less than 
22,000,000, But, when the percentage of new 
voters is considered, there is nothing to -how 
for the work of all our organizations in l''_V>. 
although it can safely be assumed that, with- 
out such an effort, the results would have been 
much more disheartening — a negative consola- 
tion at best. However, in comparing the 1926 
and 1922 election return-, let us not lose sight 
of the far more disturbing facts in the. situa- 
tion, namely: that when we cast 21,Q00,00CJ 
votes in 1922, there were 58,000,000 eligible 
voters, or 37,000,000 who did not vote; and 
that in 1926, when the eligible vote was 62,? 
000,000, only 22,000.000 cast the ballot. Where 
were the 40.000,000 delinquent voter- on No- 
vember 2, 1926? That i- the big question." 



26 



I February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



59 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



A movement is said to be underway provid- 
ing for select immigration into Nova Scotia, 
designed primarily for the purpose of attract- 
ing skilled agriculturists. 

Honduras reports a decided tendency in 
labor circles to unionize, accompanied by at- 
tendant homesteading and colonization move- 
ments on the part of the workers. 

By mutual agreement, the wages of seamen 
on German vessels have been increased by \s 
per cent, depending on the rating, from Janu- 
ary 1. The men had demanded a general in- 
crease of 15 per cent. 

The strike in the paper industry of Nor- 
way has finally been settled, employers and 
workmen having agreed to the recommenda- 
tion of the Conciliation Board to resume work 
and leave the points at variance for volun- 
tary arbitration. 

The tide of emigration from Portugal is said 
to be constantly swelling, with German. En- 
glish and French passenger steamers carrying 
away several hundred Portuguese third-class 
passengers on each sailing, who are destined, 
principally, to Brazil. 

Large orders for rails needed by various 
Canadian railways are causing the steel plants 
at Sydney, Nova Scotia, to enjoy a very pros- 
perous season. More than 2800 steel work- 
ers have been engaged and are expected to be 
retained through to the spring season. 

Miners in the Ruhr district, after terminat- 
ing the existing contract and demanding wage 
increases amounting to between 10 and 15 per 
cent, which the mines refused to pay ; obtained 
an increase of about 4 per cent, through inter- 
vention of the Labor Arbitration Court. 

Plans are completed for the construction of 
a new emigrant hotel at Naples, Italy, for the 
account of the Italian government. The 
building, which will cost lire 20,000,000 ($900,- 
000), is expected to be the largest edifice of its 
kind in the world. It will accommodate 3000 
male and 1500 female emigrants, to be rated 
first, second and third class, according to the 
accommodations desired. 

Under an edict issued by the Fascist Grand 
Council and announced by Mussolini there will 



be only three official holidays in Italy from 
now on — "Youth's Day," March 23; the anni- 
versary of the founding of the Fascist Lalmr 
Day, April 21, and "Victory Day," October 28, 
which is the anniversary of the Fascist march 
on Rome. The Fascist Council has also ap- 
proved the drawing up of a "charter of labor," 
w r hich aims to eliminate all disputes between 
labor and capital and the co-ordination of laws 
controlling all labor matters. 

The wage movement promoted by the 
German Traffic Union on behalf of the 
dockers of Hamburg-Altona has been com- 
• posed on the basis of a committee called to- 
gether by the arbitrator of Hamburg. The 
new agreement provides for an increase of the 
basic w r age from 7.20 marks to 7.60, and a 
proportional increase in the other rates. It 
will become effective on January 1 next and 
cannot be terminated until September 30, 
1927, subject to one month's notice. In the 
absence of such notice the agreement is auto- 
matically extended for successive periods of 
three months. The new rates are a little less 
than 6 per cent advance on the old ones. 

The trend of European industry is toward 
international combinations, according to Louis 
Domeratsky, a Department of Commerce spe- 
cialist. He says that German industrialists 
are taking the lead and that the recent amal- 
gamation of continental steel-making interests 
may be regarded as the first step. Some ob- 
servers, he said, are predicting that the 
achievement of the various unions of produc- 
ers, reaching as they now do across interna- 
tional lines, is a prelude to a general customs 
union of the principal European countries. 
Governments, as well as financial and indus- 
trial operators, are being called into consulta- 
tions out of which new understandings are 
reached. The reason for these movements, it 
is stated, lies largely in the failure of Eu- 
ropean recovery from the World War. 

As already reported, the Norwegian port 
employers had given notice to terminate their 
collective agreement with the Norwegian 
Transport Workers' Union and had proposed 
a drastic backward step of working conditions. 
According to the calculations of the union 
these proposals, apart from a direct cut of 10 
'per cent in wages, should have involved other 
material disadvantages equivalent to a fur- 
ther reduction of their earnings by 20 per cent 

27 1 1 T:!' !.l i 



60 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1927 



to 25 per cent. New agreement has been 
reached on the basis of an arbitral award which 
leaves present wage rates intact, but provides 
that they shall be revised if the official cost of 
living index for May, 1927, deviates not less 
than 5 per cent from that for the same month 
of 1926, the revised rates to take effect as from 
June 10, 1927, Both parties have accepted 
this award. 

The Argentine pension law, providing for 
insurance against old age and sickness for cer- 
tain workers, has been repealed. This law was 
the cause of much disturbance when it was en- 
forced and led to strikes and noting. It ap- 
plied to employees of the Argentine merchant 
marine, of industrial establishments, of the 
printing and publishing industry and of mer- 
cantile establishments. The funds were to 
have been administered by the government, 
and supported by joint contributions from the 
employers and workers. Large sums of money 
were collected, but the administration of the 
law never was effective and no enforcement 
had been attempted for several months past. 
The adopted measures declare the law sus- 
pended until Congress modifies it or passes an- 
other law in its stead, and provides that pay- 
ments already made to the fund are to be re- 
turned to the contributors within six months. 
All expenses incurred are to be paid by the gov- 
ernment. 

A delegation representing the Trades and 
Labor Congress and International Unions of 
Canada has recently urged various reforms 
upon the Canadian government, foremost 
among which figures the question of immigra- 
tion. Regard should be had, they urged, to 
the welfare of those coming to Canada, but 
the first consideration must be the Canadian 
people and the betterment of Canada. Nation- 
alities and classes of people who, either by 
temperament, habit or customs, were non- 
assimilative, were not a desirable acquisition 
for Canadian citizenship. The deputation asked 
for the strict application of laws concerning 
the admission and control of Orientals, the 
abolition of all bonuses or grants to private 
agencies, the prohibition of the entry of con- 
tract labor, the creation of a Dominion Ad- 
visory Council on Immigration (on which 
labor should have representation) and the con- 
tinued prohibition of the admission of child 
immigrants under working age. 



DREAMER AND DOER 

(By Ted Olson, in "Forbes Magazine") 



It's easy enough, my friend to dream 

Of Utopian worlds afar; 
Where wealth and power and prowess gleam 

Remote as the utmost star. 

It's pleasant enough in dreams to cloak 

The ugly, immediate fact — 
But the wise man knows that the dream's a joke 

Till yoked with the will to act! 

For a dream's a drug or a dream's a goad, 
Whichever you choose to make it. 

One man it speeds on the upward road; 
Another it lures to forsake it. 

For years unnumbered the seers have told 

In saga and story and song 
Their marvelous dreams of an Age of Gold 

Washed clean of all grief and wrong. 

And ninety-nine are with dreams content. 

But the hope of the world made new 
Is the hundredth man who is grimly bent 

On making the dream come true! 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



SEATTLE, Wash DAVE ROBERTS, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Elliot 1138 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM SHERIDAN, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574. Phone 336 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214. Phone Main 2233 

SAN PEDRO, Cal Ill Sixth Street 

JOE WADE, Agent 
Phone 1317J 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

Phone Elliot 3425 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

Phone 147 



MONTEREY HOOK AND LINE FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

MONTEREY, Cal 409 Alvarado Street 

J. PIETROBONO, Secretary 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Phone Elliot 6752 
Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

Phone Black 241 
KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

OAKLAND, Cal 219 Federal Telegraph Bldg. 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telep'inne Lakeside 3591 



28 



February, 1927 
4 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



61 



WHY DELAY 
WHEN IN PORT 

Guaranteed service performed by spe- 
cialists where work is completed with 
out delay, and you are assured the 
price will be reasonable — and Satisfac- 
tion Guaranteed. When in port, first 
have your teeth examined, without 
cost. 

So Convenient to Seafaring Men 

A Great Dental Organization to Serve 
You with 18 modern dental offices in 
13 ports. Dental work started in one 
Parker office may be completed in any 
office of the Parker System. 

PAINLESS PARKER DENTIST 
Using E. R. Parker's System 

Offices in the following forts 
San Diego, Fourth and Plaza; Long Beach, 
Third and Pine Sts.j San Pedro, 706 Palos 
Verdes; San Francisco, 15 Stockton St., 1012 
Market St., 1802 Geary St.; Los Angeles, 
5 50 So. Broadway, 104 ]/ 2 W. 7th St., 432 
So. Main St.; Oakland, 1128 Broadway; 
Eureka, 210 F St.; Santa Cruz., 121 Pacific 
Ave.; Portland, Ore., cor. Washington and 
Broadway; Seattle, 206 Union St.; Tacoma, 
1103 J/2 Broadway; Bellingham, Holly and 
Commercial Sts.; Vancouver, B. C, 101 
Hastings St. E.; Boston, Mass., 581 Wash- 
ington St. 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

No. 14 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 

in 

San Francisco 



At Night— 

Complete Banking Service from 
9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 
men. 

Liberty 



Market 
at Mason 



Bank 



San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 
— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Davenport 537 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Frank H. O'Brien, inquiries are 
being made for you by your mother, 
Mrs. P. H. O'Brien. Kindly com- 
municate with her, 169 Wendell 
Street, Providence, R. I. 



Steam heat is practically unknown 
in the ice igloos of the Arctic. 



Buy Union Stamped Shoes 



.WORKERS UNION. 



We ask all members of organized labor to 
purchase shoes bearing our Union Stamp on 
the sole, inner-sole or lining of the shoe. We 
ask you not to buy any shoes unless you 
actually see this Union Stamp. I Factory 



UNO 



rAMP 



Boot & Shoe Workers' Union 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 

246 Summer Street, Boston, Mass. 

COLLIS LOVELY CHARLES L. BAINE 
General President General Secretary-Treasurer 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union •! 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 

531 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Marke' 

Streets, San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney For 
Marine Firemen and Waterter.u^r.«' 

Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
10 Embarcadero Tel. Davenport 3134 
676 Mills Bldg. Tel. Douglas 1058 
San Francisco, California 



Telephone Garfield 306 



Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

(Heidelberg & Murasky) 

Flood Building, San Francisco 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damage*. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Ray Murphy, who has a personal 
injury suit against the United 
States Shipping Board Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, please communi- 
cate with your attorney, Silas B. 
Axtell, at 11 Moore Street, New 
York City, N. Y. 




29 



<»_> 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February. 1''27 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 

Bonney- Watson Go, 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Crematory and Columbarium In 
Connection 



Broadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO' FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 



Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



Didn't Waste 'em, Anyway. — 
"Hope you liked those queer little 
Chinese backscratchers I sent you, 
dear." 

"Is that what they are? Mercy! 
I've been making my husband eat 
his salad with them." — Boston 
Transcript. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



TAXI 

CALL GASPEE 5000 
Red Top Cab Co., of R. I.. Inc. 
67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. 



UNION MADE 
CLOTHING 

For Less Money Than Sweatshop 
Made Clothing 

Rogers Co. 

35-37 Richmond St. 
Providence, R. I. 



Like a Cigar Band. — 
Mary had a bathing suit, 

The latest style, no doubt. 
And when she got inside it she 

Was more than half-way out. 
— Boston Transcript. 



Bill's Smoke Shop 

Right alongside the Sailors' Union 
Hall 



Complete Line of Smokes 
371 Richmond St., Providence, R. I. 



Matty's Union Barber 
Shop 

Special Attention to Seafaring Men 
95 Point St. Providence, R. I. 



HARVEY'S UNION 
SHOE STORE 

Complete Line of 
UNION-MADE SHOES 

Four Blocks from Sailors' Union Hall 
B5 Richmond Street, Providence, R. I. 



Eastern Restaurant 

Corner Point and Eddy 

HOME COOKED MEALS 

The Best Cup of Coffee in the Port 

One block from Union Hall 
Corner Point and Eddy Streets 

30 



Announcement 

to 

Seamen 

Frederick R. Graves 
has removed his 
law office to 
29 Broadway 
New York City 
Telephone No. 
Whitehall 2535 



Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



United States Laundry 

Telephone MARKET 1721 

1148 Harrison Street 
San Francisco, California 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Seamen employed on board the 
S. S. MARSODAK at Robbins 1 >ry- 
dock in August, 1926, having any 
knowledge concerning accident toj 
Thomas Moore, boatswain, who fell 
through manhole in forepeak tank 
on August 17, 1926. kindly com- 
municate at once with the under- 
signed, attorney for Mr. Moore. 
Frederick R. Graves, 2 { ) Broadway. 
\\w York City, N. Y. 



Mr. George Matson, former barge 
captain, please communicate or call 
at the office of Silas B. Axtell. 11 
Moore Street. New York City, X. Y. 



February, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



63 



BOSS™ TAILOR 

NOW AT 

1048 MARKET STREET 

Five Doors Below Granada Theater 

We Use the Only Label Recognized by The American Federation of 
Labor. Accept no Other. 



1UITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

at Popular Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



You May Remember My Name, But Sure Would Like to Have You 
Remember the Number 

1048 MARKET STREET 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 

Kearny 3863 San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES 

One Minute from Ferry Building 

The 

ANCHOR CHAIN 

SAFE DEPOSIT CO. 

11 Steuart Street 
San Francisco, California 



RELIABLE TAILOR 

Popular Prices 

TOM WILLIAMS 

48 CALIFORNIA ST., near Davis 

Phone Douglas 4874 

San Francisco 



Phone Davenport 505 With Morgen's 

BEN HARRIS 

Formerly of 218 East Street 

125 MARKET STREET 
Bet. Spear and Main Streets 

WORK AND DRESS CLOTHES 
SHOES, HATS, CAPS 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

88 Third Street, at Mission 




KODAKS and CAMERAS 

Exchanged, Bought, Sold, 
Repaired and Rented 

Developing and Printing 



TACOMA, WASH, 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



GEO. LONEY, President 
H. O. HAUGEN, Sec.-Treas. 

HAUGEN & LONEY 
TAILORS 

High Grade Custom Tailoring 

942 Pacific Avenue 

PHONE MAIN 8000 

Tacoma, Wash. 



SMOKE 

SAN TEX CIGARS 

Union Made 

San Tex Cigar Co. 937 Tacoma Ave. 
Tacoma, Wash. 

31 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of "The Red Front" 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

NIELS JOHNSON 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



Telephone Garfield 5y4 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 
Quick Service 

98 Embrrcadero and 4 Mission St. 
San Francisco. Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

JACOB PETERSEN & SON 
Proprietors 

Established 1880 



COFFEE AND LUNCH 
HOUSE 

7 Market St. and 17 Steuart St. 
San Francisco 



GEO. A. PRICE 

— SAYS — 

Our success is due to the fact that 
our merchandise is superior and our 
prices are right. Boss of the Road 
and Can't Bust 'Em Union-made 
products are sold with money's worth 
or a money back guarantee. 

First-Class Seamen's Outfitters 
19 The Embarcadero 
San Francisco, Calif. 



64 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1927 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery St*., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL Is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
tny branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now 
in addition \o being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering th»- 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even In the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
w#»il Informed man. und In a comparatively short Interval of time. 




Established 1917 by U. 8. I. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Consolation. — A Western lawyer 
entered a condemned client's cell. 
"Well," he said cheerfully, "good 
news at last." 

"A reprieve?" exclaimed the pris- 
oner eagerly. 

"No, but your uncle has died, 
having you $5000, and you can go 
to your fate with the satisfying 
feeling that the noble efforts of 
your lawyer in your behalf will not I 
go unrewarded." 



A Woolly Round-Up.— Ovis Poli, 
a rare sheep brought to America 
from the uplands of Asia, was sent 
to Harvard for the class reunions. 
Many other rare specimens arrived 
in crimson blazers from all over the 
country.— Judge. 



The Master Key.— The bride was 
telling her friends that Uncle 
George had promised to furnish her 
kitchen with all necessary equip- 
ment — a surprise, because Uncle 
George was notoriously "close.*' 
Just as she had finished dilating on 
his unexpected generosity, a small 
box arrived. Upon opening it she 
found a can-opener to which was 
attached a card reading: "1 am 
sure this will be all the equipment 
you will find necessary in youi 
kitchen. Uncle George." 



Established 1896 After Christmas 

SALE OF JEWELRY 

During January 

We offer big reductions throughout the store in 
Jewelry and Silverware, affording many oppor- 
tunities to save. A visit during this time will 
prove profitable. 

715 MARKET STREET, Bet. 3rd and 4th Sts. 
James <tt.t>orensen jewelers and opticians 

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32 



'-' 




Official Paper of the International Seamen s Union of America 

a C v 

lllC3IIIIIIIIIIIIC3IIIIIIllIlllC3llllllllIIIIC3IIIIIIIIlIIIC3lllltIIIlIIICaillllIIIIIIIC3IIIIIIIIIIIIC3tfllIIIIIIIlC3lllIIIIIIC3IIIf llllllllC3llllllltllllC3If IllltllllIC3f Illltil!lllC3illUl^lIIIC31llfftt«llll 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SE 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools'. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 




Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

Page 

WHO WANTS WAR WITH MEXICO? 67 

SUBSIDY FOR CHIEF JUSTICE 68 

QUARANTINABLE DISEASES 69 

ATTENTION, PRESIDENT COOLIDGE! 69 

EDITORIALS: 

VALUE OF PERSONAL CONTACT 70 

HELP FOR THE POOR 71 

THOUGHTS ON DISARMAMENT. 72 

"YELLOW DOGS" IN MARYLAND 73 

LESSONS OF THE PAST 74 

FASCISM IN ACTION 74 

A FEW DON'TS 74 

THE PROPOSED INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S CODE 75 

JAPANESE SEAFARERS 77 

EVOLUTION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 78 

SEAMEN OF SCANDINAVIA 80 

CLASS LEGISLATION? 80 

THE ALASKA FISHERIES 81 

BOOTLEGGING IMMIGRANTS 82 

BOOK REVIEWS 83 

"WELL SAID" FATHER RYAN 84 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 85, 86, 87, 88 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 89, 90, 91, 92 



VOL. XLI, No. 3 
WHOLE No. 1958 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
MARCH 1, 1927 



iiiiiiioiiiiiinmnnimmiiiniiiiiiiiiiiicjiiiiiiiim 






International Seamen's Union of America 



Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' 



FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 
359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass PERCY J. PRYOR. Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 1258. 
Branches: 

PROVIDENCE. R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Dexter 8090. 

NEW YORK, N. Y CHRIS RASMUSSEN, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa S. HODGSON. Agent 

216 S. Second Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE. Md M. A. SCHUCH, Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 5110. 

NORFOLK. Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk. 

MOBILE, Ala 

68% Dauphine Street 

NEW ORLEANS. La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Jackson 5557 

GALVESTON. Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street, Phone 2215 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WM. ROSS, Agent 

131 Proctor Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTEN 
UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 
Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R I RALPH RIVERS, 

375 Richmond Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa OTTO A. OLSSON, 

216 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, 

735 So. Broadway 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WILLIAM ROSS, 

222 Proctor St. 



DERS' 
Street 

Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 
Branches: 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch) JAS. ALLEN, Agent 

Phone Cortlandt 1979 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I „ RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE. Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WM. ROSS, Agent 

131 Proctor Street. 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass WM. H. BROWN. Secretary 

288 State Street. Phone Richmond 0827. 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass THOMAS COVE, Agent 

209 Main Street. Phone Gloucester 1045. 

NEW YORK. N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton Street. Phone John 4539. 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR EM- 
PLOYES UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 

NEW ORLEANS, La S. C. OATS. Secretary 

910 N. Dorgenois S treet. P hone Galvez 6210-J 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, m 359 North Wells Street 

VICTOR A. OLANDER. Secretary 
Phone Superior 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue. W. Phone Main 1 S42. 

MILWAUKEE. Wis CHAS. RRADHERTNG. Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich GEORGE HANSEN. Agent 

652 Jefferson Ave. W., Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS* UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 308 Superior Avenue, W. 

PATRICK ADAMS, Agent 
Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ERNEST ELLIS. Agent 
Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 652 Jefferson Avenue, W. 

IVAN HUNTER, Agent 
Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 359 North Wells Street 

CHARLES GUSTAFSON, Agent 
Phone State 6175 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

Telephone Seneca 0896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 _ 25 W. Klnzie Street 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Ph<<..e M^in 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis.. 162 Reed St., Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT. Mich 

652 Jefferson Avenue, W. Phone Randolph 0044 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal ~ 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN. Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2207 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 66, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash MARTIN OLSEN, Agenl 

502 East First Street 
P. O. Box 280, Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, ORE JOHN M. MOORE, Agent 

242 Flanders Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal _ HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 So. Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68, Telephone 1713W 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 58 Commercial Stre«t 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on page 28) 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



67 



WHO WANTS WAR WITH MEXICO? 




CHOICE collection of "perfect gen- 
tlemen" including Messrs. Doheny, 
Mellon, or his brother and partner 
acting in his stead, Sinclair, the Stand- 
ard Oil Company of Indiana, some 
of whose officers are still in Europe to avoid 
appearance in United States courts alongside 
of Sinclair and Fall — these are the sinister 
forces behind Kellogg and Coolidge in the 
drive against Mexico. 

The United States Government is exerting 
every ounce of its power in behalf of the most 
discredited, dangerous and anti-American of 
all our brutal and reactionary financial inter- 
ests. The entire force of the nation, as Sena- 
tor Borah says, is to be used in behalf of 
"force and fraud." The most dishonest and 

I; 

dishonorable means are employed by Mr. 
Kellogg with the full approval of Mr. Coolidge 
— and with the utmost deliberation, since Kel- 
logg initiated his campaign twenty months ago, 
almost as soon as he took office, against a 
weak, unfortunate, struggling and certainly a 
more or less progressive neighbor. 

All means are justified, apparently, in this war on 
behalf of private capital — even to the most positive 
and undeniable threats of war, campaigns of false- 
hood and Mussolini-like appeals from the President 
to stand by him even without discussion in his brutal 
aggression against another people at the instigation 
of these minister interests. 

Some iiZW and foolish excuse, such as the false and 
stupid Bolshevist story or the digging up and misuse 
of the so-called Evarts doctrine, is offered by the 
White House to the supposedly gullible and submis- 
sive American public every day — to the amazement 
of civilized mankind. None of these excuses is good 
for more than a few days but the aggression con- 
tinues through a thin disguise of pacifism and pussy 
footing is now being used to lull the people to sleep 
until Congress adjourns on March 4 — when there is 
nothing to prevent our "pacifist" President from drag- 
ging America along in the footsteps of the Kaiser and 
the Czar, both of whom uttered as a cloak for war 
designs just as many volumes of pacifist platitudes 
as Silent Cal. 

One of the chief formulas the President used to 
fool the public refers to the duty "to protect Ameri- 
can interests." The phrase is 99 per cent falsehood 
and fallacy. Protection assumes attack. The inter- 
ests of American capitalists are not being fundament- 
ally attacked anywhere on earth today. American 
capital is too powerful and its assistance is too much 
desired in every country. So there is no case what- 
ever for United States Government intervention or 
"protection" in any form, even the most pacific. 

On the other hand policies are followed in every 
country without exception that work in some degree 
against certain American as well as other interests. 



Secretary Hoover has made a great noise about cer- 
tain practices carried on by Great Britain, Germany, 
France, Brazil, Chile and nearly every important 
country. Certainly American interests suffer in China 
and so do they in nearly every American city and 
nearly every American State. Can there be any ques- 
tion that the Mellons and the Dohenys would threaten 
war on Wisconsin and North Dakota if they could 
get them over the. border? 

Protection for Dollars Invested Abroad 

Then we must also ask whether every American 
capitalist and every American dollar abroad is to be 
designated as America if it were attacked? What 
"American interests" are in question in Mexico? 
None whatever. The only "American interests" are 
the interests of the American nation as a whole. Our 
anti-social trusts and our lawless financiers and in- 
visible government are not recognized as "America" 
inside the United States; how do they become offi- 
cially "American interests" when they get abroad? 

American capitalists abroad have no claim whatever 
on our Government to protect their "interests." They 
can only demand that we protect their "rights." And 
what are these rights? They are living under a for- 
eign sovereignty and neither the American Constitu- 
tion nor any single American law or legal principle 
holds. They have the rights given them by inter- 
national treaties and international law — and no other 
rights. But neither in Mexico nor anywhere else is 
there even a shadow of a violation either of interna- 
tional law or treaties — and if there should be Presi- 
dent Calles has offered to arbitrate. 

The whole frightful campaign is dictated by oil — 
and nothing but oil. There is no dispute about Ameri- 
can-owned mines or railways — only oil and land. But 
the highest estimate of American-owned land is $200,- 
000,000 — and only a minor part of it is vitally affected 
by the new Mexican laws. 

The American Chamber of Commerce in Mexico 
estimates American oil property at $500,000,000 and 
that is merely actual investment. The real value, in- 
cluding deliberately undeveloped properties, may be 
several times as large. 

Titles to Property Obtained by Fraud 

Much of this oil property is out of the discussion, 
being based on "concessions" obtained from the Gov- 
ernment since 1917. Some of these properties, how- 
ever, are based partly on titles obtained by the same 
shameless force and fraud that were used in early 
oil days in the United States. But far worse methods 
were employed in Mexico because of the helplessness 
of the natives and the glaring imperfections of nearly 
all land titles in that part of the country. These com- 
panies may stand to lose something by the new law. 
not because it is retroactive and interferes with good 
titles secured before 1917, but because it proposes to 
investigate all titles whenever secured — though the 
Government has been very liberal in calling poor 
titles good in view of the fact that so many oil shares 
are in the hands of innocent investors. 

Here then is the entire question. The only titles 
that are so bad as to be inacceptable to Mexico are 
those of the Doheny companies not yet completely 
sold out to the Standard Oil Company of Indiana, 
which has the Doheny standpoint in any event. 

And right here is why Doheny and Mellon and 
Coolidge will not arbitrate. Titles that are non- 
existent or were procured by force and fraud at the 
expense of the wretched natives are clearly not arbi- 
trable. There is literally "nothing to arbitrate." Arhi- 



68 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1V27 



tration would settle the matter — against Doheny and 
his Indiana Standard Oil heirs. 

Therefore "to protect the American interests" of t he- 
great and good and patriotic Doheny and the Stand- 
ard Oil of Indiana and force Mexico to follow the 
moral ethics acquired by Mellon in Pennsylvania poli- 
tics, in the oil and distillery business and in the alumi- 
num and super-power trusts, the American people 
are asked to stand by while Mellon and Coolidge 
crush Mexico, abolish Mexican sovereignty and put 
down the United States before the world as a hypo- 
critical capitalist Kaiser ism, more shameless, more 
aggressive and more dangerous to the liberties of 
mankind and the sovereignty of nations than the 
Kaiserism against which the world went to war. 

William Green, president of the Pan-American 
Federation of Labor; Matthew Woll, its treasurer, 
and the rest of the executive committee of that body 
have put the whole situation in a nutshell. "The finan- 
cial, commercial and industrial interests are actuated 
by these motives — namely, profits, profits and more 
profits. In their mad rush to material aggrandize- 
ment they completely lose sight of the rights and 
interests of humanity." 

And when the rights of humanity are lost sight of 
the mad rush tor material aggrandizement plunges 
us inevitably into plunder and threats of violence 
and war. 

Editor's Note — The foregoing was written in Mexi- 
co City for the Seamen's Journal and other papers 
subscribing to the International Labor News Service 
by an exceptionally able journalist, Mr. William 
English Walling, author of "American Labor and 
Democracy" and co-author with Samuel Gompers of 
"Out of Their Own Mouths." 



SUBSIDY FOR CHIEF JUSTICE 



FURUSETH'S VIEW CONFIRMED 



According to Mr. J. Beasley, president of the 
Labor Council of New South Wales, who re- 
turned from the International Labor Confer- 
ence recently, next to nothing was done 
regarding seamen's conditions at the confer- 
ence at Geneva. In fact, there was a tendency 
to make conditions worse instead of improving 
them. 

Mr. Beasley said that the employers 
throughout supported backward measures. 
They were present in strength with their legal 
advisers, and appeared to be bent on confusing 
the issues, even going to the extent of trying 
to prevent the agenda being carried through 
in its original form. "It was evident." said 
Mr. Beasley, "that they had had a bad shock 
from the recent strike, and were out to block 
any progressive moves." — Australian Worker, 
Sydney. X. S. W. 



The Jewish population of the world i- inti- 
mated at 18,080,000. The United States, with 
4,400,000, leads all other countries, and New 
York City, with 2,000,000 Jews, is the largest 

Jewi-h city in the world. 



Chief Justice Taft should resign from the 
United States Supreme Court or renounce hi:-, 
Carnegie subsidy of $10,000 a year, declared 
Congressman Rainey in discussing the bill to 
increase salaries of federal judges. The bill 
was approved and the salaries of Supreme 
Court justices are increased $5,000 a year. 

Pension payments to Mr. Taft commenced 
after the will of Andrew Carnegie was pro- 
bated in August, 1919. Steel trust securities 
valued at $200,000 are set aside to assure $10,- 
000 annually to the chief justice. 

Congressman Rainey called attention to the 
number of times the steel trust and its sub- 
sidiaries have been before the Supreme Court. 

"If a jury,'' said Mr. Rainey, "were being 
called into the box and this great corporation 
or some one of its subsidiaries were a party 
to the suit and a prospective juror were being 
examined as to his qualifications and he 
should admit that he was receiving every year 
a subsidy of Sln.(MM), paid out of a segrega- 
tion for that purpose of the securities of the 
steel corporation, do you think he would be 
accepted on the jury? Xo court would re- 
fuse to sustain a 'challenge for cause.' 

"i 'light not the same principles in fact 
apply to a judge of the court before whom 
the case was being tried? If this proposition 
is true, is the Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, in morals and in 
legal ethics at least — I do not desire to use 
harsh terms — qualified to sit as the Chief 
Justice of the greatest and the most impor- 
tant and the most irresponsible court in all 
the world?" 

The speaker referred to a code of ethic- 
Mr. Taft recently prepared for the American 
liar Association. 

"I agree with him." declared Mr. Rainey, 
'"when he -ays he should not accept favors 
from interests likely to be submitted to him 
for judgment. I agree with him when he 
says that he should 'so far as reasonably pos- 
sible,' refrain from all relations which might 
arouse suspicion that such relations might 
warp or bias his judgment or prevent 'his im- 
partial attitude of mind.' 

Agreeing with these propositions I demand 
that 1m- should either relinquish this subsidy 
i»r resign the high position he hold-." 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



69 



QUARANTINABLE DISEASES 



ATTENTION, PRESIDENT COOLIDGE 



A convention of health authorities, repre- 
senting more than sixty Governments, was 
held in Paris recently to revise the Treaty 
of Paris, adopted in 1912, the purpose of 
which is to collect intelligence regarding quar- 
antinable diseases and to inform the world 
promptly as to such outbreaks in order that 
necessary measures may be taken to prevent 
their spread to epidemic proportions. The 
conference produced a number of knotty prob- 
lems for the delegates to solve. Among the 
first questions to come up was whether the 
League of Nations was to take over the 
intelligence work of the International Health 
Office, an organization resulting from the 
Rome Conference with headquarters estab- 
lished in Paris, or whether the International 
Health Office, which in the past, owing to 
lack of funds, has not functioned as it might 
have, should continue the work. The posi- 
tion taken by the United States, Great Britain 
and France was that the office should be de- 
veloped, and the work not be entrusted to the 
League's health section. Considerable discus- 
sion followed, and resulted in the incorpora- 
tion in the new convention of a provision giv- 
ing entire responsibility to the International 
Health Office. The office was at the same time 
empowered to utilize other organizations such 
as the League of Nations, Pan-American 
Sanitary Bureau, Washington, and the epi- 
demics intelligence service center at Singa- 
pore, through which regular reports are sent 
out weekly by radio or cable regarding tin- 
recurrence of quarantinable diseases. The lat- 
ter, it is understood, will be supported by 
countries in that region and by a Rockefeller 
contribution of $25,000. Another problem dis- 
cussed was whether any country signatory 
to the convention should accept without ques- 
tion the statement of other countries as to 
whether they had a quarantinable disease in 
their territory, or whether the country had 
the right to take measures for the protection 
of its own territory, but the discussion led 
to no change in the present position. 



The probability that we may fail in the 
struggle ought not to deter us from the support 
of a cause that we deem to be just. — Abraham 
Lincoln. 



The Monroe doctrine does not assert or 
imply or involve any right on the part of the 
United States to impair or control the inde- 
pendent sovereignty of any American state. 
In the lives of nations as of individuals there 
are many rights unquestioned and universally 
conceded. The assertion of any particular 
right must be considered not as excluding all 
others, but as coincident with all others which 
are not inconsistent. The fundamental prin- 
ciple of international law is the principle 
of independent sovereignty. Upon tkat 
all other rules of international law re.^t. That 
is the chief and necessary protection of the 
weak against the power of the strong. Ob- 
servance of that is the necessary condition to 
the peace and order of the civilized world. By 
the declaration of that principle the common 
judgment of civilization awards to the small- 
est and weakest state the liberty to control its 
own affairs without interference from any 
other power, however great. 

The Monroe doctrine does not infringe upon 
that right. It asserts the right. The declara- 
tion of Monroe was that the rights and inter- 
ests of the United States were involved in 
maintaining a condition, and the condition to 
be maintained was the independence of all the 
American countries. — Elihu Root. 



CUTTY SARK" ON HER OLD RUN 



Australian newspapers report that the Cutty 
Sark, most famous of the clipper ships that 
raced from England to Australia and back in 
the roaring days, has been revived in all her 
glory, and will leave England shortly on 
another race to Australia. Some years ago 
Captain Dowman, an old deepwater man, pur- 
chased the clipper to save her from the break- 
ers' yard, and now rerigged — a full rigged 
ship — as she was in her prime, she has been 
guaranteed a full cargo for Australia. She 
holds the world's record for a sailing ship of 
54 days from The Lizard to Cape Otway ; but 
the day of the old driving has gone, and her 
old record should remain safe. 



The true university of these days is a collec- 
tion of books. — Carlyle. 



5 



70 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1927 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW PURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

THOMAS CONWAY, Second Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Third Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fourth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
OSCAR CARLSON, Fifth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 
PATRICK O'BRIEN, Sixth Vice-President 

55 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

PETER E. OLSEN, Seventh Vice-President 

49 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURNAL 
is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 



MARCH, 1927 



VALUE OF PERSONAL CONTACT 



When a union starts an organizing cam 
paign a good many members think that all 
there is to it is the calling of a few meetings 
where speeches will be made. They expect 
that these meetings will be advertised to some 
extent in papers that are published in the 
interests of the workers and by the distribution 
of dodgers or throw-away cards. 

After this program has been carried out the 
average member is of the opinion that nothing 
more can be done. This is a mistake. There 
is quite a bit more that can be done. In fact, 
holding of meetings is only a small part of the 
campaign. 

Even on the toughest ship the men are still 
allowed the freedom of conversation, and a 
union member can talk to those working near 
him relative to the merits of organization. His 
fellow workers can listen or not, as they please, 
but even if they show an interest it is not 
possible to talk while at work with the free- 
dom that a person can use after quitting time. 



So, while all methods of approaching the 
workers on the subject ot organization are 
good as far as they can be put into practice, there 
is a method that will go a long way toward 
getting results, if members can be found who 
will be willing to put forth a little time and 
personal effort. This is the method of per- 
sonal contact with your shipmates after work- 
ing hours. 

Members of the Union will soon learn to 
know those who are inclined to look with favo^ 
upon organization. They may not have giveri 
the matter any very serious thought or they 
may have one or two objections that can ba 
overcome, if the matter i> presented to them in 
a logical manner. 

Each one has a different reason for dropping 
out. With one it is pure neglect, with anothei 
it i- a grievance that can be adjusted if taken 
up properly; another has dropped out because 
of a false impression, and so it goes from one 
to another. 

The great majority of the workers are polite 
and courteous when you talk to them in that] 
manner. They are pleased to have some one! 
show an interest in their welfare — and care; 
should be taken to present the subject in that 
light. 

It must be remembered in this connection 
that "easy come, easy go," applies to organ- 
izations as well as to money. Those who keep 
ear muffs on for years, and never respond to 
the call for organization, usually want radical 
changes effected immediately in their wage! 
hours and working conditions, otherwise they 
desert the ranks even more rapidly than they 
came in. 

( )rganization and education go hand in hand. 

The organization that is built slowly, care- 
fully and methodically is able to assimilate 
the additions to its ranks, as they come, and 
time can be taken to drill the membership in 
the fundamentals of the movement ami ac- 
quaint them with the tactics and generalship 
used and the reasons therefor. 

A large membership, suddenly acquired 
without much effort, means that they mu-t be- 
held in line until the process of education and 
drilling has been finished, if the bulk of the 
nization is to be kept intact. 

Voluntary organizers should be careful not 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



71 



to exaggerate the benefits to be derived 
through organization. Promises of immediate 
results should be avoided unless the situation 
is such that there is every indication that such 
results will follow. The prospective candidates 
for membership should be given to understand 
that nothing worth while is ever gained with- 
out effort and some form of sacrifice. They 
ftrust be taught that getting together in an 
organization is only the first step, and after 
that they still have much to accomplish. 

Too many men look upon a union as some- 
thing that any one can throw together over 
night and make function. Hence they do not 
take it seriously, and underestimate the 
amount of work that really must be done 
before any union is ready to carry on a prac- 
tical, constructive work. 

They fail to realize that they must be trained 
and drilled in the tactics and generalship of 
a movement that is similar in many respects 
to a military movement. 

When a conscientious organizer has been 
successful in getting a number of workers to 
join the union, his work has just started, and 
if he has painted a picture of wonderful results 
to be obtained almost as soon as the ink is dry 
on the receipt for the initiation fee, he has only 
paved the way for internal dissatisfaction in 
that union, for the reaction brought on by the 
failure of the wonderful results to appear, will 
leave him and the organization he speaks for 
discredited in the eyes of the workers. And 
this is not all, for all unions will drop in the 
estimation of the workers and the employers 
will not fail to use the opportunity to discredit 
all labor organizations. 

It is far better to be modest in talking about 
the results that can be obtained through or- 
ganization, and workers who join with a full 
knowledge of the fact that effort and sacrifice 
are required will insure the chance of success 
one hundred fold. 

It is a mistake to talk down to any group of 
workers, either when an attempt is being made 
to organize them, or after they are organized. 

Intelligent people hate to be patronized or 
have anyone assume an air of superiority, and 
those who are not intelligent instinctively turn 
from those who have not really got the interest 
of the workers at heart, for their instinct is 



more accurate and sure than the intelligent 
person's powers of observation. 

The organizer who can show a real, sympa- 
thetic interest in the welfare of those he seeks 
to organize ; who has clean habits and who is 
strictly honest in all his dealings, will find no 
trouble in getting plenty of loyal support. 



HELP FOR THE "POOR" 



To the casual reader the refund of income- 
taxes sounds like the "real stuff," and to the 
leg-weary workers of Europe it must send a 
shiver of covetous longing to be born an 
American, where every one has an income, and 
every one gets some of it back again because 
the country as a whole is so fearfully prosper- 
ous that it really doesn't know what to do with 
all the money ! 

Lest it might appear to the unknowing that 
every family in our ideal democracy were to 
benefit by this gigantic refund, the real figures 
show that only 10 per cent of the people would 
receive any refund at all, and most of them 
would only receive from $2 to $10 each. The 
21,531 millionaires which the World War 
helped to create would be paid over $5000 
apiece and those whose incomes exceed $5,- 
000,000 (of which we also have some), would 
receive $35,000 apiece in the form of needed 
"relief." 

Playing "daddy" to the strong and letting 
the weak ones struggle up by their own effort 
is an old story, although in this case it is 
dressed up so that nobody recognizes it with- 
out a second look. To those of us outside the 
10 per cent class, the only consolation is that 
possibly through our adversity the race is be- 
ing hardened. How does it appeal to you to be 
playing a lone hand like that? 



The strength of trade unionism in Mexico 
is shown by recent statistics given out by 
Richard Trevino, secretary of the Mexican Fed- 
eration of Labor, generally known as "CROM." 
This organization enrolls some 2,000,000 or- 
ganized industrial and farm workers. As the 
population of Mexico is less han 15,000,000, the 
labor movement in the United States would 
have to comprise 14,000,000 organized workers 
(instead of less than four million) to show a 
numerical strength comparative with that of 
this so-called "backward" country. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1923 



THOUGHTS ON DISARMAMENT 



President Coolidge has invited the principal 
nations to another conference for the purpose 
of further discussing the reduction of naval 
armaments. The Washington conference of 
1922 limited the building of certain heavy 
types of warships and established a status quo 
on a 5-5-3 ratio between Great Britain, the 
United States and Japan, respectively. Thus 
ended the mad race in the building of heavily 
armored warships. The conference of 1922 
did not limit the construction of submarines 
or light cruisers. 

At the present time United States has ten 
cruisers, to forty for Great Britain and nine- 
teen for Japan. All of these are of pre-war 
construction. The United States is now build- 
ing two and has appropriated for three more. 
Great Britain is building eleven and has ap- 
propriated for three more. Japan is building 
six. When this program is completed the 
United States will have a cruiser tonnage of 
125,000, to 332,290 for Great Britain and 
156,205 for Japan, counting both modern and 
obsolete ships. 

Of course, this array of data has caused the 
American champions of naval preparedness t<» 
shout long and loud for Congressional appro- 
priations to build more cruisers. 

President Coolidge, on the other hand, has 
made it perfectly plain that so far as he can 
determine our naval program the United 
States shall not enter a race of competitive 
building of cruisers or any other sort of arma- 
ment. That way, he says, lies disaster. 

The only way government can be strength- 
ened, maintains the President, is by strength- 
ening the character of the individual citizen. 
Even more important than material disarma- 
ment, he says, is "moral disarmament." When 
the world is morally disarmed, he claims "the 
reduction of material armaments will be easy." 

No one can take exception to the President's 
observations on moral disarmament. Unfortu- 
nately, the world in which we live has a long 
way to travel before even remotely approach- 
ing that ideal state of affairs. True, there are 
some folks who believe that the 1922 limitation 
of naval armament has lessened the likelihood 
of war, and that a further reduction, similarly 
agreed upon, it" radical enough, will virtually 



remove the likelihood of war. The sad and 
bitter fact is, however, that all that has bun 
accomplished is to limit the amount and char- 
acter of armament that is to be used at the 
outbreak of the next war. Mere limitation will 
not handicap any of the governments con- 
cerned in instituting war, because it will be 
known that other powers have been similarly 
handicapped. If all battle-hips, cruisers and 
submarines had, by mutual consent, been 
broken up and utterly vanished from the seas 
there would still remain the merchant fleet. 

When men want to fight it is not neces.-arv 
to have machine guns. < )ld-fashioned pistol; 
or swords will do. And when the latter are 
not available men can still stage a first-class 
tight with their fists. 

Si i. in considering future wars between mari- 
time nations it must be borne in mind that the 
further the limitation of armament is carried 
the more important becomes the merchant 
marine. Every decision to reduce the number 
and size of fighting craft enormously increases 
the value of the merchant fleet for national 
defense and war purposes generally. In the 
final analysis, the total abolition of naval arma- 
ments would firmly establish the nation with 
the largest fleet of merchant vessels as the 
first naval power. 

In a world where navies are outlawed the 
nation with the greate-t fleet of swift pas- 
senger vessels and a sufficient personnel of 
trained seamen would be the strongest mari- 
time power. This is a truism that will hardly 
be questioned either by pacifists or militarists. 

There are today afloat transoceanic liners 
constructed of steel with gun mount installa- 
tion- which could be converted into commerce 
raiders and cruisers within a few days. The 
same fast ships can serve as transports for 
airplanes, with all their deadly implications. 
Should limitation of naval armament ever 
reach the state outlined herein, then the>e 
liner- will he the most formidable warship afloat! 

Statesmen who ignore these plain facts are 
like ostriches with their heads in the sand. 



Ambition looks for opportunity; energy help 
to find it. 



\\ i en a man has nothing to say, then i- a 
good iime to keep still. 



8 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



73 



YELLOW DOGS" IN MARYLAND 



Another "Yellow Dog Contract" forced upon 
employees by an arbitrary management has 
focused the attention of labor and the industrial 
world upon the Western Maryland Railroad 
strike, which has been in progress now for a 
year or more. 

The significant thing in this strike has been 
that three separate organizations have united to 
make a joint study and report of their findings 
in the case, upon the request of local business 
men, ministers, and leading citizens as well as 
the men on strike. 

So far as known it is the first time that three 
organizations representing Protestants, Roman 
Catholics, and Jews have made such a study, 
jointly. Not since the Inter-Church report on 
the steel strike of 1919 has a report of this kind 
been issued. It shows beyond a doubt that the 
churches have an inevitable stake in industrial 
conflict, and that they are willing to assume some 
responsibility in the matter. 

The report is made public by the Research De- 
partment of the Federated Council of Churches, 
the Social Action Department of the National 
Catholic Welfare Commission, and the Central 
Conference of American Rabbis. 

The wage issue was the original cause of the 
dispute which induced the management to com- 
pel the employees to sign individual agreements — 
or Yellow Dog Contracts — with the railroad upon 
penalty of losing their job and their seniority. 

The controversy is of much significance be- 
cause it presents all the elements that are typical 
of American industrial controversies and because 
the Western Maryland Railroad is the only 
Class 1 road in the United States that has refused 
the "standard wage increase" which was initially , 
granted on the New York Central Railroad in 
January, 1921. 

The question that emerges from it all seems 
to be, not that the payment of the standard wage 
would have been a barrier to the payment of 
the road's fixed charges and maintenance of 
solvency, but that it would have been an insur- 
mountable barrier to the payment of stock divi- 
dends on an altogether too large capital stock. 
It is the age-old truth, and resolves itself down 
into the question : to what extent should stock- 
holders undertake to divide their losses with 
labor, and consider their investments not 

9 



solely from the standpoint of possible returns, 
but also of moral responsibilities of ownership. 
The little band of Cumberland and Hagers- 
town ministers whose churches have been vitally 
affected by the long strike and who have taken 
up this fight and caused this impartial report to 
be made are the stuff that real men are made of. 
Too bad that stockholders usually only practice 
their religion on Sunday mornings, if at all. 



BOOZE PRESCRIPTIONS 



The "Zion's Herald," published by the 

Methodist Episcopal Church in New England, 

gives us this choice morsel of information 

about booze prescriptions : 

Physicians in twenty-six states prescribed more 
than 1,588,954 gallons of medicinal spirits for their 
patients last year, according to a report just made 
public by the United States Treasury Department. 
It is also stated that 83,006 doctors were licensed to 
prescribe liquor under the limitation oi one hundred 
prescriptions every three months. These physicians 
wrote 12,995,327 liquor prescriptions during the 
twelve months. That the great cities of the land are 
overrun with epidemics of disease requiring medicinal 
spirits seems to be the only conclusion that can reas- 
onably be drawn from the report. For the statistics 
reveal the fact that New York State physicians made 
out 3,125,184 prescriptions; those of Illinois, 2,188,941; 
those of Pennsylvania, 1,194,755; those of California, 
1,044,573; and 'those of Massachusetts, 717,711. It 
seems clear that New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, 
Pittsburgh, San Francisco, and Boston are largely 
responsible for maladies that demand great quantities 
of liquor. New York and Illinois require nearly one- 
half of all these prescriptions. 

Our contemporary seems to find some real 
humor in this farcical prescription writing. 
But there is a sad and serious side to the story. 
The good prescription whisky is only for the 
favored few. Working men cannot afford to 
pay the price. The common herd must be 
content with plain moonshine or take a chance 
with alcohol that may have been poisoned by 
Government officials. Talk about class legis- 
lation ! 



THE UNVARNISHED TRUTH 



"The efforts of Secretary of State Kellogg 
to link the government of Mexico with the 
Bolshevik regime in Russia is both amusing 
and ridiculous. It is a libel on a friendly na- 
tion that for more than a century has been 
passing through the no man's land that lies 
between despotism and free, stable govern- 
ment." — Representative Ralph F. Lozier of 
Missouri. 



74 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL March. 199 

LESSONS OF THE PAST FASCISM IN ACTION 



Twenty-six years ago the old Pacific Mail 
liner, City of Rio de Janeiro, while entering 
San Francisco harbor from the Orient with 
214 men, women and children aboard, struck 
a ledge of rock off Fort Point and sank in 
twenty minutes. A total of 131 person- were 
lost, including her commander, Captain Ward. 
The City of Rio de Janeiro carried a Chinese 
crew. Subsequent court decisions held that 
the loss of life in this wreck was largely due 
to the inefficiency of said crew. 

Fourteen years rolled by and Congress, in 
1915, enacted the La Follette Seamen's Bill, 
with a standard of efficiency for the deck crew 
and a language test, providing that at least 
75 per cent of the crew, in each department 
of the ship, must be able to understand tin- 
language of the officers. 

Twelve years more have passed. But in the 
year 1927, we still see great passenger liners, 
proudly flying the Stars and Stripes, enter and 
depart from San Francisco manned almost exclu- 
sively by Chinese crews. 

In other respects the world does move. But 
any legal requirements pertaining to proper 
manning of .-hips are stubbornly and rather 
successfully resisted by vessel operators. Sad 
to relate, .the traveling public seems to be en- 
tirely indifferent. And yet it is the traveling 
public that takes the heavy risk and supplies 
most of the victims whenever loss of life at 
sea is due to an incompetent crew. 



At a meeting of the Joint Maritime Commis- 
sion (functioning under the International Labor 
Office of the League of Nations) held in Geneva 
in the second half of January, it was decided 
by a majority vote to ask the governing body of 
the International Labor Office to arrange for a 
special international conference in 1928 to deal 
with matters affecting shipping, including the 
question of working hours at sea. According to 
press notices the majority was obtained owing 
to the FTench shipowners' delegate voting with 
the five seamen's delegates. 



Professors, lawyers, businessmen, and doc- 
tors are not the backbone of the nation ; it is 
the workingmen. The rest of us are just fins. — 
Professor Leonard S. Smith, Professor of City 
Planning at the University of Wisconsin. 



Members of the government-controlled Fas- 
cist trade unions in Italy must subscribe to 
a $2,000,000,000 loan that Mussolini is at- 
tempting to float. 

Employers are ordered to advance the 
money to workers, and the amounts are de- 
ducted from their wages. 

This hold-up is fundamentally correct — 
from the Fascist standpoint. 

1 lemocracy rests on the theory that gov- 
ernments are instituted t<> permit men to de- 
velop their lives — to protect their inalienable 
right to life, liberty and the pursuit of hap- 
piness. 

Fascism rests on the theory that the sole 
purpose of man is to exalt the state. 

Man has no natural right under Fascism. 
He lives for the state. Legislatures are pup- I 
pet-, free speech is denied, the press is si- ■ 
lenced, strikes are prohibited, military tribu- 
nals supercede civil courts, the government 
wages and workers are told how many 
government bonds they must buy. 

Mussolini is spectacular but not original, 
lie merely megaphones the cry of Louis of 
France: "I am the state." 



A FEW DO NTS 



Don't condemn the labor movement because 
you know of "objectionable features." Every 
man and every human institution has some 
imperfections. 

Don't "wait for other.-." Others are waiting 
for you. Some must be among the first — why 
not you? 

Don't forget that the more bitterly the em- 
ployer opposes labor unions, the more the em- 
ployee should support them. There's a financial 
reason. Think it over. 

Don't shirk the moral obligation to do all 
you can to uphold the dignity of our occupa- 
tion — to elevate the standard of our living. 

Don't let so-called "independence" prevent 
you from being unselfish. We are all dependent 
on someone or something. No man stands 
alone. Let's get closer together. 

Don't be blind to your own interests; union 
ism helps all workingmen, all society, tin 
home and state. 



1() 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



75 



THE SEAMEN'S CODE 



Record of Proceedings of Ninth Session of the 

International Labor Conference Analyzed 

by Secretary Victor A. Olander 



The ninth session of the International Labor 
Conference, League of Nations, which met in 
Geneva, Switzerland, June 7 to 24, 1926, was 
highly significant in that the records of its 
proceedings, and the reports relating thereto 
as submitted by our International president, 
show very clearly that the representatives of 
some European governments are beginning to 
seriously consider the wisdom of abolishing 
imprisonment as a penalty against seamen for 
so-called "desertion" from the service of a 
shipowner. A proposed draft convention re- 
lating to disciplinary and criminal penalties 
as affecting seamen, submitted to the confer- 
ence by the International Labor Office con- 
tained, in part, the following paragraphs: 

"Any violation of the rules of law for the protection 
of public interests applicable to a seaman's articles of 
agreement shall constitute an offense, such offenses 
to be divided, in accordance with the present conven- 
tion and national law, into offenses of a criminal nature 
carrying with them criminal penalties and offenses of 
a disciplinary nature involving disciplinary penalties." 
***** 

"Desertion, absence without leave and refusal to 
obey orders shall in principle be disciplinary offenses; 
provided that they may be deemed to be criminal 
offenses either when they endanger the persons on 
board, the vessel or the cargo, or when they are 
accompanied by violence or mutiny. 

'Abondonment of the vessel by the seamen may 
also be deemed to be a criminal offense when this 
offense occurs at sea or in a foreign or colonial port 
during the voyage. Abandonment of the vessel by 
the master shall in all cases be deemed to be a 
criminal offense." 

One of the delegates representing the 

Belgiufn government submitted the following 

amendment: 

"Violation of the provisions contained in seamen's 
articles of agreement may constitute an offense in 
accordance with national law, but only if such pro- 
visions cannot be derogated from by the free will of 
the parties." 

In the discussion which followed, as shown 
by the verbatim record of the conference, it 
was made clear that under the amendment 
imprisonment penalties would be applicable 
only to such infractions as would be punish- 
able even if agreed upon between the parties 
The amendment, which was explained by its 



introducer and by one of the French govern- 
ment representatives, was adopted without a 
division. Later, a cunning effort was made to 
neutralize the effect of the amendment by the 
insertion of another amendment, to read: 

"This convention does not apply to desertion and 
absence without leave." 

The proposed new amendment was, how- 
ever, defeated by a vote of 51 to 35. The pro- 
posed draft convention was then adopted upon 
roll call by vote of 60 in favor to 29 against. 
The employers' representatives, with a few 
government delegates, were lined up solidly 
against it, while the workers' delegates voted 
for it, as also did the most of the government 
delegates. The proposed convention then was 
referred to the drafting committee. When it 
was again reported to the conference it con- 
tained the following modification of the Bel- 
gium amendment: 

"Only those violations of legal provisions from 
which it is not permitted to depart in the articles of 
agreement may constitute criminal or disciplinary 
offenses by virtue of the national law." 

In the meantime, it appears from the record, 
the employers called in their reserve forces. 
When the proposed draft convention was re- 
ported by the drafting committee, it failed to 
receive the two-thirds majority necessary for 
its passage, the vote being 62 in favor to 36 
opposed. Again the employers lined up against 
the proposal, while the delegates representing 
the workers, and several of the government 
delegates, voted for it. 

It was then referred back to the drafting 
committee to be redrafted in the form of a 
recommendation which requires only a ma- 
jority vote. When it was reported back as a 
recommendation, however, it received only 38 
favorable votes, while 50 votes were recorded 
against it and the whole proposed draft con- 
vention was thus finally defeated. 

Another highly significant development 

related to an article dealing with detention 

powers. A part of that proposed article as 

drafted by the International Labor Office was 

as follows : 

"Wherever in accordance with national law the 
offense committed is punishable with imprisonment 
the master may lawfully place the accused, if on 
board, under arrest. He may also have him placed in 
preventative detention if he cannot hand him over 
immediately to public authority." 

The conference committee amended the 



!1 



76 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. V>17 



Labor Office draft mainly by qualifying the 

word "offense," as follows : 

"Whenever a criminal offense which has been com- 
mitted is punishable with imprisonment and the 
accused seaman cannot be immediately handed over 
to the public authorities, the master may, on board 
his vessel, lawfully place him in preventative detention 
if the national law permits of preventative detention 
for such an offense." 

The most important difference between the 
Labor Office proposal and the conference 
amendment is, of course, in the change of the 
words "the offense" to the words "a criminal 
offense." The detention powers of shipowners 
over seamen as proposed by the Labor Office 
were apparently far greater than the confer- 
ence was willing to approve. 

The first vote in favor of the Belgium 
amendment and also the amendment modify- 
ing the proposed power of detention, are 
plainly indicative of the growing trend of 
European thought favorable to freedom for 
seamen, particularly among government dele- 
gates to the International Labor Conferences. 

There are within onr organization some 
doubters who, because they lack both courage 
and understanding, appear to believe that the 
expenditure of the funds of our union in send- 
ing representatives to Europe has been and 
will continue to be barren of results. The 
record which 1 have quoted from is sufficient 
to prove that not only have our past expen- 
ditures in this respect been fully justified, but 
they also show that we have every reason to 
hope for success in the not distant future, if 
we persist in our efforts. It seems evident that 
the adoption of an international proposal which 
would openly declare for the continuance of 
imprisonment as a penalty for so-called "deser- 
tion" has been made practically impossible by 
the effective educational work carried on by 
President Andrew Furuseth as representing 
our International Union. Let the good work 
go on. 

Slavery and Forced Labor 

The maxim, "Eternal vigilance is the price 
of liberty," was never more true than in its 
present application to seamen and, indeed, to 
the working people in general. The League 
of Nations is investigating and discussing the 
institution of slavery and of conditions 
analagous to slavery. On September 25, 1926, 
at Geneva, the League adopted a slavery con- 



vention which is now being submitted to the 
various nations of the world for ratification, 
the purpose, as stated in the convention, being: 
"(a i To prevent and suppress the slave trade," 
and "(b) To bring about, progressively and 
as soon as possible, the complete abolition of 
slavery in all its form-." One article deals 
partially with the subject of "compulsory or 
1 labor," which it is proposed to pro- 
gressively limit so that eventually "it may only' 
be exacted for public purposes." 

It had previously been decided by the League 
authorities that the governing body of the 
International Labor Office should be called 
upon to investigate the subject of forced labor 
and long term contracts. The subject was dis- 
cussed by the governing body of the Labor 
Office on May 25, 1926, at Geneva, and again 
in < Ictober, 1926. I have not yet received in- 
formation concerning the October meeting. 

In view of the fact that the International 
Labor Office, as represented by its director and 
other officials, has not a- yet indicated any 
opposition to forced labor as applicable b 
men. we must be doubly on guard now that the 
whole question of forced labor as affecting all 
workers is being made the subject of discussion 
by that office. 

That the forced labor issue is not limited to 

so-called "native labor" in Africa and parts of 

Asia is indicated by a report submitted to the 

Congress on Christian Work in South America, 

held in Montevideo in March and April, 1925, 

from which I quote the following, relating to 

Central and South America : 

"From the Rio Grande down the west coast to 
Cape Horn, free agricultural labor, as we know it, 
does not exist. In general, the laborers on the estates 
are at various stages of . . . slavery." 

Serious questions are also being raised as to 
conditions in the Philippines and it seems in- 
evitable that the United States will be drawn 
into a discussion with the League in relation 
to the whole subject. The thirteenth amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States, 
prohibiting slavery and involuntary servitude 
within the nation or its possessions, has been 
given much attention by the League agencies 
engaged in the investigation of slavery and 
forced labor. 

Unless we are on our guard and keep our- 
selves thoroughly informed as to develop 



12 






March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



mehts, it is likely that the question of 
compulsory labor as affecting seamen may be 
complicated by agreements affecting compul- 
sory labor among other workers. This situa- 
tion emphasizes the need for continued watch- 
fulness and is a further justification for the ex- 
penditure of whatever union funds may be neces- 
sary to send representatives to European and 
other conferences which deal with the subject. 



JAPANESE SEAFARERS 



The Japanese Seamen's Union has forwarded 
to the International Labor Office a copy of the 
constitution and rules of the union, as adopted 
by a general meeting of the union last year. 
The booklet containing the rules is prefaced 
by a statement on the general policy of the union. 

The statement recalls that the union was 
established in 1921 by the leaders of the 
Japanese seamen, as a result of the conviction, 
born of the second session of the International 
Labor Conference (Genoa, 1920) that a 
national union of Japanese maritime workers 
was absolutely necessary. The union was now 
so firmly established and recognized that its 
president, Mr. Yonekubo, was elected by the 
Japanese workers as their delegate to the 
eighth and ninth sessions of the International 
Labor Conference. 

The union aimed, among other things, at the 
establishment of free employment exchanges 
for seamen, the recognition of the right of 
association, the establishment of a system of 
collective bargaining, and the promotion of 
legislation for the protection of seafarers. The 
union demanded also the prompt ratification 
of conventions adopted by the International 
Labor Conference, the regulation of hours of 
work, the fixing of minimum wages, the estab- 
lishment of proper standards of manning of 
vessels, and the institution of social insurance 
for seamen. 

The membership of the union in March last 
was 41,631, the rate of increase being about 
500 per month on the average. 

Regulations for Fishermen 

The number of workers engaged in the fish- 
ing industry in Japan, according to the latest 
investigation by the Department of Agricul- 
ture and Forestry, is estimated to be over 
800,000. 



Many of these fishermen are engaged in 
deep-sea fishing along the sea coast of Hok- 
kaido, Kamchatka, and northern Russian 
territories. Their conditions of employment 
are very different from those of industrial 
workers ; for instance, the profit from the fish- 
ing is divided between employers and fisher- 
men by a percentage agreement. 

For this reason, fishermen have not hitherto 
come under the general labor legislation 
applicable to industrial workers. 

Owing, however, to the perilous nature of 
their work, as well as the defects of the 
residential districts of the fishing ports, many 
of these fishermen lose their lives, or are 
smitten by disease or accident, and the neces- 
sity of adequate protection for them has long 
been felt. The recent wreck of the fishing 
vessel "Chichibu-Maru" off the coast of Hok- 
kaido demonstrated in the most glaring fashion 
the want of legal protection for fishermen ; 
it was found that nothing could be done legally 
for the relief of the surviving families on 
account of the absence of provisions for the 
relief of fishermen. 

Recently, however, the Department of Agri- 
culture and Forestry has begun to prepare 
regulations dealing with this matter, with a 
view to affording to fishermen a protection 
equal to that given to industrial workers. 



STUDYING LIFE IN THE SEA 



The Biological Institute on the island of 
Helgoland, which is nearing completion, will 
contain the best equipped aquarium in the 
world. In addition to one great basin for many 
kinds of fish, containing some 6000 gallons of 
water, there will be forty other basins devoted 
to every variety of life found in the sea, from 
sharks down to the tiniest living things. There 
will also be a bank with seals. The water 
supply will be kept clear by a new kind of 
sand filter. A further step forward is the use 
of water pipes of celluloid, which, in contrast 
with all materials heretofore used, is not af- 
fected by sea water. The new institute will 
be the only one of its kind in the world that 
carries on its own scientific investigations. 
There will be working rooms for thirty-one 
foreign scientists and several lecture rooms. 



13 



78 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1927 



EVOLUTION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 
(By !)r. Vernon Kellogg*) 



Involution seems to be a real bugaboo to many 
people. To scientific men, who are men no dif- 
ferent from other people except that they observe 
more exactly and study more intensively the phe- 
nomena of nature than others do, evolution is 
a well-proved phenomenon. It seems prepos- 
terous — and dangerous — to scientific men that 
the teaching of evolution in schools and col- 
leges should be banned. If its teaching should 
be prohibited, then the teaching of the rest of 
zoology and botany and geology — in a word, of 
natural history in general — should be prohibited. 
For natural history can no longer be honestly 
taught without including evolution as a part of 
it. Even were evolution only a theory and not 
yet a proved fact, a knowledge of it as a great 
and interesting theory which attempts to explain 
rationally many of the phenomena of life on the 
earth should be taught. Just as we teach, with- 
out hesitation and as a part of a full education, 
a knowledge of other theories, past or present, 
that attempt to explain various natural phe- 
nomena. The "atomic theory" is taught in all 
school and college courses of chemistry. Why 
not the "evolution theory?" Rut evolution is be- 
yond the theory stage. Evolution is a reality. 

The attitude of those who will not accept 
evolution as a proved fact, and who attack it 
because of what they believe to be its implica- 
tions with regard to religion, is pathetic and even 
tragic. And this for two reasons : first, because, 
as revealed by the whole history of the relation 
between science and religion, science always 
finally wins in any conflict between itself and 
religion whenever and wherever religion tries to 
hold science back or disregard it ; and, second, 
because the implications of an acceptance of 
evolution which many religious believers assume 
are such as to be antagonistic to religion or to 
exclude it from human life really have no such 
meaning at all. It cannot be too often declared 
that science, and evolution as a part of science, 
do not nullify religion. Many competent scien- 
tists and evolutionists are convinced religious be- 
lievers. The only real conflict between religion 



♦Doctor Kellogg was formerly Professor of Ento- 
mology of Leland Stanford University; was associated 
with Mr. Hoover in the Belgium War Relief work 
and United States Food Administration, and is chair- 
man of the National Research Council. 



and science comes when an attempt is made by 
too zealous followers of religion to explain all 
natural phenomena on the basis of the allegories 
of the Puble, or when too zealous scientific men 
carry their science too far and attempt to find 
in it a substitute for religion. These two fields 
of human understanding and belief are 
in truth coexistent and supplementary, not exclu- 
sive of each other. In a full human life both 
play their part, and to limit our knowledge fcO 
either alone is bound to result in dangerous igno- 
rance and an incomplete life. 

The proofs of evolution have been so often 
and so abundantly set out in books and articles 
for the general reader that it cannot be neces- 
sary to repeat them here. What I may do here, 
however, is to stress the cumulative effect in 
proving evolution that the discovered facts along 
so many special lines of investigation have. The 
agreement of all these facts as explicable by 
evolution and inexplicable on any other basis is 
positive, and, as an argument, literally over- 
whelming. 

We are used to accept most of the dicta of 
science. We guide our material life by these 
dicta. We bet our lives on them over and over 
again. Eagerly we await and accept the facts 
of mathematics and astronomy, of physics and 
chemistry, of geology and geography, as they 
are constantly being revealed by the scientific 
workers in these fields. But when the same kind 
of scientific workers, pursuing their investiga- 
tions and reaching their conclusions by the same 
methods and in the same way, announce facts 
and conclusions in the sciences of general biol- 
ogy, of anatomy, physiology and embryology, 
of psychology, anthropology and paleontology, 
that show the reality of evolution, we do not 
accept them — because emotions and traditions 
control us. 

We once had emotions and traditions about 
the revolution of the sun around the earth, and 
about the earth's flatness, which kept us for a 
long time from accepting the declarations con- 
cerning these matters, founded on scientific 
study, made by astronomers, physicists, and 
geologists. But now we do accept them. 

Similarly we had emotions and traditions that 
postponed our acceptance of the facts and their 
implications about the seat of the mind, the 
circulation of the blood, the origin of worms 
and snakes from horsehairs in water, and so on. 



14 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



79 



We now accept the dicta of biologists about 
these things ; but we do not accept their dicta 
about evolution. We do not want to. Hence, 
we just simply don't. Curious attitude of mind; 
but one that cuts a figure, often a large figure, in 
all the history of the advancement of knowl- 
edge. 

The scientific evidences from any one of the 
great fields whose exploration has yielded irre- 
futable proofs of evolution are sufficient alone 
to warrant our acceptance of evolution as a fact. 
But when we add together the evidences from 
all these fields, the proof of evolution is simply 
inescapable. These major fields which have 
yielded the facts that prove evolution are paleon- 
tology, or the study of the fossils in the rocks ; 
comparative anatomy and the classification of 
the million known living kinds of animals and 
plants; embryology, or the development of indi- 
viduals belonging to any of these kinds; the 
geographical distribution of living and extinct 
plants and animals over the continents and 
islands, the oceans, lakes and rivers of the 
world ; and, finally, the comparative behavior 
and psychology of the different living animals. 

But there are still other fields of study which 
yield proofs of evolution which while less in 
extent than the major ones are hardly less in 
importance. One such field, the exploration of 
which is comparatively recent and still going on 
actively, is the comparative study of the chemi- 
cal composition and the physiology of the blood 
of animals. From this study, carried on with 
great refinement and delicacy of technique, have 
come results which reveal the much greater 
chemical and physiological similarity of the blood 
of closely related animals as horse and donkey, 
dog and wolf, etc., than of the blood of more 
distantly related animals. One recent result of 
this work is the proof of a distinctly greater 
likeness between the blood of man and that of 
the anthropoid apes than between the blood of 
the apes and that of monkeys ! Although we 
are not descended from the anthropoid apes of 
today, we are fairly blood cousins of them, and 
undoubtedly trace our biological genealogy back 
to common, although far distant, ancestors. 

But it is superfluous to list the further sources 
of evidence for evolution. The major sources 
already referred to provide enough and more 
than enough proof of evolution for any open- 
minded person. It is not more proof that is 



necessary. W r hat is needed is more explanation 
of what the acceptance of evolution as a proved 
fact implies — and does not imply in connection 
with our understanding of nature, of the uni- 
verse, of God and religion. We do all want to 
know what an acceptance of evolution means 
for us. 

In this connection the very first thing that 
I would say is that evolution has literally noth- 
ing to say about the existence or nonexistence 
of God. It does not explain, in any way, the 
origin or existence of matter and energy. It 
does not explain the ultimate beginning of things 
nor the final outcome of things. It does not 
explain ultimate causes. It does not explain even 
its own causes. It is an explanation of methods 
of change and progress on the earth. It means 
a certain kind of natural procedure. It explains 
much of the orderliness of nature. It supplants 
irrationalness by rationalness. 

The acceptance of evolution involves no man 
in the necessity of casting off religious belief. 
It may make him cast aside certain theological 
dogmas, but it does not make him cast aside 
his belief in true religion and the value of its 
guidance in his life. Theological dogmas arc 
only unfortunate excrescences that have grown 
on true religion. They vary with time and place 
and men. True religion is essentially invariable. 
The good and the glory of it outlast all inci- 
dents of theological history. The true spirit of 
religion abides regnant in the human soul. It 
is undisturbed by the "conflict between science 
and religion" which is an unreasonable, unfor- 
tunate and unnecessary conflict. Indeed, there 
should be no such conflict. The real conflict is 
between science and theology. Science and evo- 
lution do not invade the field of true religion. 
But theology does invade the realm of science. 
And the inevitable outcome of such invasion is 
defeat. It always has been defeat; it always 
will be. — American Federationist. 



Luck is ever waiting for something to turn 
up. Labor, with keen eyes and strong will, 
will turn up something. Luck relies on 
chance, Labor on character. — Cobden. 



A nation which labors, and takes care of 
the fruits of labor, would be rich and happy, 
though there were no gold in the universe. 
— Ruskin. 



15 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL M arc h, 1927 

SEAMEN OF SCANDINAVIA CLASS LEGISLATION? 



All the collective agreements in the shipping 

trade of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway are 
under notice of termination. In the first-named 
countries the trade-unions took this step, 
while in Norway the employers are the attacking 
party. 

In Sweden notice was given because the unions 
want the new agreement to embody a guaranty 
against a lengthening of working hours, with a 
view to avoiding an increase in the working 
hours in port from eight to eight and one-half, 
which an act passed by the Swedish Parliament 
last year allows. In addition the unions want 
safeguards against other disadvantages which 
might accrue from this act, and increases averag- 
ing 10 crowns in the monthly wages. The ship- 
owners, on the other hand, propose wage reduc- 
tions ranging from 10 to 15 per cent, and the 
cancellation of a number of general clauses which 
have operated to the advantage of the men. 

In Denmark notice of termination was accom- 
panied by a demand for the revision of the slid- 
ing scale provisions, as the seamen are dissatis- 
fied with the present arrangements. 

Nothing is yet known as to the motives which 
prompted the Norwegian shipowners to give 
notice of termination to the collective agreement. 
Though no demands have yet been presented, 
the seamen anticipate an attack on wages. The 
notice applies both to the agreements in home 
trade and in foreign-going shipping. 



THE LOOK-OUT 



Alone, surrounded by the sea at nignt, 

Beneath the flaming of the mighty stars, 
I, frail and human, filled with awe 

Stand; silent watcher in the dark. 
My comrades sleeping, trust my vigilance, 

The guiding helmsman on my warning waits— 
The officer on my timely cry shall act — 

Safety perhaps, depends on me alone! 

How many dangers threaten on the deep! 

What horrors may this ancient sea raise up! 
My comrades, trusting, wait my warning word, 

As staring through the night's obscurity 
Sphinx-like I look for what — I do not know — 

That I may warn the world I live upon 
And spur them on to action, as we seek 

Security, the world's desire. 



Behold! What dream is this? 
I am a sailor and my world's the ship! 
Eight bells have struck. Where's my relief? 
He comes — another silent watcher in the dark. 

— Abalidot. 



The I. a Follette seamen's law is not "class 
legislation; it repealed the imprisonment fea- 
ture of the master and servant law as applied 
to seamen fifty years after it had been applied 
to everybody else," said Andrew Furttseth. 
president of the International Seamen's Union, 
writing to the Wall Street Journal. 

That newspaper recently declared in a lead- 
ing editorial: "Only politics, as represented in 
class legislation, like the La Follette seamen's 
law. will long keep unionism alive." In his 
letter, the trade unionist called attention to the 
leading provisions of the seamen's law. 

"Under treaties between the United States 
and some thirty other nations," he said, ''it 
was mutually agreed that seamen who broke 
their contract to labor, while the vessel was in 
a safe harbor, were to be pursued from State 
to State, arrested, detained and surrendered 
back to those to whom they owed service or 
labor. This was done fifty years after the 
fugitive slave law had been abolished in the 
United States. Is this class legislation? 

"American vessels doing about 8 per cent of \ 
the world's carrying trade had a yearly aver- 
age of thirty-seven cases of scurvy and berri- 
berri for more than twenty years prior to the j 
passage of the seamen's act. England, doing 
67 l /> per cent of the world's carrying trade, 
had a yearly average of sixty cases of scurvy 
and berri-berri. The new English scale of pro- I 
visions was adopted in 1906. The present scale 
for American vessels was adopted in 1898, and I 
was amended and completed in I'M 5 in the 
seamen's act. Scurvy and berri-berri have dis- 
appeared from under those flags since the pas- '\ 
sage of those laws. Is that class legislation? 

"The American ship was known as the 
'blood tub of the ocean.' There was more 
brutality, more maiming, beating and wound- 
ing in the 8 per cent of the world's carrying 
trade, controlled by America, than in the 67 l / 2 I 
per cent controlled by Great Britain. Was 
the abolition of that condition in American 
vessels class legislation? 

"American ships were permitted to go to 
sea with men, none of whom, exclusive of li- 
censed officers, had ever been to sea before. 
The seamen's act, in the interest of the travel- 
ing public, took the provisions of foreign na- 



1'. 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



81 



tions as to skill and made them applicable to 
American vessels and all other vessels leaving 
ports of the United States. Is this class legis- 
lation? 

"The seaman, naturally, had to be fed, but 
he was compelled to carry his own mess gear 
— spoon, knife, fork, plate and drinking cup. 
Under the new law these are furnished. They 
are furnished to everyone else, prisoners in- 
cluded. The seaman was the last to get them. 
Is this class legislation? 

"Every nation has some provision specify- 
ing the space in which the seaman was to live, 
eat and sleep when off duty. There was no 
such American law, except that the vessel 
owner was exempt from paying tonnage tax 
on the space, six feet high, six feet long and 
two feet wide per man — high enough to stand 
in, long enough to lie down in and wide 
enough for a man's shoulders. This was ex- 
pressed by Senator Gallinger as "a little too 
large for a coffin, not large enough for a 
grave." The seamen's act took the average 
space allotted to seamen on foreign vessels 
and made it applicable to seamen on American 
vessels. Is this class legislation? 

"The La Follette act provides for safety to 
the traveling public on American vessels leav- 
ing the United States and made the same 
laws applicable to foreign vessels leaving the 
United States. Is this class legislation?" 



THE ALASKA FISHERIES 

By Peter E. Olson 
Secretary Alaska Fishermen's Union 



Very few trade-unionists know that the larger 
American-Alaska salmon-packing companies em- 
ploy union fishermen. These concerns have had 
contractural relations with the Alaska Fisher- 
men's Union for a period of about twenty- four 
years. These relationships have suffered a rup- 
ture on some occasions when strikes have taken 
place, but agreements have always followed. 
Every fisherman in the Bristol Bay district of 
Alaska — the greatest of all salmon fishing 
grounds — is a union man. 

And early in the spring a great fleet of fishing 
vessels, carrying approximately three thousand 
fishermen, leave San Francisco for Alaska. 

In co-operation with the Alaska Fishermen's 
Union, which is a division of the International 
Seamen's Union of America, the big salmon fish- 
ing companies operating in the Bristol Bay dis- 



which some- 
the sanitation of the 
wish to direct the at- 



trict have arrangements for not only fair wages 
and decent working conditions for the fishermen, 
but also regulations assuring proper sanitary 
rules that protect the men and the product. Ma- 
chinery has been developed to a point where 
human hands rarely if ever touch the fish as 
it passes through the various operations for 
canning. 

With regard to certain criticism 
times crops out against 
Alaska salmon industry I 
tention of the public to the methods used in pre- 
paring the salmon for canning. 

After the fishermen deliver the catch of salmon 
to the canneries the inside workers, consisting 
chiefly of Mexicans and Filipinos, assist in feed- 
ing the salmon into the machinery which does 
practically all the work, preparing the salmon for 
canning. The process of cutting, sliming and 
cleaning is done by very efficient machinery, 
which has been developed to a point where 
human hands never touch the fish. The process 
of preparing the fish is as follows : 

The fish are fed into a machine called the 
Iron Chink or cleaning machine, which cuts off 
the head, fins and tails, and removes the entrails, 
after which the fish coming through this clean- 
ing machine are landed on small tables where 
they are thoroughly scraped and cleaned, pass- 
ing through a continuous flow of fresh running 
water. They are then deposited on a conveyor 
which brings the fish to a revolving knife which 
cuts the fish into sizes, filling the sanitary tins 
in which they are canned. These tins are con- 
veyed on a belt to the weighing machine, which 
registers the correct weight. From there the 
tins go to the sanitary topping machine, which 
crimps the tops on the tins. From there the tins 
pass along to the retorts where the salmon goes 
through a certain process of cooking, under care- 
fully regulated heating. 

It is true that in former years before machin- 
ery had been developed to the present-day stand- 
ards there was some occasion for criticism in the 
salmon-canning industry as well as in other can- 
ning industries, but with the development of 
machinery which does practically all the work 
of preparing and canning the salmon, and the 
continued inspection of the salmon before it is 
canned, the Alaska salmon-canning industry has 
developed a high standard of sanitation. 

The offal of the salmon, such as the heads. 



17 



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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1927 



tails, fins and entrails, is conveyed to a reduc- 
tion plant which works in unison with the Iron 
Chink cleaning machine and is reduced to fish 
oil and fertilizer. Thus the canning at the end 
of a day's work is clean and sanitary and com- 
pares favorably with any other food-producing 
factory. 

Each of the several salmon-packing companies 
has a doctor at the canneries to take care of the 
employees, and each of the companies maintain 
a small hospital where the sick are cared for. 
This condition has been obtained through the 
agitation of the Alaska Fishermen's Union and 
the fairness of Alaska salmon-packing com- 
panies, with which we have had a continued 
agreement for the past twenty-four years, and 
with which we hope to enter into another agree- 
ment this coming 1927 season. 

The Alaska salmon fleet, which up to two 
years ago consisted mainly of large steel sailing 
ships, of which the Alaska Packers' Association 
was the owner of about thirty vessels, and I be- 
lieve the finest fleet of sailing ships in the world 
owned by one company, has now practically dis- 
appeared from the Pacific Ocean. Large steam- 
ers have now taken their places which have mate- 
rially reduced the time consumed for the voyage 
by about six weeks, as compared by the time con- 
sumed on the same voyage when sailing vessels 
were operated by the Alaska salmon-canning 
companies. 

The salmon industry of Alaska is, I believe, 
the richest enterprising industry in Alaska and 
perhaps in the world. It overshadows in riches 
the gold and other minerals taken out of Alaska. 
It is an industry which is perpetual. It will con- 
tinue to pay the investors and continue to feed 
a very large number of people every year all over 
the world, as several million cases of salmon are 
canned every year which is distributed to prac- 
tically all the countries in the world, and with 
the assistance of the Bureau of Fisheries which 
is protecting and regulating the salmon industry 
and with the assistance of the salmon packers 
and fishermen protecting the salmon horde, the 
salmon industry will be a perpetual source of 
food and wealth forever and ever. 

The present agreement between the Alaska 
salmon-packing companies and the Alaska Fisher- 
men's Union has expired and the representatives 
of the union will soon meet with represen- 
tatives of the companies for the purpose of nego- 



tiating a new agreement, and we feel confident 
that a new agreement satisfactory to all will be 
entered into between the union and the salmon 
packers for the coming 1927 fishing season. 



BOOTLEGGING IMMIGRANTS 



The United States Senate has approved the 
King bill which will stop bootlegging of immi- 
grants and smuggling of Orientals to this coun- 
try by shipping interests. 

It is customary for certain vessels sailing to 
American ports to employ more seamen than 
necessary. The surplus is lost in the large 
American port cities. The King law provides 
that on departing from an American port if a 
vessel fails to carry the same number of sea- 
men carried on arrival, clearance papers will be 
denied. 

Persons classed as seamen, and who, on ex- 
amination are found not to be seamen, shall be 
considered aliens and subject to the immigration 
law. If found inadmissible under that law the 
alien shall be deported "on a vessel other than 
that by which brought, at the expense of the 
by which brought, and the vessel by which 
brought shall not be granted clearance until such 
expenses are paid or their payment satisfactorily 
guaranteed." 

Certain vessel owners and those engaged in 
the traffic of Orientals opposed the bill, but dis- 
cussion of the methods employed by the boot- 
s revealed their purpose. With the cost 
placed on shipowners of returning aliens alleged 
to be seamen they will be careful to ship only 
competent seamen and will arrive with no greater 
number than which they will depart from Ameri- 
can ports. 

As soon as the bill had passed the Senate, 
foreign shipowners became busy in their opposi- 
tion in the House. This seems to indicate that 
those American shipowners, who opposed the 
bill in the Senate, were speaking for the foreign 
shipowners. 

The bill will not apply to an American ship- 
owner who signs his crew in a continental port 
of the United States. This fact should make it 
easy for anyone to locate the real opposition to 
this measure. 



For every man who knows more than he tells 
there are fifty who tell more than they know. 



18 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



83 



BOOK REVIEWS 



SHIP MODEL-MAKING. Vol. II. How to Make 
a Clipper Ship. By Captain E. Armitage McCann. 
The Norman W. Henley Publishing Company, 
2 West Forty-fifth Street, New York. Price $2.5*0. 

Though we live in the noisy age of iron and 
steel, is there anyone whose imagination is so 
dead that he cannot hear the wind in the rigging 
and the roar of the waves as he looks at a tiny 
model of the sharp overhanging bow of a fast- 
sailing clipper that used to cut the rough seas 
of two continents with unbelievable speed, in the 
early days of America's merchant marine! 

If such there be, he will find no time for the 
second volume of Ship Model Making, which 
deals exclusively with the practical and simple 
plans of making an American clipper ship to 
scale, from start to finish. 

For the rest of us in whom imagination still 
lives the author describes in simple detail just 
how to make, with simple tools and with an hour 
or two a day, at sea or at home, a model of the 
"Sovereign of the Seas," one of the most famous 
of the early clippers. 

Famous also as privateers in the early wars 
of the United States, these clippers stand as a 
fast disappearing landmark of the past. For- 
tunate is he who can bring these days back again 
to the imagination in so concrete a w 7 ay. This 
recent volume, following on the heels of Vol I, 
which deals with model-making of Spanish gal- 
leons and pirate ships, reviewed in these columns 
in October, 1926, is a practical and timely help 
and inspiration to build with one's own hands, 
an accurate model of these heroic ships in whose 
masts still floats the romance of the seas. 



AMERICAN LABOR AND AMERICAN DEM- 
OCRACY. By William English Walling. Pub- 
lishers, Workers Educational Bureau Press, New 
York. 2 Volumes. Price $1.50 the set. 

Just as labor cannot be impersonally con- 
sidered as a commodity, so the American 
labor movement cannot justly be considered 
in the abstract. The man who would truly 
write its history, must not only have studied 
its documents, but must have known its 
outstanding leaders and must have worked 
with them in their constructive plans to ad- 
vance the cause of the worker from year 
to year. 

This, William English Walling has been 
singularly fortunate in doing, having been as- 



sociated with organized labor during the 
war, and having accompanied the American 
labor delegation to Europe during the peace 
negotiations at the personal invitation of the 
late President Gompers. 

When such a man writes a book on Ameri- 
can labor and American democracy, we may 
all well listen to what he has to say, for he 
speaks from a singularly broad and well- 
informed point of view. 

The book is written in two volumes. The 
first, Labor and Politics — the second, Labor 
and Government. In these volumes, the 
author shows us that the tremendous growth 
of power of organized business in America 
has been steadily matched year by year by 
an equally strong growth in the principles 
of self-government practiced by a variety of 
labor organizations as remarkable and as 
typically American as the business structure 
itself. 

He defends the American labor policy of 
"Rewarding its friends and punishing its 
enemies," as expressed in the Bill of Griev- 
ances of 1906, as a "defensive and negative 
political action on the part of labor that has 
served as a bridge by which organized labor 
has passed from an almost exclusive pre- 
occupation with wages, hours and collective 
bargaining, to a broadly constructive eco- 
nomic and political policy — whereby it has 
found a host of new friends and associates, 
irrespective of existing political parties. Its 
constructive policies of social reform and 
social justice keenly concern all other citi- 
zens as well as organized labor." 

The book is a chronicle of the achieve- 
ments of labor, not only those that concern 
labor primarily, such as the establishment of 
a labor unionist as Secretary of Labor, the 
Adamson eight-hour law for railroads, the 
Clayton Act and the Seamen's Act, but also 
those that do not especially concern wage 
earners, such as the postal savings bank law, 
direct election of Senators, the parcel post 
law, the Industrial Education Act and the 
Immigration Restriction Act. 

The author points to a big future for the 
American labor movement and says that 
".American labor is evolving a political 
method and a view of political government 
and a policy for the government of industry 
new alike to America and the world." — Ekel. 



19 



84 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 192 



"WELL SAID," FATHER RYAN 



The Rev. John A. Ryan, of the National 
Catholic Welfare Conference, is a clerical 
economist who has long championed the 
workers' cause. We are not in full accord 
with everything that Father Ryan states in 
economic matters, but we have a great respect 
for the views he holds. His recent remarks 
on the present situation of the American 
wage-earners are worthy of the careful study 
of everyone in the American Federation of 
Labor. 

He pointed out that in the early days of 
this country and until recently the workers 
had an avenue of escape from the drudgery 
of industry by settling upon free land given 
away by the nation. Today we no longer can 
obtain homesteads and, therefore, it is im- 
perative that we devote careful attention to 
our status as workers and take every oppor- 
tunity to improve it. Father Ryan points out 
we are not attaching sufficient importance to 
this problem due to the present industrial 
situation. 

"The majority of the union members," said 
Father Ryan, "have become relatively indif- 
ferent . in the present condition of alleged 
prosperity. The members do not attend union 
meetings. Leaders are unable to show the 
union a vital necessity. The most significant 
result is that workers are becoming more and 
more dependent upon the good-will of their 
employers. 

"Obviously this condition is little more 
than a benevolent serfdom. Under it workers' 
minds will become slave minds. . . . We don't 
want to become a nation of hired men. The 
task must be performed by the labor unions 
and the first step in the process is to prac- 
tice labor sharing in management. . . . Let 
it (the labor movement) continue to seek bet- 
ter working conditions, bring into unions the 
vast number of wage-earners now unorgan- 
ized, continue the campaign for protective 
labor legislation." 

His analysis of the present situation which 
indicates an indifference on the part of those 
who should be most vitally interested in the 
labor union may not sound pleasant, but who 
will say that it is not the truth? Many 
union men are continually neglecting their 



duties, satisfied to permit a minority of faith- 
ful members to carry on the fight. There is 
undoubtedly too great a tendency upon the 
part of many to become "dependent" on the 
good-will of the employer, forgetting entirelv 
the many years of effort of organized labor 
to attain its present status. Aside from 
this, however, the most important point that 
Father Ryan raises is that of the danger of 
the worker losing his independence and the 
spirit that impels him to develop his person- 
ality and individuality. He urges us to strive 
tor greater things than mere increases in 
wages and improvement in conditions; lie 
believes it is time to make demands for a 
part in the management of industry. 

Father Ryan's statement is timely and 
should carry weight with those who are 
prone to condemn every proposal labeled pro- 
gressive or radical. Here is a man who is 
a spiritual as well as an economic counselor. 
He cannot be accused of being a thoughtless 
agitator, seeking to create dissatisfaction, bit- 
terness or hatred. He has had the courage 
to point out some of our weaknesses. 

The American Federation of Labor as tin- 
organized expression of the American wage- 
earners fully realizes the task before it and 
is striving to chart a course that will insure 
the greatest progress of our class, but the 
effectiveness of the A. F. of L. in this effort 
depends entirely on the activity of every 
union member. 

We wish it were possible for every union 
man and woman to weigh the words of 
Father Ryan, for we are sure that it would 
arouse them to healthy thought and action— - 
Upholsterers' Journal. 



SEAMEN IN HISTORY 



It has been said that the decadence of the 
maritime power of the Venetian Republic 
started from the day slaves manned its vessels. 
At the height of Venice's glory, free men. citi- 
zens of the republic, manned the Venetian 
galley-, and every man on board took pride in 
the vessel and her trading activities. When 
slaves replaced citizens pride vanished from 
Venetian activities and sordid commercialism 
did its fatal work, with the result recorded in 
history. 



20 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



85 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The White Flyer Line operating between San 
Francisco and Los Angeles has suspended in- 
definitely. Additional operating capital is neces- 
sary before the service will be resumed. 

An order changing the name of the Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation to the Merchant Fleet 
Corporation has been signed by Acting Chair- 
man Hill of the Shipping Board. The change 
was authorized by Congress. 

Dr. Harvey C. Hayes of Washington has 
been awarded the John Scott medal by the 
Washington Academy of Sciences in recogni- 
tion of his invention of a sonic depth finder for 
measuring distances below water. 

A total of 173,214 passports were issued by 
the Department of State during the year 1926, 
up to but not including December 21. About 
300 passports were issued daily between De- 
cember 20 and January 1, making a total of 
172,209 for the year. 

Some 4200 bottles of champagne and thirteen 
cases of narcotics were seized at Hoboken Feb- 
ruary 16 on board the Shipping Board S. S. 
Ambridge, operated by the American Diamond 
Lines. A fine of $21,000 was imposed upon the 
master, E. P. Shevlin, and the first mate, George 
Glass. 

A consignment of $50,000 in currency from 
Central America was reported missing from the 
Panama Mail S. S. Colombia when she arrived 
at Los Angeles recently. A substantial part of 
the loot was recovered by searchers who found 
various sums concealed in hiding places on the 
vessel. 

An appropriation of $400,000 is sought in 
the Army Appropriation Bill now being 
drafted for the reconditioning of the army 
transport U. S. Grant, ex Konig Wilhelm II, 
of the Hamburg-American Line, seized in 
1917. This vessel is of 9410 tons gross, built 
in 1907, and runs on the Pacific. During the 
war she was used as a naval transport under 
the name of Madawaska. 

Governor Young of California has appointed 
C. L. Tilden, Frank C. Sykes and Paul Schar- 
renberg as members of the Board of Harbor 
Commissioners of San Francisco. The water- 



front of San Francisco, including all wharves 
and ferry slips, is owned by the state of Cali- 
fornia. The Harbor Commissioners are the 
trustees for this property. Governor Young's 
appointments have been confirmed by the 
State Senate. 

Refunds of $87,077 in pilotage fees are being 
made by the Virginia Pilot Association to ship- 
owners, as a result of a decision by the Virginia 
Supreme Court of Appeals confirming an order 
to the State Corporation Commission directing 
the pilot association to reduce fees charged for 
piloting vessels in and out of Hampton Roads. 
Pending the appeal, the association had been 
charging the higher rates fixed by the law of 
1908. 

Eighty-seven vessels, excluding units of the 
Harbor Commission fleet, are hibernating in 
Montreal, a record for the port in number. The" 
severity and suddenness with which the winter 
descended on Canada and resulted in a tieup of 
navigation and eventual blockade of the route 
from Montreal to Sorel and the sea. Until 
December 24 it was believed that the ocean- 
going steamers would be freed by the govern- 
ment icebreaker Mikula. 

By act of Congress of June 10, 1926, the 
construction of ten cutters for the Coast Guard 
was authorized at a cost not to exceed $9,000,- 
000, and July 9, 1926, $1,000,000 was appropri- 
ated for the construction of three of the ves- 
sels. Specifications for the propulsion ma- 
chinery, which will be of the turbo-electric 
type, are being issued to bidders, while the 
hull specifications will follow about July 1. 
The new vessels will measure 250x52 feet, with 
a displacement of about 1900 tons. 

The government-owned and managed. Inland 
Waterways Corporation, running barges on the 
lower Mississippi and Warrior rivers, reports 
handling more than 1000 car-loads of sugar per 
month during the year of 1926. The saving over 
rail freights is given as $610,000. That the ser- 
vice is satisfactory is shown by the fact that 
sugar shipments by barge line last year were 
50 per cent greater than for 1925, and almost 
three times as great as for 1924. The sugar car- 
ried in this manner went to twenty different 
states. 

The Alien Property Bill, authorizing the re- 
turn of 80 per cent of the enemy property in 
the hands of custodian and payment of all 



21 



86 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1«»27 



American claims in full up to $100,000, the b?l- 
ance of enemy property being held as security 
for future payments by Germany, has been 
passed by the House. In view of the impend- 
ing inquiry into the conduct of the Alien Prop- 
erty Custodian's office, final action on the bill 
will probably be delayed until the inquiry is 
completed, which will probably be the work of 
months. 

According to the monthly report issued by 
the Bureau of Navigation, Department of 
Commerce, American shipyards on December 
1 last were building or under contract to build 
for private shipowners 230 steel vessels of 
291,027 gross tons, of which 86 of 209,159 gross 
tons were intended for harbor, Great Lakes 
or sea trade, as compared with 66 of 172,291 
gross tons on November 1. There were also 
56 wood vessels of 25,594 gross tons building 
or under contract to build for private shipown- 
ers during the same period. 

As a result of the recent decision of the 
United States Supreme Court in International 
Stevedoring Company vs. R. liaverty (47 S. 
Ct. 19), in which it was held that the act of 
June 5, 1920, relative to seamen's compensa- 
tion for injuries applies to stevedores engaged 
in loading vessels, the classification and rating 
committee of the Compensation Inspection 
Rating Board has, with the approval of the 
superintendent of insurance, adopted revised 
forms of cover and rates for stevedoring and 
shipwright risks on all policies in force. 

The latest available statistics show that on 
January 1, 1927, seagoing merchant vessels of 
500 tons gross and over flying the American flag 
(exclusive of United States Shipping Board ton- 
nage), numbered 1980 of 6,810,297 tons gross, 
against 1983 of 6,794,823 tons gross on Decem- 
ber 1, 1926, a decrease of three vessels and an 
increase of 15,474 tons. In addition 904 vessels 
of 4,647,260 tons were owned by the United 
States Shipping Hoard, against 940 of 4.756,111 
tons on December 1, 1926. Altogether 2884 mer- 
chant vessels of 1 1 ,457,557 tons gross were under 
the American flag on January 1, 1927, of which 
2223 vessels of 10,651,886 tons were built of 
steel. Of the latter number 1319 vessels of 
6,004,626 were privately owned. 

It cost the Shipping Board much more than 
a million dollars to fit ninety-two laid up ves- 
sels for service as extra ships during the re- 
cent flurry caused by the British coal strike. 



The cost of reconditioning was from $10,000 
to $35,000 per vessel, and it is stated that from 
July 1 to November 1 161 transatlantic voy- 
ages were made from southern ports, or about 
40 per cent of the total Shipping Board mail- 
ings from that section. There were carried 
during that period 11,020,464 bushels of grain 
and 1,451,680 sacks of flour. From September 
1 to November 30, 1,573,991 bales of cotton 
were carried from the South Atlantic and Gulf, 
or nearly half the total amount of cotton 
moved. 

Though Vancouver is making progress and 
yearly becoming more firmly established as a 
grain-shipping center, its progress is slow and 
difficult. Conditions seldom seem to be normal 
in the grain trade. Last year saw a very con- 
siderable increase in shipments of gain to 
China — both direct and by way of Japan — 
where the wheat was ground into flour for re- 
export. The present disturbed state of China 
makes it almost impossible to do business with 
that country, and there is, therefore, likely to 
be a falling off in shipments thither. In addi- 
tion, the fall in thje price of silver has naturally 
had the effect of curtailing the buying powei 
of the Chinese. In addition, the coal strike in 
Great Britain for a while created a scarcity of 
shipping to handle the 1926 crop which accu- 
mulated in the elevators. 

It was stated in the course of the hearings 
conducted by the Senate into the proposed sale 
of the Shipping Board's transatlantic pas- 
senger lines that the President is opposed to 
any part of the Construction Loan Fund being 
used for building a consort to the Leviathan 
or, in fact, any passenger ship. It has already 
been announced that no action will be taken 
by the Shipping Board on the two bids for pur- 
chase under consideration until the Senate has 
completed its investigation. Senator Hiram 
Johnson is known to be strongly determined 
that the lines shall not pass out of government 
control, and in view of the Senator's strong 
influence in high executive circles, it is freely 
predicted that the bids will be rejected and that 
even if the lines are again offered for sale, no 
transfer of ownership will take place. In the 
meantime, the Senate has appropriated a suffi- 
cient amount to take care of the mail contract 
for the next fiscal year, but the postoffice has 
been specifically enjoined from making com- 
mitments beyond June 30. 1928. 



March. 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



87 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



Total receipts of the Suez Canal Company 
last year amounted to 188,051,000 fr., against 
193,515,000 fr. in 1925 and 186,461,000 fr. in 
1924. 

The North Atlantic passenger traffic of the 
Hamburg-American Line last year showed an 
increase of about 10 per cent, the number of 
first-class passengers remaining almost unaltered, 
the second-class showing a decrease of from 6 
to 8 per cent, and the third-class traffic an 
increase of 30 per cent. 

The number of steamers laid up at the Italian 
ports December 1 for lack of employment was 
thirty-six with an aggregate gross tonnage of 
12,983, or 0.43 per cent of the total registered 
steamer fleet. Sailing ships laid up for the same 
reason numbered seventy-six with a gross ton- 
nage of 4079, or 2 per cent, of the entire sailing 
tonnage. 

The steamship Simon Bolivar, built to the 
order of the Royal Netherlands Steamship 
Company, Amsterdam, for the mail and pas- 
senger service of the Royal West Indian Mail 
Company, has been launched at Rotterdam. 
She will carry 145 first-class, 56 second-class 
and 38 third class passengers. The engines will 
be of 4800 h.p. 

The secretary-general of the League of Na- 
tions has made representations to the French, 
German, Dutch and Swiss governments with a 
view to securing their joint signature of the 
new convention regarding tonnage of inland 
vessels employed in international navigation 
so that a standardized system may be estab- 
lished in Europe. 

The Italian Government has ordered that no 
foreign passenger ship may embark more than 
ten passengers at an Italian port unless the ship 
has undergone an Italian survey. This decision 
is evidently intended to drive foreign ships out 
of the Italian passenger trade to South America, 
the Far East and Australia, only Italian ships 
being now engaged in the Italy-North America 
trade. 

The liquor treaty between France and the 
United States has at last been approved after 
a delay of two and one-half years. The treaty 
was signed at Washington June 30, 1924, and 



the bill relative to its ratification was intro- 
duced shortly afterwards by the French gov- 
ernment, but while it was reported upon, favor- 
ably out of the committee, i^ \vas shelved on 
juridical grounds. 

Sir Joseph W. Isherwood has ordered two 
305-foot oil tankers from Palmers Shipbuilding 
& Iron Company, Ltd., for account of the 
Venezuelan Gulf Oil Company, Maracaibo. 
The vessels will be built on the Isherwood sys- 
tem, under the supervision of Sir Joseph Isher- 
wood. Palmers Shipbuilding & Iron Company, 
Ltd., have already built five vessels for the 
Venezuelan trade of this company. 

The Royal Packet Company (Koninklyke 
Paketvaart Maatschappy), the Dutch shipping 
company operating cargo and passenger serv- 
ices throughout the Dutch East Indies, has 
placed orders in Holland for the construction 
of two twin-screw turbine vessels. These ships 
will be 540x62.6x35.6 feet, 9200 tons d. w. on 
25-foot draft. The turbines, developing 7800 
h.p. in each case, will give them a speed of 
15 knots. 

The Spanish marine authorities are studying 
means of retiring all merchant vessels over 
twenty-one years old in order to give work to 
Spanish shipyards in building vessels to re- 
place those withdrawn. It has been decided to 
reduce by one-third each year the number of 
foreign-built vessels allowed to trade coastwise 
in Spain. In this way foreign-built vessels will 
disappear in 1928, and others will have to be 
constructed to take their place. 

The steamship Juan Sebastian Elcano, 
named in honor of the first circumnavigator of 
the globe, was launched at Bilbao last month 
for the Cia Trasatlantica (Spanish Royal Mail 
Line), Barcelona. The new liner has been 
built under the program of reconstruction of 
the fleet and will have a speed of fifteen knots. 
The displacement with a cargo 6200 tons, 881 
tons of oil fuel, 1116 tons of fresh water, a 
crew of 200 and full list of passengers, will be 
12,750 tons. 

The harbor program mapped out by the 
Chilean government some years ago is pro- 
ceeding according to plan, and large sums 
have already been expended at Valparaiso, 
Antofagasta, Concepcion and other ports. So 
efficient are the loading facilities for copper 
shipments that it is not unusual for a vessel 
to arrive in the morning and load 10,000 tons 



23 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1923 



by evening. The copper industry has ex- 
panded enormously and American investors in 
particular are reaping the fruits of their enter- 
prise. 

Greek steamers will exclusively serve coast- 
wise trade in Greek waters, according to a noti- 
fication of the Ministry of Marine. By the new 
treaties of commerce and navigation the right of 
coastwise trade, which had previously been ex- 
tended to foreign nations by old treaties, has not 
been renewed. Foreign legations at Athens have 
been notified of this development and port 
authorities have been instructed to notify agents 
of foreign shipping companies that they will 
not be permitted to engage in coastwise service in 
Greece. 

A bill pending in the Brazilian congress pro- 
vides that national ships shall not be required 
to carry larger crews than foreign ships of cor- 
responding size and type. No fees are to be 
charged national ships for customs entry and 
clearance; no hospital dues or consular fees 
shall be charged ; national ships shall have 
precedence in berthing at ports and no packet 
pmileges shall be granted foreign ships under 
twelve knots. Except as to doctors, who must 
have official certificates, free choice is granted 
owners in the selection of crews. 

The British India Steam Navigation Com- 
pany reports a net profit after depreciation of 
£ 186,007 for the year ended September 30 last, 
which compares with £186,756 for the preced- 
ing year. Owing to the manner in which the 
accounts are presented, it is impossible to as- 
certain how the balance is arrived at. A divi- 
dend of 8 per cent is paid, same as for the 
preceding year. All of the ordinary shares of 
this company are owned by the P. & O., so 
that the results are of no public concern and 
are published, perhaps, only to satisfy legal 
requirements. 

Attention is called in the annual report of the 
Liverpool Underwriters' Association to the preva- 
lence of fires at sea which, the committee point 
out. continues to cause grave concern to under- 
writers and all interested in shipping. Accord- 
ing to the records of the association, 585 fires 
occurred at sea last year, compared with an aver- 
age for the five previous years of 536. Of the 
fires which occurred last year 413 took place in 
cargoes and 172 in bunkers. Last year the 
question of spontaneous combustion of certain 



cargoes was referred to the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research and cause of 
spontaneous combustion of coal in ships are 
now being investigated by the (British) Fuel 
Research Board. 

Alex. Stephen & Sons, Linthouse, Clyde, will 
build for the Imperial Oil Company, Ltd.. of 
Canada, on order of Sir Joseph W. Isherwood, 
two oil tankers of 15,600 tons d. w. carrying 
capacity, on 28-foot draft. They will be fitted 
with Diesel motors of about 3500 b.h.p., giv- 
ing a speed of 11 knot- loaded on trial. Dimen- 
sions, 510x68x38 feet. One vessel will have 
propelling machinery of the Sulzer type, and 
Krupp motors will be installed in the other 
vessel. They are to be built on the "Bracket- 
less-system," under the supervision of Sir 
Joseph W. Isherwood. 

The prospects of German shipbuilding have 
improved very considerably. Only 127,000 tons 
were under construction at the end of Sep- 
tember last, or about one-third of the average 
of 1925. Recent contracts, however, bring up 
the total to about 300,000 tons gross. Blohm 
& Voss hold the lead, with about 123,000 tons. 
The Weser-Vulcan-Tecklenborg combine fol- 
lows with about 60.000 tons gross for its Weser 
yard, about 16,000 tons gross for its Hamburg 
plant and about 11.000 tons gross at the Teck- 
lenbnrg yard in Geestemunde. Contracts have 
also been secured by Schichau in Danzig and 
Elbing (about 45,000 tons gross) and the 
Deutsche Werke in Kiel (about 45,000 tons 
gross). Employment at other German yards 
is still somewhat slack. 

The crowded state of the port of Hamburg 
figured in a remarkable law suit tried in Al- 
tona recently, in which the town of Altona 
sued the State of Hamburg and the Hamburg- 
American Line for damage done by the steam- 
ship Galicia, a vessel of 6000 tons, in the 
autumn of 1924, when she collided with a 
dredger lying off one of the Altona jetties. 
The Altona court ordered the State of Ham- 
burg to pay compensation amounting to 26,- 
500 mk. to the town of Altona, the suit against 
the Hamburg-American Line being dism 
The court took a serious view of the blame at- 
taching to the State of Hamburg for not build- 
ing the mouth of the Kuhwaerder docks at a 
more acute angle, and for erecting buildings 
that obstruct the outlook of steamships leaving 
the harbor. 



24 



March. 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



89 



LABOR NEWS 



The Pacific Northwest Theaters Corporation 
signed an agreement with the Theatrical Fed- 
eration and peace is assured in the principal 
houses of the amusement industry of this sec- 
tion until September 3, 1927. Increased pay 
to musicians and moving picture operators will 
date back to September 7. 

The thirtieth convention of the United Mine 
Workers, in session at Indianapolis with 1,500 
delegates present, voted to increase the salary 
of President John L. Lewis from $8,000 to 
$12,000 a year, and the salaries of Vice-Presi- 
dent Philip Murray and Secretary Thomas 
Kennedy from $7,000 to $9,000. 

Standard Oil stockholders have not been in- 
jured by the United States Supreme Court's 
decision in 1912 which dissolved the Standard 
Oil Company. The court held that this cor- 
poration violated the anti-trust law. Stock- 
holders in the various units have seen their 
principal increase 700 per cent. The average 
annual income during the fifteen years was 
more than 16 per cent. 

A "witty" member of the Wyoming State 
Legislature who insists that labor has too 
many bills at each session of the Legislature, 
is reminded by the Wyoming Labor Journal 
that the number does not equal demands pre- 
sented by Wyoming live stock interests. "We 
are not objecting to live stock legislation, but 
a State that can afford to place such protection 
around these interests should be able to care 
for workers," the labor paper said. 

Thirty-four labor banks are now in opera- 
tion in the United States and at the end of 
the third quarter of 1926 had resources of ap- 
proximately $122,000,000, according to a com- 
pilation by the industrial relations section of 
Princeton University. Total deposits of these 
banks exceeded $105,000,000 at that time and 
total capitalization and undivided profits were 
$12,000,000. Deposits of the thirty-four banks 
show a growth of about $2,400,000 between the 
ends of the third and second quarters. 

A two-year wage agreement has been 
signed between the International Ladies' Gar- 
ment Workers' Union and the Association of 
Dress Manufacturers, according to the an- 



nouncement of President Morris Sigman of 

the union. This completes a series of con- 
tracts made by the international after control 
of several local unions had been taken away 
from the Communists. These contracts insure 
stable wages and union conditions to 70,000 
cloak, suit and dressmakers of the ladies' gar- 
ment trade in New York. 

During the past year the Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company has written insurance total- 
ing more than* three billion dollars. This breaks 
all records. The Union Labor Life Insurance 
Company, just about to enter upon its career, 
may contemplate these figures with satisfaction. 
The overwhelming majority of working men still 
carry no insurance at all. This new enterprise 
of labor finds a field almost untouched. The 
record it may make will not be minimized by 
what other companies have done. On the con- 
trary, it will undoubtedly be stimulated. 

A board of arbitration unanimously awarded 
60,000 employees of the American Railway 
Express Company a wage increase of 2]/ 2 cents 
an hour. Messengers in train service will get 
an extra allowance for handling United States 
mail and railroad baggage. The award is the 
second successful test of the new railway labor 
act. A feature of the proceedings was the ab- 
sence of lawyers. The board consisted of 
former Supreme Court Justice Clarke, chair- 
man ; William B. Wilson, former Secretary of 
Labor, representing the employees, and E. A. 
Stedman, vice-president of the express com- 
pany, who represented that organization. 

Senator Frazier of North Dakota can't un- 
derstand why so many textile and metal in- 
dustries can pay dividends and issue stock 
dividends, but have no profit on which income 
taxes are paid. In 1924 certain textile firms 
paid more than $40,000,000 in cash dividends, 
but reported "no net income" to the Internal 
Revenue Bureau. In the same period certain 
metal firms paid more than $23,000,000 in cash 
dividends and $3,900,000 in stock dividends, 
but they, too, could show no profit. The 
Frazier resolution authorizes the Federal Tar- 
iff Commission to investigate the costs of pro- 
duction, efficiency, wages, methods and profits 
and losses of these concerns. 

The United States Senate has confirmed the 
nomination of Frank S. Dietritch to be a judge 
of the Ninth Federal Circuit, succeeding Wal- 



25 



90 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1927 



lace McCamant of Oregon, who was appointed 
to that position but was refused confirmation 
by the Senate. McCamant placed Calvin 
Coolidge in nomination for Vice-President in 
1920. He also voted for Warren G. Harding 
for President and thereby violated primary in- 
structions of Oregon voters who declared for 
Senator Johnson of California. In nominating 
Calvin Coolidge, McCamant stampeded the 
convention with a roaring stump speech on 
"law and order." This was a reference to the 
Strike of Boston policemen. 

The National Child Labor Committee lias 

recently issued the report of a study of child 
labor in the sugar belt fields of the South 
Platts Valley, Colorado. In the 434 families 
studied, there were 1,081 child workers under 
the age of 16. Of all the workers required to 
do the handwork on 16,707 acres of beets, 49 
per cent were under 16 years of age and 10 
per cent were under 10 years. Information ob- 
tained from the parents showed that these 
children averaged during the season 57 actual 
working days of 10^ hours, with slight h 
more than a half hour, for rest in addition to 
meal time. A number of very young children 
were found at work. Among contract-labor 
families children under 10 did the hand work 
on four acres apiece on the average, and chil- 
dren under 16 averaged nearly one-third of 
the total season's earnings. 

The direct economic loss from accident s in 
this country is at least $4,000,000,000 annually, 
according to Charles E. Hill, general safety 
agent of the New York Central Lines. "If 
these accidents could be wiped out over night 
our economic adjustment alone would be suffi- 
cient to dispose of our public debts in less 
than five years," Mr. Hill said. He called 
America the most reckless nation in the world, 
and declared that the fatal accident rate i> 
nearly two and one-half times as high as in 
Lngland and Wales. He said that in 1925 
more than 89,880 persons were killed in acci- 
dents of all kinds and that 2,500,000 were in- 
jured, or 246 deaths and 7000 injuries for each 
dav of the week. 

The New York State Appellate Division has 
ordered a new trial in the case of the West- 
chester Building Trades Council, which was 
enjoined by Supreme Court Judge Frank L. 
Young from organizing teamsters. The Ap- 



pellate Court held that the "finding of facts 
are of such inconsistent character that we are 
unable to uphold the judgment in the present 
state of the record." The unionists must now 
convince the higher court that their purpose is 
to raise living standards of the non-unionists 
and not "with the object of injuring or de- 
stroying plaintiff's business." Walter Gordon 
Merritt, well-known anti-union attorney and 
champion of "free and independent labor," is 
playing his usual part. 

"Great wrongs'' have been done by the office 
of the alien property custodian, said Senator 
King of Utah in urging a Senate investigation 
of that office. Senator King said he was con- 
firmed in his view "when they sold property 
worth at least $20,000,000 or $25,000,000 for 
$250,000 and cloaked their conduct under the 
guise of patriotism and desiring to aid the 
chemical industry of the United States." The 
alien property custodian had charge of alien- 
owned property seized by the government dur- 
ing the war. Thomas W. Miller, former alien 
property custodian, and Harry M. Daugherty, 
former attorney-general, are facing criminal 
charges in a New York Federal court. The 
jury disagreed in the first trial. 

The carpenters' strike, in force nearl) a 
year in San Francisco and Alameda counties, 
California, officially ended last Friday, Feb- 
ruary 18, through formal agreement between 
the Bay District Council of Carpenters, the 
Industrial Association of San Francisco and 
the Builders' Exchange. The strike was called 
to bring about collective bargaining in the 
industry and this is granted in the agreement, 
thus while every demand of the carpenters 
was not granted, the main objective was at- 
tained Members of the carpenters' unions 
of the district voted 1°23 to 623 for ac- 
ceptance of the peace pact. The agreement 
called off the strike, suspends the operation 
of the -o-called "permit system" of the In- 
dustrial Association, obligates the unions to 
close the material yards they opened in order 
to furnish building material to union i<>l>> 
which ere- refused material by the Builders' 
Fxchange; ratified the wage scale of the Im- 
partial Wage Board for San Francisco; and 
pledgee all parties concerned to an acceptance 
of the principles of "conferences" to settle any 
future disputes. 



26 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



91 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



British Columbia contains the largest Oriental 
population of any province in Canada. Accord- 
ing to the last census, there were 15,868 Japa- 
nese in Canada, of whom 15,006 resided in 
British Columbia; and of 39,587 Chinese resi- 
dents, 23,377 were reported as being in this 
province. 

Telegrams to the central office of the Interna- 
tional Federation of Trade-Unions from Buenos 
Ayres, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago de Chile, and 
Montevideo, report that various labor organiza- 
tions have recently held meetings of protest 
against the attitude of the United States to 
Mexico, and against American imperialism gener- 
ally, especially its machinations in Central and 
South America. 

The annual report of the National Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in 
England, Wales and Ireland, states that on 
1,973 canal boats inspected were found hun- 
dreds of children, both boys and girls, between 
the ages of six and fifteen years, who drove, 
steered, hauled, worked paddles at lock gates, 
or opened and shut lock gates. Ninety-six 
children were found who had been born on the 
boats. 

A sharp decline in the number of strikes and 
lockouts in Germany during 1926 is revealed 
in the official reports of that country's Ministry 
of Labor. In the first half of 1926 there were 
only 160 strikes, involving 32,908 workers, 
compared with 851 strikes, involving 365,188 in 
the corresponding period of 1925. The number 
of lockouts was also greatly reduced during 
the same period, there being only 21 lockouts, 
involving 17,151 workers, as against 119. in- 
volving 148,962, in the first six months of 1925. 

Australia is the latest country that would 
investigate America's system of high wages 
and mass production. That far-away common- 
wealth has appointed an industrial delegation 
that will visit the United States, according to 
a cable received by the Commissioner for 
Australia, Sir Hugh Denison. The probers 
will arrive the middle of March. The delega- 
tion consists of four representative employers, 
four representative employes and two women 
observers. The employes' group is headed by 



Edward Grayndler, general secretary of tbe 
Australian Workers' Union, the largest labor 
organization in Australia. 

The report of the General German Federa- 
tion of Labor for the year 1925 shows a rapid 
return of the German workers to the unions, 
after having fallen away in large numbers dur- 
ing the worst period of the inflation and sta- 
bilization crisis. On December 31, 1925, the 
membership of the German unions totaled 4,- 
182,511, a gain of 158,644 during the year. Qt 
the forty national organizations affiliated with 
the German Federation of Labor, the Metal 
Workers' Union is by far the largest, with a 
membership of 764,609. 

The record of being the worst year in the 
history of Great Britain has been established 
by 1926, statistics of the Ministry of Labor 
show. During the first eleven months of the 
year 2,741,000 persons were involved in trade 
disputes and 159,800,000 working days were 
lost. During 1925 only 7,980,000 working days 
were lost through strikes and lockouts. The 
previous bad record year was 1921, when 85,- 
870,000 days were lost. The 1926 record is due 
to the long strike of coal miners and to the 
general strike of last May. 

Occupation of new territory in China by the 
Cantonese government is followed immedi- 
ately by organization of workers of the occu- 
pied cities into unions, according to a copy- 
right dispatch in the January 15 issue of the 
New York Evening Post. Two civilian propa- 
ganda agents are attached to each company oi 
troops of the Cantonese army, according to this 
report. These civilians apply themselves to 
the task of organizing the workers into unions 
as soon as the soldiers occupy a new city. As 
a result of this alleged activity among the 
workers of Hankow, occupied by the Can- 
tonese army several months ago, big strikes 
are now in effect in that industrial center. The 
unions cover not only every phase of industrial 
activity, but include even peasants and gov- 
ernment employees. 

It will be recalled that prominent trade- 
union officials from India and Japan decided 
to hold an Asiatic Labor Conference in China 
in 1926, as a first step towards the establish- 
ment of co-operation among the workers 
throughout Asia. Later, Mr. Bunji Suzuki, 
president of the General Federation of Japa- 
nese Labor, who was appointed to act as secrc- 



27 



92 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1927 



tary of the conference, informed Mr. X. M. 
Joshi, general secrtary of the All-India Trades 
Union Congress, that, owing to the unsettled 
conditions in China, there were difficulties in 
the way of an early meeting of the Confer- 
ence. Recently, Mr. Joshi wrote to Mr. Suzuki 
suggesting that the conference should be held 
in India, instead of China, should there still be 
difficulty in calling it in the latter country. 
Mr. Suzuki, however, is of opinion that, even 
if the conference were held in India, it would 
be very difficult to invite delegates represent- 
ing trade unions in China, He therefore pro- 
poses that, for the time being, the Indian and 
Japanese movements should be content with 
an exchange of fraternal delegates at their 
meetings and on other suitable occasions. 

Resembling the fossil footprints of some 
strange animal, one is puzzled at seeing in the 
mud in Greek towns peculiar impressions. 
There is something strangely familiar about 
these. They resemble American auto tire 
marks. The explanation of the mystery comes 
when one actually sees shoemakers cutting up 
wornout tires to be used as substitute for sole 
leather. This is an illuminating example of 
the difference between American and Mediter 
ranean living standards. It is an example of 
the misery attendant upon a wage rate of 
about one-tenth American wages. Many 
imagine the cost of living in Greece is propor 
tionately lower than in the United States. 
This is not true. A visit to the slums disclose 
only a very few commodities marked lower. 
An oke of bread costs, in American money, 
UK* cents. This is a shade higher than the 
costs of a pound of bread in certain American 
cities. Since the oke equals between two and 
one-half and three pounds, bread is .about 60 
per cent cheaper than in U. S. A. But coal 
costs $20.80 per ton; ham is $1.04 a pound; 
cow's butter is 75 cents a pound, goat's butter 
being 60 cents a pound. Coffee costs 43 cents 
a pound. Because of the universal pinch of 
poverty it is common gossip on the Gulf of 
Corinth that, were it not for the Johnson Im- 
migration Act, half of Greece would swarm to 
America as rapidly as ship-room could be se- 
cured. Under this law the Greek quota has 
been reduced to 100, thus preventing a mass 
migration that inevitably would break down 
American wage standards. 



SEA FEVER 
(By John Mascfield) 



I must g<> down to the seas again, to the lonely sea 

and the sky, 
And all I ask is a tall ship and a star to steer her by; 
And the wheel's kick and the wind's song and the 

white sail's shaking, 
And the gray mist on the sea's fare, and a gray dawn 

breaking. 

1 inu- 1 go down to the seas again, for the call of the 

running tide 
Is a wild call and a clear call that may not be denied; 
And all I ask is a windy day with the white clouds 

living, 
And the flung spray and the blown spume, and the 

seagulls crying. 

1 must go down to the seas again, to the vagrant 
uipsy life, 

To the gull's way and the whale's way where the 
wind's like a whetted knife; 

And all I ask is a merry yarn from a laughing fellow- 
rover, 

And quiet sleep and a sweet dream when the long 
trip'> i >\ er. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVE ROBERTS, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Elliot 1138 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM SHERIDAN, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574. Phono 336 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5956 

Branches: 

SEATTLE. Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214. Phone Main 2233 

SAN PEDRO, Cal Ill Sixth Street 

JOE WADE, Agent 
Phone 1317J 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

s.\N FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

Phone Elliot 342.'. 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

Phone 147 



MONTEREY HOOK AND LINE FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

MONTEREY, Cal 409 Alvarado Street 

J. PIETROBONO, Secretary 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Phone Elliot 67."- 
Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

Phone Black 241 
KETCHIKAN, Alaska _..P. O. Box 201 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

OAKLAND, Cal 219 Federal Telegraph Bldg. 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Lakeside 3591 



28 



March, 1927 
+ 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



93 



WHY DELAY 
WHEN IN PORT 

Guaranteed service performed by spe- 
cialists where work is completed with- 
out delay, and you are assured the 
price will be reasonable — and Satisfac- 
tion Guaranteed. When in port, first 
have your teeth examined, without 
cost. 

So Convenient to Seafaring Men 

A Great Dental Organization to Serve 
You with 18 modern dental offices in 
13 ports. Dental work started in one 
Parker office may be completed in any 
office of the Parker System. 

PAINLESS PARKER DENTIST 
Using E. R. Parker's System 



Offices in the following ports 
San Diego, Fourth and Plaza; Long Beach, 
Third and Pine Sts.; San Pedro, 706 Palos 
Verdesj San Francisco, IS Stockton St., 1012 
Market St., 1802 Geary St.; Los Angeles, 
550 So. Broadway, 104*4 W. 7th St., 432 
So. Main St.; Oakland, 1128 Broadway; 
Eureka, 210 F St.; Santa Cruz., 121 Pacific 
Ave.; Portland, Ore., cor. Washington and 
Broadway; Seattle, 206 Union St.; Tacoma, 
1103 J/2 Broadway; Bellingham, Holly and 
Commercial Sts.; Vancouver, B. C, 101 
Hastings St. E.; Boston, Mass., 581 Wash- 
ington St. 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

No. 14 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 

in 

San Francisco 



At Night 



Complete Banking Service from 
9 A. M. till 12 P. M. for Sailor- 



men. 



Liberty 



Market 
at Mason 



Bank 



San Francisco 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 
— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Davenport 537 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



INFORMATION WANTED 

John McKittrick, communicate 
with your lawyer, Stephen Crick, 
11 Stone Street, New York City. 
Your case against the S. S. Presi- 
dent Van Buren can be tried as soon 
as you reach New York. Also Alex 
McDonald and Frank Leslie, former 
seamen on the S. S. President Van 
Buren with John McKittrick dur- 
ing August and September, 1922. 



Buy Union Stamped Shoes 



We ask all members of organized labor to 
purchase shoes bearing our Union Stamp on 
the sole, inner-sole or lining of the shoe. We 
ask you not to buy any shoes unless you 
actually see this Union Stamp. 



WORKERS UNION/ 



UNIONOTTAMI 

Factory 



Boot & Shoe Workers' Union 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 

246 Summer Street, Boston, Mass. 

COLLIS LOVELY CHARLES L. BAINE 
General President General Secretary-Treasurer 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union »f 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring m«n 

prompt attention 

531 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Marke' 

Streets, San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney For 

Marine Firemen and Waterter.u^rs' 

Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
10 Embarcadero Tel. Davenport 3134 
676 Mills Bldg. Tel. Douglas 1058 
San Francisco, California 



Telephone Garfield 306 



Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

(Heidelberg & Murasky) 

Flood Building, San Francisco 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damage*. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Former members of the crew of 
the S. S. Santa Isabel who know 
something about Mr. William 
Mohring, the bos'n who was injured 
in March, 1925, please communicate 
with Silas B. Axtell, 11 Moore 
Street, New York City, N. Y. 




29 



94 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. I".'? 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier. Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO RIG STORES 

£tore No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2— Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Crematory and Columbarium in 

Connection 



Broadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



INFORMATION WANTED 



If John Colsen sees this or any- 
one knowing his whereabouts, 
please communicate with Chris 
Olsen, 208 Dorland Street, San 
Francisco, Calif. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

8AN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



TAXI 



CALL GASPEE 5000 

Red Top Cab Co., of R. I.. Inc. 

67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. I. 



A Clothes-Line Story — Mr. Jones, 
despondent over poor health, hanged 
himself in the attic of his home. 

Mrs. Brown, a neighbor, who had 
a reputation for saying the wrong 
thing at the wrong time, called on 
the widow Jones. Now Mrs. Brown 
had firmly made up her mind that 
she would not talk about the 
tragedy, rather she thought she 
would talk about general things, 
such as the weather. 

"This weather is terrible, isn't 
it?" said Mrs. Brown to Mrs. Jones. 

"Yes," replied Mrs. Jones. "One 
can't even dry the laundry, it's so 
wet and nasty outside." 

"Oh," said Mrs. Brown. "You 
should have no trouble drying your 
wash. You have such a lovely attic 
to hang things in." 



Bill's Smoke Shop 

Right alongside the Sailors' Union 
Hall 



Complete Line of Smokes 
371 Richmond St., Providence, R. I, 



Matty's Union Barber 
Shop 

Special Attention to Seafaring Men 
95 Point St. Providence, R. I. 



HARVEY'S UNION 
SHOE STORE 

Complete Line of 
UNION-MAC^ SHOES 

Four Blocks from Sailors' Union Hall 
85 Richmond Street, Providence, R. I. 



Eastern Restaurant 

Corner Point and Eddy 
HOME COOKED MEALS 

The Best Cup <»f Coffee in the Port 

One block from Uni< n Hall 
Corner Point and Eddy Streets 

M) 



Announcement 

to 

Seamen 

Frederick R. Graves 
has removed his 
law office to 
29 Broadway 
New York City 
Telephone No. 
Whitehall 2535 



Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Franclaco 



INFORMATION WANTED 



K. Nelson, seaman, formerly era- 
ployed on the Steamship "Salmon 
King*' at Seattle, Washington, who 
was a witness to an accident that 
happened to Captain Rhodes, kindly 
communicate or call at the oflfi 
the Legal Bureau. Seattle Central 
Labor Council, 818 Alaska Building, 
Seattle, Washington. 



Erwin Bausback, born 1883, in Gel 
many, who has changeil his nam 
into "Ewin Boy," is inquired for b 
the German Consulate General, r 
Pine Street, San Francisco, Calif 



Mr. George Matson, former barge 
captain, please communicate or call 
at the office of Silas B. Axtell. 11 
Moore Street, New York City, X Y. 



All seamen and all former mem- 
bers of the crew of the Steamship 
West Maximus who signed on at ! 
the Port of New York on May 7. 
1925, please call or communicate 
with Silas B. Axtell, 11 Moore Street. | 
New York, N. Y. This case is g<> 
to be reached for trial soon. 



March, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



95 



BOSS ™ TAILOR 

NOW AT 

1048 MARKET STREET 

Five Doors Below Granada Theater 

We Use the Only Label Recognized by The American Federation of 
Labor. Accept no Other. 



IUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

at Popular Prices 




All Work Done 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



You May Remember My Name, But Sure Would Like to Have You 
Remember the Number 

1048 MARKET STREET 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 

Kearny 3863 San Francisco 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 
88 Third Street, at Mission 




KODAKS and CAMERAS 

Exchanged, Bought, Sold, 
Repaired and Rented 

Developing and Printing 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 

The "Red Front" 

CARRIES A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HAT3, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 

321 East Heron Street • Aberdeen 

Exclusive Owner of '"The Red Front" 



TACOMA, WASH. 



SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES 

One Minute from Ferry Building 

The 

ANCHOR CHAIN 

SAFE DEPOSIT CO. 

11 Steuart Street 
San Francisco, California 



RELIABLE TAILOR 

Popular Prices 

TOM WILLIAMS 

48 CALIFORNIA ST., near Davis 

Phone Douglas 4874 

San Francisco 



Phone Davenport 505 With Morgen's 

BEN HARRIS 

Formerly of 218 East Street 
125 MARKET STREET 

Bet. Spear and Main Streets 

WORK AND DRESS CLOTHES 
SHOES, HATS, CAPS 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



GEO. LONET, President 
H. O. HAUGBN, Sec.-Treas. 

HAUGEN & LONEY 
TAILORS 

High Grade Custom Tailoring 

942 Pacific Avenue 

PHONE MAIN 8000 

Tacoma, Wash. 



SMOKE 

SAN TEX CIGARS 

Union Made 

San Tex Cigar Co. 937 Tacoma Ave. 
Tacoma, Wash. 

31 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 

and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

NIELS JOHNSON 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST' 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH 



Telephone Garfield hi)i 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 
Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 
San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

Personal Management of 

JACOB PETERSEN 

Proprietor 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH 

HOUSE 

7 Market St. and 17 Steuart St. 

San Francisco 



GEO. A. PRICE 

— SAYS — 

Our success is due to the fact that 
our merchandise is superior and our 
prices are right. Boss of the Road 
and Can't Bust 'Em Union-made 
products are sold with money's worth 
or a money back guarantee. 

First-Class Seamen's Outfitters 
19 The Embarcadero 
San Francisco, Calif. 



96 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 19. 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts.. Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the dire and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
em appliances t<> Illustrate and teacli 
ny branch of Navigation. 
The class of teachers of Navigation 
i the past have been those having 
imply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 

■ I, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a it her with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only tlie limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied aeveral 
years the Maritime I>aw, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how Ignorant the seaman may lie. even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 
FERRY BLDG.. SAX FRANCISCO 



Shirtenly — A tramp stopped at the 
rear door of a large house ami asked 
for alms. He hadn't had a change 
of clothes for some time, and the 
woman who answered his knock 
said: "My good man, how long do 
you wear your shirt?" 

"Well, Missus." answered the 
tramp, pointing with his hand, "my 
shirt's this long. How long is 
yours?" 




BETTER DENTISTRY 
Better Health 

DR. C. S. FORD 

DENTIST 
702 MARKET STREET 

At Market — Geary — Kearny Streets 

Sutter 2860 

Daily Office Hours: 8:30 a. m. — 8 p. m. 

Sunday Hours — 9 a. m. till noon 

"One Patient Tells Another" 



Established 1896 




YOUR DIAMONDS 
REMOUNTED 

Established 1896 

Jewelers and Opticians 

715 Market Street between Third and Fourth Streets 

San Francisco. Calif. 



James Ji. Sorensen 

fres end Jr«as. 



We carry the largest stock of everything 
jewelry line at right prices. 
Watch Repairing Guaranteed 
Alarm Clocks, 85 cents — Guarantied 



32 



in the 



HALE BROS 

Genuine Cowhide 
Suit Cases 

$13.50 



The sort of case 
you'll want when 
you step ashore at 
Shanghai! Sturdy, 
well-made, and neat- 
appearing. Of brown 
or black cowhide, 
made on a strong 
frame, with hand- 
sewed corners — and 
in the popular sizes 
— 24 or 26 inches. A 
real value for the 
money. 

— Fourth Floor. 

Market at Fifth 

Fourth Floor 

SAN FRANCISCO 



UNION LABEL 
WORSTED $QO 
SUITS t5» 

Unconditionally Guaranteed to 
Wear and Wear and Wear 
See Them In Our Windows 




85?-868 MARKET ST. 
SAN FRANCISCO 

Opposite The Emporium 



A Helpful Combination 

Ask for a copy oi our "Ambition 
Bond." Then open a Special Pur- 
pose Savings Account. With that 
combination you will find il 
to save and accomplish - 
through saving. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

Savings — Commercial — Trust 

783 Market Street, near Fourth 

San Francisco, Calif. 



Ilifornia 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

WioiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiimiioiiiimiiioiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiim 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FO^SEAM^N 

Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen^ 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Contents 

Page 

THE RECORD OF CONGRESS 99 

A NEW EXCLUSION ACT 100 

THE ALASKA PACKERS' FLEET 100 

LOADING OF TANKERS 100 

THE THIRD HOUSE OF CONGRESS 101 

EDITORIALS: 

THE NEW COMPENSATION LAW 102 

WORLD SHIPPING RECOVERING 103 

AUSTRALIAN SEAMEN'S WAGES 103 

THE UNION IS YOUR BUSINESS ..... 104 

TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 104 

ANTI-AMERICAN NEWS CONTROL 105 

U. S. IMMIGRATION PROBLEM 107 

THE WHALING INDUSTRY 110 

COLORED LABOR AT SEA 110 

SMUGGLING BOGUS SEAMEN 112 

STEEL TRUST GENEROSITY 112 

RUBBER IN LIBERIA . 113 

CROOKS IN STRIKE-TIME 113 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 114 

BOOK REVIEW 115 

DO YOU REALLY THINK? 116 

THE JAPANESE MANDATE 116 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 117, 118, 119, 120 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 121, 122, 123, 124 



i 



VOL. XLI, No. 4 
WHOLE No. 1959 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
APRIL 1, 1927 



?iiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiitcaiiiiiiiiiiiiC3iiiiitiiiiiicaiiiiiiiiiiiic2iiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiiiC3iiitiiiiiiiic3iiiiiifiiiiic3ii Iifiirr3iiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiitiiiic3iiiii iiiiiiic3iiiitiiiii]iC3iiiitii iiiiic3iifliiiiiiiiicaiiiiftfinvfC3rr»k^ 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 
359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass PERCY J. PRYOR. Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 1258. 
Branches: 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Dexter 8090. 

NEW YORK, N. Y CHRIS RASMUSSEN, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON. Agent 

216 S. Second Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE, Md M. A. SCHUCH, Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 5910. 

NORFOLK. Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk. 

MOBILE, Ala 

68% Dauphine Street 

NEW ORLEANS. La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Jackson 5557 

GALVESTON. Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street, Phone 2215 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WM. ROSS, Agent 

131 Proctor Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa OTTO A. OLSSON, Agent 

216 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

735 So. Broadway 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WILLIAM ROSS, Agent 

222 Proctor St. 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 
Branches: 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch) JAS. ALLEN, Agent 

Phone Cortlandt 1979 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE. Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex WM. ROSS, Agent 

131 Proctor Street. 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

288 State Street. Phone Richmond 0827. 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass THOMAS COVE, Agent 

209 Main Street. Phone Gloucester 1045. 

NEW YORK. N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton Street. Phone John 4539. 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR EM- 
PLOYES UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 

NEW ORLEANS, La S. C. OATS. Secretary 

910 N. Dorgenois S treet. P hone Galvez 6210-J 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 359 North Wells Street 

VICTOR A. OLANDER. Secretary 
Phone Superior 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN. Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

308 Superior Avenue. W. Thone Main 1842, 

MILWAUKEE. Wis CHAS. BRADHERING. Agent 

1G2 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

652 Jefferson Ave. W., Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY. Secretary 
ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 308 Superior Avenue, W. 

PATRICK ADAMS, Agent 
Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis 162 Reed Street 

ERNEST ELLIS, Agent 
Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 652 Jefferson Avenue, W. 

IVAN HUNTER, Agent 
Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 359 North Wells Street 

CHARLES GUSTAFSON, Agent 
Phone State 5175 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 35 West Eagle Street 

J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

Telephone Seneca 0896 

Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 25 W. Klnxie Street 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis., 162 Reed St., Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT. Mich 

652 Jefferson Avenue, W. Phone Randolph 0044 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN, Acting Secretary- 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2207 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE. Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash MARTIN OLSEN, Agent 

502 East First Street 
P. O. Box 280, Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, ORE JOHN M. MOORE, Agent 

242 Flanders Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal MARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 So. Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68, Telephone 1713W 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 58 Commercial Street 

PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 3699 
(Continued on page 28) 



April. 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



99 



THE RECORD OF CONGRESS 



ONGRESS has adjourned until the 
first Monday in December, when the 
Seventieth Congress will convene. 

The closing session of the Senate in 
the Sixty- ninth Congress was marked 
by a lorty-hour filibuster that made it impos- 
sible to pass several important measures. 

One group, headed by Senator Reed of Mis- 
souri, wanted the Senate to continue the 
"slush" committee that is investigating cer- 
tain Senatorial elections. 

The purposes of opponents differed. One 
section feared that the administration party 
would lose control of the next Senate, while 
a smaller group denied that the Senate has 
any right to go into a state and probe the 
manner in which citizens of that state elect 
a senator. 

Standpatters are making this tangle the 
excuse for boosting the Dawes plan to apply 
gag rule and choke off discussion in the Senate, 
as it has long since been choked off in the 
House. 

A cure of this character would be far 
worse than the disease. The real remedy is 
something entirely different — pass the Norris 
amendment and abolish the "lame duck" short 
session. 

Senator Norris of Nebraska introduced a 
resolution for an amendment to the Federal 
Constitution providing that the Congress 
chosen at the elections in November shall 
convene early in the following January. The 
resolution passed the Senate. It was favor- 
ably reported by the committee in the House. 
There is not the slightest doubt that it would 
have passed overwhelmingly, and the nation 
at large is eager for the change — but the 
administration machine in the House kept it 
jrom coming to a vote. 

America needs some forum for free, un- 
trammeled debate, and the only such forum 
at present is the United States Senate. It may 
not be wholly satisfactory, but it is all we 
have. The only sensible or safe course is to 
pass the Norris amendment, and thereby at 
the same time preserve free discussion and 
enable the Senate to transact its share of the 
nation's business. 

So far as the seamen are concerned, it can 



be definitely recorded that nothing was lost, 
legislatively speaking. 

The situation relative to longshoremen's 
compensation is dealt with elsewhere in this 
issue. 

The King Bill (S. 3574), pertaining to the 
deportation, etc., of certain alien seamen, 
passed the Senate, but died in the Hou.se 
Committee on Immigration. The real purpose 
of this bill was explained in a clearly worded 
editorial of the Washington Post, reprinted 
in another column of this issue, under the 
caption, "Smuggling Bogus Seamen." 

The La Follette Bill (S. 1079), providing 
for a continuous discharge book, etc., died on 
the Senate calendar. 

The Sheppard Bill (S. 3376), a bill "To 
extend jurisdiction of United States courts 
over personal injury suits by employees of 
foreign vessels," died in the Senate Committee 
on Commerce and will be reintroduced in the 
next Congress, when it should have fair pros- 
pects of passing. 

The very objectionable Loadline Bill (S. 
5463) failed to go beyond the reporting stage. 
The same fate befell the Scott Bill (H. R. 
7245), intended to consolidate the navigation 
functions of the Department of Commerce. 
Congress also failed to take action on the joint 
resolution requesting the President to call for 
the codification of Maritime Law in accordance 
with the resolutions of The Hague Conference. 

Participation of the United States at the 
forthcoming Geneva Economic Conference 
was provided for, the President having ap- 
proved a joint resolution to this effect on 
March 3. The next day the President approved 
another resolution postponing for one year the 
application of the National Origin Provisions 
of the Immigration Act. 

Finally, it should be recorded that the Ship- 
ping Board was successful in obtaining the 
passage of the amendment to Section 11 of 
the Jones Act, which will allow it to grant 
loans to American shipowners for construc- 
tion purposes out of the entire balance on 
hand accruing from the disposal of capital 
assets. 

Among other measures of general interest 
which passed Congress and were signed by 



100 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April. 192? 



the President are the following: The Naval 
Appropriation Bill, which gives the navy 
$316,000,000 for the fiscal year of 1928. Of 
this sum $19,808,000 will be used for naval 
aviation, $450,000 is allotted to begin the con- 
struction of three new cruisers. The last item 
has been steadfastly opposed by the President; 
he made no comment. 

A bill creating a division of foreign com- 
merce in the Department of Commerce to 
supply information on foreign markets to 
United States manufacturers. 

A bill fixing the qualifications for voters 
in Alaska. (They shall be able to write in 
English and read the Constitution in English.) 



THE ALASKA PACKERS' FLEET 



A NEW EXCLUSION ACT 



The toy-balloon Haytian government, sus- 
tained by American marines, has refused to 
admit Senator King on the ground that he is 
''undesirable.'' The Utah lawmaker has criti- 
cized the make-believe "republic," and has in- 
sisted on the floor of the Senate that our 
marines be recalled. In a speech last year he 
said : 

"The Haytian people know they have no 
government of their own: that Borno is not 
their President; that they have only such 
liberty as the military forces of the United 
States permit them to enjoy." 

The State Department ruled that 1 'resident 
Borno is acting within international law in 
barring Senator King. Friends of the Senator 
are asking if the Department has lost its in- 
fluence over Borno, after placing him in office 
and maintaining marines in the island for that 
purpose. 

"To put it more bluntly," writes one 
newspaper correspondent, "these critics think 
President Borno is carrying out the American 
administration policies and doubt if he would 
have turned Senator King back without some 
idea that there would be no great pressure to 
get him to reverse his ukase. Some are won- 
dering if the precedent means that no critic 
of the government's foreign policy is to be 
permitted to visit any country which we may 
intervene." 

It is claimed that if the Senate were in ses- 
sion a resolution to investigate Hayti would 
be introduced and Senator King would be a 
member of the committee. 



Only six vessels of the Alaska Packers' 
Association sailing fleet will be dispatched 
to the Bristol Bay canneries this season, again 
indicating the gradual diminishing of the use 
of windjammers which in past years have been 
so plentiful in this industry. Utilization of 
the large steamers Arctic and Bering make it 
possible for the smaller number of bottoms to 
care for the immense traffic formerly handled 
exclusively by sailing craft. 

In all twelve vessels will be used this sea- 
son, of which number two steamers are sched- 
uled for two trips each to Alaska. All of the 
ships will leave fully loaded with cannery 
materials and supplies, indicating that a catch 
in line with the 1926 pack, which was the larg- 
est since 1913, is again expected. Approxi- 
mately 3500 men will be sent Xorth. 

The northbound fleet, this year, according 
to A. K. Tichenor, vice-president and general 
superintendent, will consist of the ship Star 
of Lapland, ship Star of Zealand, ship Star of 
Falkland, bark Star of Holland, bark Star of 
Finland, ship Star of Alaska, steamers Arctic 
and Bering, -team schooners Kvichak, Kanak, 
Kadiak and motorship Alitak. 



LOADING OF TANKERS 



The recent explosion of the British tanker 
Black Sea at Bayonne, X. L and similar dis- 
asters in a number of American ports during 
the last year, have moved Attorney Silas B. 
Axtell to renew his appeal for more stringent 
government regulation of loading and unload- 
ing of vessels. 

In his appeal Mr. Axtell points out that 
there has not been an oil tanker explosion in 
European ports during the last year, which 
he attributes to the fact that European gov- 
ernments forbid the lighting of fires in the 
engine rooms while the steamers are taking 
on or discharging cargo, and that loading and 
unloading are permitted only between dawn 
and sunset. 

He asserts that explosions, such as that of 
the Gulf of Venezuela at Port Arthur, 'lev. 
which resulted in the death of forty-eight men. 
and that of the Mantilla at Baltimore, in which 
twenty-five persons died, could be prevented. 



I April, 



1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



101 



THE THIRD HOUSE OF CONGRESS 

(By Basil Manly) 



Do you know the Third House of Congress? 

It is the House that exists in secret — the 
House that never meets. 

It is the long arm of the Invisible Govern- 
ment. It seeks to control elected representa- 
tives of the American people and to mould the 
legislation that they formally enact. It is 
made up of the creatures of predatory wealth, 
who make the Nation's Capitol their hunting 
ground. They are the enemies of a Constitu- 
tional Government — the destroyers of "gov- 
ernment of the people, by the people and for 
the people." 

The Third House of Congress is composed 
of hundreds of lobbyists that infest Washing- 
ton to do the bidding of the trusts, corpora- 
tions and big business associations that main- 
tain them at an expense of millions of dollars 
a year. Housed in elaborate suites of offices, 
with great staffs of clerks and alleged experts, 
they flood the members of the Senate and 
House of Representatives with propaganda 
and misleading statistics. They throng the 
offices and corridors of the Capitol, busily seek- 
ing to influence the legislation in which they 
are interested. Supplied with unlimited ex- 
pense accounts, they lavishly entertain mem- 
bers of Congress, bureau chiefs and other 
Government officials. Patronizing the most 
exclusive bootleggers who purport to supply 
only genuine "diplomatic stocks" of whisky, 
gin and wines, they are like an oasis in the 
desert to thirsty solons in search of a drink. 
With the aid of their lady friends they can 
throw a lively party at one of the swell road 
houses on a moment's notice, whenever an 
evening's entertainment seems desirable to 
bring some Senator or Congressman into line. 

Never was this Third House of Congress 
more brazenly and perniciously active than 
during the short session of the Sixty-ninth 
Congress that has just closed. Never were 
their efforts so completely crowned with suc- 
cess. 

They defeated the Boulder Dam Bill. They 
blocked ratification of the Geneva Treaty to 
prohibit the use of poison gas in future wars. 
They put the McFadden Branch Banking Bill, 
carrying unlimited charters for Federal Re- 



serve banks, through under the operation of 
the "gag rule." 

The boldest of all these lobbies was that 
maintained by the Electric Power Trust. Its 
spokesman, Josiah T. Newcomb, general coun- 
sel for the Electric Bond and Share Co., is 
reported to have declared : "I represent an 
investment of $9,000,000,000 and we do not 
propose to let the Government enter the power 
business at Boulder Dam. The bill has no 
chance to pass. It will not pass as it is. If 
changed, it can go through at this session." 

Fourteen years ago, Woodrow Wilson, 
shocked by the open evidences of lobbying 
activity, forced the sensational Mulhall in- 
vestigation that uncovered the underground 
machinations of the National Association of 
Manufacturers and a dozen other special inter- 
est lobbies and drove them out of the Capitol. 
For a few years Congress was freed from their 
malign influence. Then came the war and the 
lobbyists flocked back to Washington in 
greater numbers than ever before. 

It is time for a new house cleaning. Nobody 
questions the right of legitimate business in- 
terests or any group of citizens to present 
their cases as forcefully and effectively as 
they are able to the committees of Congress 
and other governmental bodies. We do de- 
mand, however, that they lay their cards on 
the table and cease their underground work. 

The first act of the Seventieth Congress when 
it meets next December, should be the enact- 
ment of legislation that will require the regis- 
tration of all lobbyists and restrict their activ- 
ities to open and proper channels. 



THE SIGHT OF INEQUALITY 



•I saw the world around me, one part labor- 
ing for bread and the other part squandering 
in vile excess or empty pleasures, equally miser- 
able, because the end they proposed still fled 
from them; for the man of pleasure every day 
surfeited of his vice, and heaped up work for 
sorrow and repentance; and the man of labor 
spent his strength in daily struggling for bread 
to maintain the vital strength he labored with; 
so living in a daily circulation of sorrow, living 
but to work, and working but to live, as if daily 
bread were the only end of a wearisome life, 
and a wearisome life the only occasion of daily 
bread.— Daniel Defoe. 



102 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April. 1921 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

THOMAS CONWAY, Second Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Third Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fourth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
OSCAR CARLSON, Fifth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 
PATRICK O'BRIEN, Sixth Vice-President 

55 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

PETER E. OLSEN, Seventh Vice-President 

49 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general Interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURNAL 
is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 



«^>© 



APRIL 1. 1927 



THE NEW COMPENSATION' LAW 



The so-called Longshoremen's Compensa- 
tion Bill (S. 3170) to provide compensation 
for practically all harbor workers except mas- 
ters and members of crews, within the admir- 
alty jurisdiction, has been passed by Congress 
and signed by President Coolidge. The law 
exempts masters and members of crews, or 
"any person engaged by the master to load 
or unload or repair any small vessel under 
eighteen tons' net." It provides compensation 
of 66 2-3 per cent of the wages of employees, 
with a maximum of $25 a week for mainte- 
nance and a minimum of $8 a week. The maxi- 
mum limit of compensation is fixed at $7500 
in any one case. The bill, substantially, extends 
to longshoremen and other harbor workers 
the benefits of workmen's compensation already 
provided by legislation in nearly every state of 
the Union. 



A determined elTort was made to include 
seamen. In the final analysis this fight hinged 
upon the use or non-use O a plain comma. 
Here is the paragraph with the meaningful 
comma : 

The term "employee" does nol include a master or 
member of any vessel, nor any person engaged by the 
master to unload or repair any small vessel under 
eighteen tons net. 

The comma in the middle of that sentence 
was the subject of \ igorous debate in the ll«»n>e 
and of serious inquiry in the Senate. 

The situation is this : The International 
Longshoremen's Association has been demand- 
ing a compensation act. The International 
Seamen's Union of America does not want 
its members included in the legislation, as 
they are cared for to their satisfaction by 
existing laws. 

According to the lawyer- of Congress, put- 
ting that comma in leaves the seamen out, 
and leaving that comma out would put the 
seamen in. So in both Mouse and Senate] 
the bill which supplies a measure of social 
justice to tens of thousands of workers turned 
on a comma. 

The bill was put through the House under 
win']) and spur, O'Connor and Boydan of Nevj 
York leading the battle in its behalf, while 
Bland of Virginia offered the chief opposition.] 

In the Senate the bill was put through by 
the personal stand of Xorris of Nebraska and 
Walsh of Montana. The comma question was 
raised there ; but Senator Norris pointed out 
that the comma was in the enrolled bill, 
though left out of the Congressional Record, 
report. 

On the strength of his personal assurance 
a- to the meaning of the bill as it came fromj 
the House, supplemented by the opinion of 
Senator Walsh, the Senate passed this measure ' 
when a host of other bills with more influence 
behind them were caught and killed in the jam. 

The result suits both groups of workers 
involved. It is a triumph for the two great laboij 
organization- especially concerned and is a 
testimonial to the high standing of Senators 
Xorris and Walsh. 

The compensation schedule won by the 
longshoremen is superior to the standard- 
set by California and other states which have 
enlightened industrial code-. 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



103 



WORLD SHIPPING RECOVERING 

"Basic conditions in shipping have distinctly 
improved, and the industry apparently is right- 
ing itself from the post-war depression." This 
is the opinion of A. E. Sanderson of the Trans- 
portation Division of the United States De- 
partment of Commerce. Although the supply 
of tonnage throughout the world is still in 
excess of the demand, this excess has been 
gradually diminishing. Oversea trade has in- 
creased during the past few years, while the 
output of ships has declined. Substantial 
progress has therefore been made toward 
recovery. 

While it is true that shipping laid up 
throughout the world increased toward the 
middle of 1926, in line with the normal sea- 
sonal tendency, there was recorded a new low 
post-war total in the latter half of the year, 
when the heavy coal shipments and the crop 
movements, coming forward together, caused 
an exceptional demand for tonnage. 

By January 1, 1927, the idle steam shipping 
of the world had diminished to about 4,076,000 
gross tons, which total was less by 2,010,000 
tons than that on July 1, 1926, and less by 
1,769,000 tons than that at the beginning of 
1926. The more important reductions during 
the six months ended January 1, 1927, were 
those in the United States and in the United 
Kingdom — 881,000 tons and 744,000 tons, 
respectively. 

It is interesting to note that shipowners 
have continued their interest in the motor 
ship, so that at the end of 1926 about 47 per 
cent of all tonnage under construction was of 
this type. The latest development has been 
the building of several larger passenger ships, 
notably the Augustus, constructed in Italy 
for the Navigazione Generale Italiana. This 
ship is about 32,000 gross tons. 

So far as the general recovery in shipping 
is concerned, it should be noted that Ameri- 
can shipping shared appreciably in the in- 
creased employment which took place in 1926. 
At the end of the year the active privately 
owned seagoing fleet was greater by 433,000 
gross tons than at the beginning of the year. 
largely because of the addition of general 
cargo carriers in the foreign trade. 



AUSTRALIAN SEAMEN'S WAGES 



The new award determined by the Concili- 
ation Committee in respect of the New South 
Wales branch of the Searhen's Union of Aus- 
tralia provides the following rates of pay : 
Boatswain, £17 2s 6d per calendar month; 
able seaman, £16 2s 6d, but if employed as 
lamp trimmer, £17 2s 6d ; ordinary seaman, 
18 and under 21 years of age, £11 5s; ordinary 
seaman, under 18 years, £10 5s; donkeyman, 
£ 19 2s 6d ; greaser or fireman and storekeeper, 
£ 18 2s 6d ; trimmer, £ 16 2s 6d ; fireman-driver 
(on vessels carrying only one engineer), £19 
2s 6d ; fireman-greaser (under similar condi- 
tions), £18 2s 6d ; fireman's attendant, over 
21 years of age, £12 5s; under 21 years, £11 
5s. The daily hours of labor while at sea were 
fixed at eight, worked between 6 a. m. and 5 
p. m., where seamen are required to sleep and 
take their meals ashore, while on articles, the 
rate of pay shall be Is 6d for each meal and 
2s for a bed. For those employed continuously 
for twelve months, fourteen days' leave on full 
pay is to be granted, with proportionate leave 
for six months' service, and overtime is to be 
paid at the rate of 2s 9d an hour. No boy or 
ordinary seaman under 19 years of age is to 
be allowed to drive a winch or attend any yard- 
arm, hatch or gangway, nor shall seamen be 
allowed to work over a hatchway while cargo 
is being loaded or discharged. "Stopwork" 
meetings may be allowed on the last Tuesday 
of each month, while vessels are in port at 
Sydney or Newcastle, without deduction of 
pay and under certain conditions. Half an 
hour for "smoke-oh" is allowed. The rates of 
pay are subject to adjustment already made 
in Federal awards and to any adjustments 
that might hereafter be made. 



FORTY-TWO YEARS OLD! 



On March 6 the members of the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific celebrated the forty-second 
birthday of that grand old organization. In 
accordance with time-honored custom the 
anniversary was observed with appropriate 
literary exercises at the headquarters of the 
Union in San Francisco. The program included 
good speeches and first-class music. Everybody 
agreed the affair was a complete success. 



104 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1921 



THE UNION IS YOUR BUSINESS 



of his own business there can be no force to 
his kick if it doesn't go to suit him. 



The business of the union is the business of 
its members. This business is transacted at 
the union meetings. It is at the union meet- 
ings that its laws are enacted, its officers in- 
structed and decisions made that determine 
the policy of the organization on every ques- 
tion that comes before it. 

The union meetings are open forums for all 
members who wish to be heard. Every mem- 
ber who has a proposition to offer, a complaint 
to make, or anything to present within the 
realm of propriety, is free to express himself 
at the union meeting, and he will be given a 
respectful hearing and the decision of the 
members on the matter he submits. 

The meeting is the place for union business. 
It is the only place where union business can 
be determined. If members who do not attend 
meetings find fault with the action of those 
who do attend, they have no just cause for 
complaint, for they have done nothing to try 
to change this action. 

On the other hand, if members attend meet- 
ings and are not successful in having the ma- 
jority support their particular views, they arc- 
not justified in becoming embittered and work- 
ing at cross purposes. Majority rules and every 
right-spirited person believes in that principle. 

Most members who complain of the action 
of a union, or the action of its officers when 
carrying out the instructions of the union, are 
either those who do not attend union meetings, 
or having attended do not express themselves, 
or having expressed themselves have not been 
able to win the majority to their viewpoint 
Each of these classes of members fails to rea- 
lize one of three simple facts: 

(1) That the business of a union is decided 
at its meetings. 

(2) That to influence the action of a union 
meeting a member should express himself at 
the meeting and take part in its deliberations. 

(3) That majority rules in union meetings 
and that every good unionist submits to the 
majority's will. When the viewpoint of mem- 
bers in the minority becomes the expression 
of the majority, this viewpoint becomes the 
decision of the union. 

The business of the union is every member's 
business, and if a member will not take rare 



TACTICS < >!■ C< >MMUXISTS 



If every organized worker understood the 
philosophy and tactics of Communists no trade! 
union door would be open even to a suspected 
Bolshey. 

Bolsheys stand for revolution. Their party 
organization makes it possible tor a highly dis- 
ciplined handful of revolutionists to inculcate 
their ideals among those who are moved by high] 
pressure propaganda. 

The Bolsheys are not interested in improved 
working conditions. Strikes, to them, are merely 
an opportunity for propaganda. They have a 
secret contempt for trade-unions that would raise 
wages, shorten hours and prolong life. In unions 
where Bolshey sentiment is at a low ebb, a care- 
ful policy is first adopted. Each group adjusts 
their tactics in the unions to the development of 
revolutionary sentiment. 

There is no point on which the trade-unionist 
and the Bolshey can agree. One believes in an 
expanding democracy; the other i^ committed 
to rulership from above. 

One believes in making every day a better day 
for wage workers; the other scorns these effort! 
and considers strikers hut pawns for his revolu- 
tion purpose. His mental attitude is identical to 
German militarists who treat labor as cannon 
fodder. 

The man who talks of mutuality of interests 
between trade-unionists and Communists is either 
a knave or a sentimentalist. The latter is trapped 
by the revolutionist's honeyed plea: "Oh, youi 
must be liberal; we are agreed as to objectives, 
but not as to policies." If this were true, one 
could claim the same mutuality between de- 
fenders of the Declaration of Independence and 
Soviet Russia and Mussolini. 

Workers face continued trouble with the Boh 
sheys if they ignore trade-union principles. Then 
they can be swayed by appeals to their emotions. 

If the organized workers use their reasoning 
power they will calmly ask-, "What is this fel- 
low's objective?" 

If workers keep their feet on the ground they 
will discover that trade-unionism is considered 
a pawn by the Bolsheys, whose contempt f<»r 
democracy is the same as in Russia and Italy. 



8 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



105 



The trade-union should be held to its purpose. 
It should not be a hatchery for revolution. It 
should not be a haven for wild men who whine 
for free speech as an excuse to bore from within. 



ANTI-AMERICAN NEWS CONTROL 



THE PORTUGUESE EMPIRE 



The Portuguese rebellion just suppressed is 
computed to be the twenty-third among that 
people since the establishment of their republic 
on October 3, 1910. Portugal is a far-off coun- 
try and not even the seriousness of the latest 
fighting, with 1000 total casualties and nearly 250 
dead, can prevent such a vogue of the insurrec- 
tionary habit from being viewed in a humorous 
light. The recent uprising, in fact, was the 
fourth in less than nine months. May, June and 
July, last, had each had a revolt in close sequence. 

Including her colonies, Portugal is neither 
a small nor a poor country, for Portugal is 
the third colonial power in the world. The 
Portuguese flag covers a territory of over a 
million square miles. In Europe, America, 
Asia, Africa and Oceania, the Portuguese lan- 
guage is spoken over an area of 4,265,489 
square miles. The territory of the Portuguese 
colony, Angola, West Africa, is larger than 
the area of the States of Washington, Oregon. 
California and Arizona. Portuguese East 
Africa, Mozambique, alone has an area of 426,- 
712 square miles. 

Portugal proper in the western part of the 
Iberian peninsula, the Portugal of ports and 
navigators, though only a narrow strip of land, 
is nevertheless larger than New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island 
combined. 



INNOCENCE OR SARCASM 



"I think that the institution of giving out 
Pibles to hotels in America is a wonderful one. 
What struck me most about it was that those 
Bibles looked very fresh and neat, as if they 
had been put there that very morning. It 
looked as if Americans, when traveling, carry 
their own Bibles with them." — M. Zumoto, 
Japanese editor and publicist. 



He who thinks himself the happiest man, really 
is so ; but he who thinks he is the wisest, is 
generally the biggest fool. 



Until recently the thought of international 
relations subconsciously suggested the Atlan- 
tic and countries of Europe. Today, however, 
with commerce drifting more rapidly to the 
Pacific, year by year, Asia is becoming the 
focal point, and the Pacific, with its bordering 
countries, the stage upon which the world's 
coming events will be enacted. 

To duplicate the stormy history of the 
Atlantic, with its misunderstandings, blood- 
shed, conquests and losses, would be another 
grave indictment of the ability of the human 
race to live and learn and to understand. 

Therefore, since the very foundation of 
understanding rests on the ability of people 
to communicate with one another, individually 
and collectively, let us take a brief survey of 
these facilities of communication which exist 
to prevent international misunderstanding, 
both in the Atlantic and in the Pacific areas. 

As far as the Atlantic is concerned at the 
present time, our news communications are 
well handled by the operation of sixteen cables 
and many radio circuits connecting' the United 
States with various countries of Europe, at a 
uniform rate of 7 cents a word for news. The 
achievement of the American telephone sys- 
tem in perfecting transatlantic radio service 
is a great step forward in the inter-communi- 
cation of nations. At present the service is 
limited to New York and London and their 
immediate vicinities, but constant improve- 
ments in the system will undoubtedly soon 
increase this marvelous ' service to all parts 
of the continent. The contact with the human 
voice will be an ever-increasing stabilizer in 
the field of future international understanding. 

On the Pacific the only adequate means of 
news communication at low rates has been 
maintained between Great Britain and her 
dominions in Asia. This she has done by sub- 
sidizing a cable system of 15,000 miles in 
length, running down the west coast of Africa, 
up the east, across the Indian ocean and up 
the east coast of Asia, with a connection for 
Australia and one through the Isthmus of 
Suez through the Mediterranean. Over this 
system the service is so operated that news- 
papers in the various sections may secure a 
service of world news (such as the interests of 
England approve) at about 1 penny a word. 



106 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Apr. 



Otherwise the news is generally carried for 

IS cents per word. Canada and Australia have 
a 6-cent news rate, which is one tenth the 
commercial rate, and Australia and Xew Zea- 
land a rate of £ 4 of a cent per word. 

Compared to this, the United States in 1920 
had only one cable from San Francisco to 
Shanghai via Hawaii, Guam and Manila, with 
a Japanese connection at Guam for Tokio. The 
rate charged was 29 cents per word, with un- 
certain delivery between San Francisco and 
Manila, a distance equal to that between Aus- 
tralia and Canada, where the charge is only 
6 cents per word. 

Thus the only news of the United States 
and the rest of the world received in the Phil- 
ippines came through a British-Japanese con- 
trolled news agency, and our own territory 
of Hawaii could receive only fifty to seventy- 
five words per day of the news of the United 
States, due to the prohibitive cable rates for 
news, although the distance of Honolulu from 
San Francisco is only 50 per cent greater than 
the distance between Australia and New Zea- 
land, where the British rate is Y\ of a cent. 
Thus England and Japan have controlled the 
news situation of the East, the latter going 
so far as to secure an exclusive contract with 
China for the erection of a radio station near 
Peking for commercial and news messages for 
a period of thirty years, commencing 1918. 

In 1920 these important facts were brought 
to the attention of Congress, and a resolution 
was adopted utilizing for a period of two years. 
with a subsequent extension for a longer 
period, the navy radio stations on the Pacific 
for the transmission of commercial messages 
at commercial rates and news messages at a 
low rate, when no privately operated stations 
could or would render the service. This 
brought the rate down to 3 cents for news 
messages between San Francisco and Hawaii 
and 6 cents between San Francisco and 
Manila, and made the Associated Press reports 
available immediately, and enabled both 
Manila and Hawaii to discontinue the British- 
Japanese news service that had naturally 
maintained a more or less anti-American 
propaganda. 

Thus, since 1920, the Navy Department has 
temporarily assumed the transmission of com- 
mercial as well as news messages on the 



Pacific whenever private concerns could not 
render the service. This service was of untold 
value at the recent Pacific Relations Insti- 
tute, held in Honolulu in 1925. where repre- 
sentation of all the various countries border- 
ing on the Pacific came together to discuss 
their mutual problems in a frank and unof- 
ficial way, so as to arrive at a better under- 
standing of one another. A similar conference 
is to be held next Jul) and will undoubtedly 
be even more far-reaching in its results, due 
not only to the personal contact of the various 
nationals gathered together, but also to the 
widespread circulation of the news of the pro- 
ceedings of the conference, given to tin- press 
through the United States \a\y Radio Service. r 

The Radio Corporation of America, a pri- 
vately owned concern, formerly controlled by 
the British-Marconi interests, but now wholly 
under American control and holding exclusive 
rights for radio connection between the United 
States and Japan, has recently come to the 
point where they are willing to admit that 
the interchange of full news reports, flowing 
in a steady stream between the United States 
and Asia, over their own lines at low rates, 
is the most profitable basis upon which to 
operate their business. There is no certainty, 
however, that when other pending negotia- 
tions are made with Siberia. indo-China. Java, 
the Philippines and other parts of China, that 
they will give the necessary low rate for inter- 
change of news reports that are so essential 
in the mutual understanding of countries so 
widely separated. 

We still have a long way to go and many 
important steps to take before we-' reach the 
complete co-ordination of England and her 
dominions where, through her own extensive 
subsidized service, news is interchanged at a 
penny a word. Evidently Americans must first 
be educated to an appreciation of the fact that 
a reasonably priced and impartial news service 
is worth its weight in gold in terms of inter- 
national understanding and interdependence. 



We gain wisdom by looking, not by listening ; 

we get our own viewpoint when we look, the 
other fellow's viewpoint when we listen. 



Behavior is a mirror in which every .me 
shows Ids image. — Goethe. 



in 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



107 



U. S. IMMIGRATION PROBLEM 



A chronological review of the principal legislative 

enactments restricting immigration with 

comment emphasizing the Pacific 

Coast viewpoint. 



From the dawn of civilization the mass migration 
of human beings has had a profound influence upon 
the destiny of peoples. America is frequently re- 
ferred to as "a nation of immigrants." Yet, every 
other country on earth at some time in remote his- 
tory had an immigration problem of most serious 
nature. In the earl)- days of mankind the immi- 
grants did not humbly knock at the gates armed 
with visas. They usually came in hordes armed 
with war clubs and similar weapons. But the 
effects of early and late migrations have been 
equally far-reaching. 

In America the term "immigration" is usually 
applied to the movement of population to the United 
States since the founding of the National Govern- 
ment, as contrasted with the "colonization" of earlier 
periods. 

The total population of the United States in 1790 
was about 4,000,000, and it is estimated that the 
total immigration from that date to 1820, when 
records first began to be kept by the Federal Gov- 
ernment was about 250,000. From 1812 to 1915, 
no less than 32,354,124 immigrants arrived. 

The various state legislatures attempted to super- 
vise or regulate immigration but all these regulative 
efforts came to end in 1876 when the United States 
Supreme Court by two separate decisions held that 
the whole subject had been confided to Congress 
by the Constitution. 

Summary of General Immigration Restriction 

Four years later, on August 3, 1882, the first 
general immigration law was approved by President 
Arthur. It is significant that no less than 788,992 
immigrants were checked in during this year. This 
Act of 1882 provided for a head tax of 50 cents 
to be levied on all aliens landed at United States 
ports, the money thus collected to be used to defray 
the expenses of regulating immigration, and for the 
care of immigrants after landing, no more being 
expended at any port than had been collected there. 
This law excluded foreign convicts (excepting those 
convicted of political offenses), lunatics, idiots, and 
persons likely to become public charges. The terms 
of the beforementioned law were made more rigorous 
by a series of supplementary enactments. 

On February 26, 1885, the first act of Congress 
forbidding the importation of contract labor was 
approved. This law proved defective but was 
subsequently strengthened by qualifying amendments. 

The so-called literacy test (exclusion of those un- 
able to read or write in some language) was 
adopted by Congress in 1897 but vetoed by Presi- 
dent Cleveland. The literacy test was again adopted 
by Congress in 1913 and vetoed by President Taf't 
In 1917 this "test" was finally enacted into law 
over the veto of President Wilson. 

The World War brought about a general public- 
demand for more effective immigration restrictions. 
Influential newspapers and great national organiza- 
tions, such as the American Legion, urged a com- 
plete suspension of immigration for a number of 
years, at least. 

The agitation for more rigid restriction finally 
placed upon the statute books the Act of May 19, 
1921, known as the "quota" restriction law. This 
law limited the number of aliens admissable to three 
per cent of the number of the particular nationality, 



in each case, resident in the United States as shown 
by the census of 1910. The "quota" restriction did 
not apply to Asiatic countries, nor to Canada, Cuba, 
Mexico, or Central or South American countries. 

On May 26, 1924, President Coolidge approved a 
far more stringent law reducing the quota to two 
per cent of the census of 1890. The total number 
of immigrants admissable under the three per cent 
"quota" law had been 357,000 per annum. The 1924 
law reduced that number to 160,000 per annum and 
virtually excluded immigrants from Southern Europ- 
ean countries. 

The quota law of 1924 also provided than on and 
after June 30, 1927, total annual quota admissions 
shall be limited to 150,000 in accordance with the 
national origin of all the inhabitants of the United 
States in 1920. There is serious doubt about carry- 
ing this arrangement into actual operation because 
of the obvious difficulties involved in ascertaining 
the national origin. 

The 1924 law made various other important ad- 
justments in existing immigration laws. Among 
other things it changed the "burden of proof." 
Formerly the Government could not deport an alien 
unless proof had been shown that such alien had 
unlawfully entered the United States. Now, any 
alien is subject to deportation within three years of 
arrival unless he can prove his legal right to resi- 
dence in the United States. 

Regulation of Oriental Immigration 

The efforts to restrict and exclude immigrants 
from the Orient raise distinct and different issues. 
Therefore, that subject is dealt with separately. 

California has borne the brunt of the long strug- 
gle for effective Asiatic exclusion. The working 
people of California were the pioneers in urging 
legislation to exclude Asiatics. When California, 
as a State, had accepted this policy there still 
remained the task of converting the nation. The 
vast majority of immigrants from Asia have landed 
and remained in California. This situation has had 
a tendency to prolong the struggle. If Californians 
had been able to legislate on the subject it woidd 
have been settled in 1858 when the State Legisla- 
ture passed a rigid Chinese Exclusion Act. Of 
course, that law and all other State laws of 
similar nature were unconstitutional. 

In considering early history of the anti-Asiatic 
movement it is interesting to note' that the anti- 
Chinese agitation was in full swing in California 
at the very time when Commodore Perry made his 
first visit to Japan and attempted to persuade the 
statesmen of that country to do business with 
the world at large. 

For a quarter of a century the white residents of 
California and adjacent states tried out every con- 
ceivable method to discourage Chinese immigration. 
There was an unending series of discrimnatory 
state laws and city ordinances. There were anti- 
Chinese demonstrations, riots and persecutions with- 
out number. California in 1879 and Nevada in 1880 
each took a state-wide referendum vote on the 
subject. In each case the results were virtually 
unanimous for exclusion. In the end the realiza- 
tion came that Federal legislation was the only 
remedy. An energetic campaign was carried on 
and resulted in the adoption of a measure by Con- 
gress providing that no master of a vessel should 
take aboard more than 15 Chinese passengers bound 
for a United States port. The bill was promptly 
vetoed by President Hayes. However, because of 
the constant agitation and strong political pressure 
from the Pacific Coast the President negotiated a 
new treaty with China which enabled Congress 
lo restrict immigration from China. A bill exclud- 
ing Chinese laborers for a period of twenty years 
was passed by Congress early in 1882. President 



108 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1923 



Arthur vetoed this bill because he felt that the 
twenty year period was too long and that it vio- 
lated the spirit of the treaty with China. Congress 
took the hint and on May 6, 1882, passed another 
bill providing for a ten year exclusion period only. 
The exclusion law of 1882 did not prove entirely 
satisfactory. There were too many loopholes. 

So the agitation went on. Additional restrictions 
were added during the next Congress. And when 
the ten year exclusion law was renewed in 1892 
still more restrictive features were adopted, in 1902 
Congress renewed for an indefinite period all the 
laws prohibiting and regulating the coming of 
Chinese. 

Upon the refusal of China to continue the then 
existing treaty after 1904, Congress on April 27, 
1904, again re-enacted, "extending and continuing 
without modification, limitation or condition." all 
restrictive laws then in force. 

The Immigration Act of February 5, 1917, did not 
disturb the Chinese Exclusion Act but added vir- 
tually all other Asiatics to the excluded classes by 
geographical definition of a barred zone. The re- 
stricted area thus established added to the excluded 
classes the natives of India, Siam, Indo-China and 
the islands of New Guinea, Borneo, Sumatra, Java 
as well as numerous lesser islands. 
Japanese Immigration 

The question of Japanese immigration became an 
issue during the early years of the present century. 
The anti-Japanese agitation was mild and innocuous 
in comparison with the violent anti-Chinese move- 
ment that had raged in the Coast States for several 
decades. Perhaps this was due to the fact that the 
Japanese with their intense national and racial pride 
would not tamely submit to any rough or dis- 
criminatory treatment. If a San Francisco hoodlum 
should throw a stone at a Japanese in the morning 
the Japanese Ambassador would demand redress at 
Washington that evening. This illustration may be 
slightly exaggerated but on the Pacific Coast it 
soon became generally known that the Japanese 
Government showed extraordinary readiness to guard 
and protect the rights and privileges of her nationals 
residing in the United States. As the years rolled 
by the reason for this paternal solicitude of the 
Japanese Government became thoroughly under- 
stood in California, at least. Japanese immigrants 
did not come to America with any desire or intent 
to lose their racial or national identitv. They came 
in ever increasing numbers for the purpose of 
establishing self-sustaining colonies of the proud 
Yamato race. And when we pause to think of 
the congested area of Japan it is really not sur- 
prising that so many were ready to venture across 
the Pacific. 

When and where in all history was there a more 
glorious opportunity or a more promising prospect 
than California offered to Japan? Both have ap- 
proximately the same area. But Japan had 390 
inhabitants to the square mile while California had 
only fifteen. 

Without restriction the teeming population of 
Japan could have literally overwhelmed California 
in an incredible short period. It was the fear 
of this new menace from the Orient that caused 
Californians of all classes to unite in the demand 
for Japanese exclusion legislation of the same sort 
as existed for the Chinese. 

In 1907 President Roosevelt provided a substitute 
for exclusion that would be acceptable to Japan. He 
negotiated a "Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan. 
American statesmen have refused to make public 
the notes and correspondence which embody the 
so-called Gentlemen's Agreement. Mr. K. K. Kawa- 
kami, Japanese publicist is not so backward. Tn 
one of his books he put the agreement into print 
as follows: 



"The Gentlemen'^ Agreement of 1907 — excluding 
Japane.se laborers from America, is not in the shape 
of a formal treaty or agreement. The term applies 
simply to the substance of a number of informal 
exchanged between the State Department and 
the Japanese Ambassador at that time. Briefly 
stated, the agreement is this: 

"hirst. Japan of her own accord will refrain from' 
issuing passports to Japanese laborers desiring to 
enter territories contiguous to continental United 
States, such as Mexico or Canada. 

"Second. Japan will recognize the right of the 
United States to refuse the admission to continental 
United States of Japanese of the laboring class 
whose passports do not include continental United 
States. 

"Third. Japan will issue passports to continental 
United States only for Japenese of the following 
four classes: (1) Nonlaborers, such as travelers, 
business men, financiers, etc.; (2) Japanese, whether 
laborer or nonlaborers, who have already become 
domiciled in continental United States; (3) Parents, 
wives or children of Japanese who have become 
domiciled in continental United States; (4) Japanese 
who have acquired farming interests in continental 
United States and who wish to return there to 
take active control of those interesl 

This substitute for exclusion took effect about the 
middle of 1908 but it did not put an end to the 
anti-Japanese agitation among the residents of the 
Pacific slope. The agreement did not produce the 
results anticipated and promised by President 
Roosevelt. 

Investigations made by the California State Board 
of Control showed that the Japanese population 
of California increased during the decade 1910-1921 
by more than 25,000 from immigration only. During 
the same period the net increase of the Chinese 
population, including births, was only 769. In other 
words, the Chinese Exclusion Act actually excluded. 
The Japanese Gentlemen's Agreement did not! 

The permissible entry of "parents, wives and 
children" furnished a substantial annual increase in 
the Japanese population. During the decade already 
mentioned (1910-1920) no less than 9717 so-called 
"picture brides" were admitted to the Territory of 
Hawaii and helped to swell the native-born Japanese 
population of Hawaii. About one-half of all the 
births in this American territory are of Japanese 
parentage. The education and early training of 
these children has been very forcefully described 
bv the Superintendent of Public Instruction oi the 
territory (Hawaii Educational Review, January, 
1922) : 

"Over half of the total school population attends 
foreign language schools. These are mostly Japan 
ese schools where Japanese language, history, insti- 
tutions, manners and customs, religious ideas, etc., 
are taught. The foreign language schools constitute 
a serious retarding influence upon the work of the 
public schools. There is no other place under the 
Stars and Stripes, and no other country in the 
world where nearly one-half of the total school en- 
rollment regularly and systematically attends alien 
schools taught by alien teachers in an alien language 
and conducted expressly for the purpose of main- 
taining the religious beliefs, , customs and political 
ideals of an alien people." 

Countless similar examples can be cited but these 
will suffice. The Gentlemen's Agreement was 
throughly tried and found wanting in every material 
respect. There is no occasion for charging the 
Japanese Government with bad faith. The 
was in the agreement itself. As a Bubstrrul 
an exclusion law it was totally inadequate and 
utterlv failed of its purpose. 

So the insistent and growing demand for effective 
exclusion found an answer when Congress ill 



12 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



109 



in the General Immigration Act of 1924 a clause 
providing that "no alien ineligible to citizenship 
shall be admitted to the United States." 

Exclusion of all aliens ineligible to citizenship 
offered a logical, simple, practical and effective solu- 
tion of the entire Asiatic immigration problem. It 
followed the Federal Law which since 1790 has 
made all the yellow and brown races ineligible to 
citizenship because of unassimilability and the 
menace they would offer if established here. Cer- 
tainly if immigration is to be restricted, we should 
commence with that element which is barred from 
citizenship. 

Of course, Japan protested against such legisla- 
tion on the grounds of discrimination and she was 
the only nation which did protest. The measure is 
not discriminatory against Japan, for it applies to 
half the population of the globe, and the Japanese 
constitute not more than seven or eight per cent of 
those affected. It should be remembered, too, that 
Japan in protection of her own people, wisely 
excludes Chinese and Koreans, thus discriminating 
against people of her. own color. 

Some of the spokesmen for the Protestant churches 
in America have been very active in insisting that 
Japan has been insulted or offended by the passage 
of the "ineligible to citizenship" clause in the im- 
migration law of 1924. They have kept up a con- 
stant agitation for the repeal or at least a modifi- 
cation of this clause. 

It has been contended that Japan's wrath would 
be greatly mollified if her nationals were placed 
under the "quota" restriction. The answer to 
this proposal may be summarized as follows: 

(a) To place Japan under the quota would be 
an abandonment of the principle that aliens un- 
fitted for citizenship should not be permitted to 
enter this country and establish independent and 
unassimilable communities. 

(b) To place Japan under the quota would con- 
cede at once her demand for racial equality and 
treatment for her nationals on the same basis as 
Europeans— -a demand already refused in the World 
Peace Conference. It would give her foundation 
for further pressing her other demand for natural- 
ization of her nationals in opposition to our law 
now in force 136 years. 

(c) To place Japanese under the quota would 
be to discriminate in their favor as compared with 
all other races ineligible to citizenship, all of 
which, and particularly the Chinese, would have just 
cause for complaint. If we aim to please Japan, 
without unfair discrimination to others, we must 
open our gates under the quota plan to all aliens 
ineligible to citizenship. 

Americans who have so energetically urged the 
admission of Japanese under the quota system 
ought to change their tactics. Instead of belaboring 
the "ineligible to citizenship" clause in the immi- 
gration law they ought to stage a drive for the 
repeal of the naturalization law of 1790. Such a 
contest would clarify the atmosphere. It would 
induce us to think as much about the future of our 
own country as we now do about the grievance of 
Japan. 

A Glimpse Into the Future 

Looking into the future of America's immigra- 
tion problem we find still a few menacing clouds. 
The great Southwestern States are confronted by 
an excessive influx of Mexican laborers and Cali- 
fornia is already getting an overflow of the Fili- 
pinos who were brought to Hawaii by the sugar 
planters. 

So far as the migration from Mexico is _ con- 
cerned there is some hope for a mutually satisfac- 
tory solution. At a recent conference of authorized 



representatives of the National Labor Federations 
of the United States and Mexico the following joint 
declaration was unanimously adopted: 

"Hitherto nations throughout the world, including 
our own nation, have sought only to exclude other 
peoples either partially or wholly, wisely or un- 
wisely. Nations have acted solely on the defensive. 
They have failed to recognize their own obliga- 
tions to restrain their own people from moving 
across boundaries in such a way as to menace 
the conditions of other peoples. We believe we 
can now set up, at least in the Western Hemis- 
phere, this great principle of self-restraint, and we 
recommend the establishment of that principle. In 
this way, there is brought into being an abandon- 
ment of the principle of compulsion and the adop- 
tion of the principle of voluntary action which under- 
lies our labor movements and governs our actions 
as trade unionists. . . . 

"While we recognize, clearly, that, at all times, 
each nation must be the final judge of what con- 
stitutes a menace to its standards and its institu- 
tions, we are confident that the labor movements of 
our two nations, working in co-operation, and with 
a common ideal in mind, can arrive at conclusions 
and agree upon measures that will meet the re- 
quirements of the times." 

The same conference favored the creation of a 
joint commission, representing the two national 
labor federations, "for a continuous study of im- 
migration and emigration and the problems arising 
therefrom" * * * * "and for the preparation of 
satisfactory, detailed recommendations or measures 
for submission to the governments of the respective 
countries by the respective labor movements." 

With regard to Filipino immigration the outlook 
is not at all encouraging. The Filipinos, while not 
eligible to citizenship, are nevertheless permitted 
to migrate to the United States because of the 
peculiar status of the Philipine Islands in relation 
to the United States. The sugar planters of Hawaii 
have taken advantage of this condition to replenish 
their labor supply. According to the records 74,424 
Filipinos have emigrated to the territory of Hawaii 
during the past 16 years. Only 15,601 returned 
to the Philippine Islands in the same period. If 
the Filipinos were satisfied to remain in Hawaii 
there would probably be no serious objection to 
that half-way migration, but, as already stated, the 
advance guard has found the road to California 
and unless all signs fail the not far distant future 
will bring forth a demand for the exclusion of our 
war-acquired wards in Asia. 

As a conclusion to this very fragmentary sum- 
mary of America's perplexing immigration problem 
let me express the earnest hope that out here on 
the Pacific the final adjustment of things shall 
never again rest in the hands of old-time diplomats. 
The diplomats have had their day in the old world 
and anyone who has read the history of Europe 
must admit that they have made a sad and sorry 
mess of things. 

Fully one-half of the human race live in the 
countries bordering on the Pacific. Here we must 
strive for a brighter day for humanity and for a 
settlement of all its distressing problems by reason 
and good will rather than the old-fashioned methods 
of force and fear. The people themselves must take 
a hand in this great game. We must learn to 
understand each others viewpoint, to be tolerant, 
and to live in peace and harmony with our 
neighbors even though there is disagreement on 
such important questions as are raised by seemingly 
arbitrary immigration restrictions. 

The promotion of international friendship is not 
incompatible with the enactment of exclusion laws. 
Unreasoning hatred of strangers in our midst has 
alwavs been fostered when unwelcome immigra- 



13 



110 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April. 1927 



tion overran the nation. Race prejudice always 
came to the front in America whenever immigrants 
of any race or nationality were sufficiently numerous 
to constitute a menace to the higher standards of 
living of the native population. As soon a> this 
fear and apprehension had been removed the late 
arrivals began to be judged by their individual worth 
rather than their potential collective capacity to 
lower the standard of living. Let us hope that 
our friends in Japan who still complain about their 
unjust treatment in America will learn to appreciate 
this candid American point of view. Let us pray 
that the churchmen who have stirred up resentment 
in Japan against our country's immigration laws 
will learn to see the error of their ways. — Paul 
Scharrenberg in the "American Federationist." 



COLORED LABOR AT SEA 



THE WHALING INDUSTRY 



Norway has always occupied a very promi- 
nent position in the world's whaling activities, 
and has during the past ten years gradually 
risen ■ to an even more dominating rank in 
whaling, as will be seen from the following 
table covering world and Norwegian produc- 
tion, in barrels : 

Year World Norway 

1916 625,000 367,400 

1917 373.000 231,000 

1918 337.000 147,000 

1919 362,000 163,750 

1920 435.000 212,000 

1921 440.00! » 281,000 

1922 650,000 338,000 

1923 848,000 440,000 

1924 702,000 377,000 

1925 1,072,000 600,000 

There are at present twenty-two Norwegian 
companies with a total share capital of ap- 
proximately kr. 52 million engaged in various 
parts of the world, the following being the 
most important : South Shetland, South Geor- 
gia, South Orkney. Ross Sea, Africa, Spain, 
Portugal, Faroe Islands, Norway's west coast, 
West Indies, Mexico, Kamschatka, Peru, 
\ustralia, Newfoundland. Shetland Islands, 
Chile, North America and Japan. At the above 
points there are in all thirty-six land stations 
and twenty-one floating cookeries with about 
195 whaling boats and a number of transport 
ships. The customary floating cookeries have 
been of 24.000 to 26,000 barrels capacity, but 
the present tendency is toward larger sizes 
so that floating cookeries of from 50,000 to 
70,000 barrels capacity are now being used. 



I cannot see how a man can love his country 
* * * who uses the people of his city, his 
state, his country, merely for what he can get 
out of them. — Samuel M. Tones. 



The employment of colored labor at sea is 
assuming proportions that in the long run 
cannot fail to have adverse effects upon the 
working conditions of organized white sea- 
men. This i> one of the most serious problem] 
at present facing the seamen. A little over a 
year ago the Seamen's Section of the German 
Traffic Union was constrained to approach the 
shipowners in this connection, and more re- 
cently the Seamen's Section of the Dutch 
Transport Worker'- Union has also had to 
start a campaign against the growing tendency 
to recruit a large part of the crew from among 
colored seamen, and has even asked the 
authorities to intervene. A recent article in 
The Seamen's Journal published by said union 
Cven speaks of a "Yellow Peril," and when 
it is learned that the number of Chinese em- 
ployed in the Dutch mercantile marine already 
runs into thousands, it will be realized that 
the danger is not an imaginary one. 

What is behind this growing tendency of 
the shipowners to employ colored labor] 
According to their own declarations it is noth- 
ing but humanitarian feelings. They argue that 
seamen of colored races are better able to 
stand service in the tropics, and are less SUM 
ceptible to fever than white seamen. At first 
sight this argument sounds plausible. There 
is no doubt that in the tropics the work of 
firemen and trimmers is extremely exhausting. 
but it is no less so for colored seamen than for 
white ones. Chinese and Indian seamen arc 
no better protected against climatic influences 
in the tropics than are white seamen. Doctor 
Nocht. an eminent German authority <>n 
tropical diseases, states that "working capacity 
and output are diminished in warm and damp 
climates — this applying particularly to naviga- 
tion in the tropics — but the diminution is the 
same for white as for colored workers, and if 
a white fireman on board is not required to 
do more work than a colored fireman, he is 
fully equal to it." 

This statement goes straight to the essential 
point of the problem. The shipowners do not 
expect colored seamen to do as much work as 
white seamen. The fact that when Chine-, 
men are employed the manning scale is m\)- 



14 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



111 



siderably increased is sufficient proof of this. 
The shipowners point to this latter circum- 
stance to try and prove that they do not 
benefit financially by employing colored sea- 
men, alleging that the sum total of wages for 
a mixed crew is not less than that of a purely 
white crew. "You will see" — they say plausi- 
bly — "the employment of colored seamen is not 
a question of money for us, but purely a 
humanitarian one." At first sight there appears 
to be something in the statement, but it is 
really an evasion, as the seamen are really not 
interested whether the total of the wages paid 
to the colored seamen equals or not what would 
be paid to the white seamen who are thereby 
deprived of work. The crux of the question is 
that the shipowners by employing a larger 
number of colored seamen tacitly admit that 
the present manning scales for purely white 
crews are inadequate, and that the numerous 
cases of sickness among white seamen are not 
due to lower physical resistance, but to the 
excessive work required of the men in viola- 
tion of all feelings of humanity. In other words 
the shipowners themselves recognize that on 
voyages to the tropics a larger crew is required, 
but fearing an increase in expenses they solve 
the question very simply by employing colored 
labor, which is cheaper. It will be seen that 
after all it is really financial considerations 
which lead the shipowners to employ Asiatic 
seamen. 

The immediate consequence of the employ- 
pent of colored seamen is a diminution in the 
amount of work available for white seamen. 
This is all the more deplorable because large 
numbers of European seamen are already un- 
employed. This alone requires that the problem 
be faced, but it is also necessary to look farther 
ahead, as in the long run the permanent em- 
ployment of colored seamen might very well 
undermine the rates of wages paid to white- 
seamen. This danger should not be lost sight 
of. The question of the employment of colored 
seamen is therefore for the white seamen not 
a racial problem but a wage problem. The 
organized seamen in western countries do not 
oppose the employment of Asiatic w r orkers be- 
cause they consider that the seamen's calling 
is a prerogative of the white races, but because 
they consider that the unorganized colored sea- 



men, like the unorganized white seamen, can 
have an adverse effect upon the wages of the 
organized men. 

What are the most effective means for 
countering this danger? That is the problem 
with which the white seamen are faced. Two 
things appear to be indicated: in the first place 
the}" should aim to secure collective agreement- 
providing for a uniform scale of wages for the 
whole crew irrespective of race; in the second 
place the organized white seamen should make 
every possible effort to win the colored workers 
for the trade unions, and to give effective sup- 
port to trade unions already existing in China 
or India. This raises another problem which 
urgently calls for solution, a problem which 
interests not only the seamen but the whole of 
the organized workers in the industrial coun- 
tries of the west ; for the whole of the workers 
are today feeling to a greater or lesser extent 
the competition of the cheaper labor in the 
cast. The aspect which the problem takes to 
the workers in other industries only differs 
externally from that which is engaging the 
attention of the seamen, for the latter are feel- 
ing the personal and individual competition 
of the Asiatic workers, while the former feel 
it only indirectly through the products of labor. 
The effects, however, are the same. In both 
cases the white workers, whose wages and 
standard of living are higher, find their living 
endangered and the prospects, of improving 
their working conditions lessened. These 
dangers can only be effectively dispelled by a 
joint effort of the organized workers in the 
west to equip their colored comrades to resist 
exploitation, and to help them establish power- 
ful trade unions. 

While on the one hand the results to be 
obtained by the second line of action indicated 
depend largely on the way in which the work- 
ing class in the west appreciates and carries 
out its task, on the other the drafting of col- 
lective agreements on the lines suggested also 
depends upon the organic unity of the seamen. 
The dangers to which we have pointed will not 
be avoided definitely unless both the lines of 
action indicated are resolutely followed. — From 
the News Letter of the International Trans- 
portworkers' Federation. 



IS 



112 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1927 



SMUGGLING BOGUS SEAMEN 



The King Bill, S. 3574, providing for depor- 
tation of certain alien seamen, should have been 
passed by Congress. Immigration committees 
of the Senate and House have had it under 
consideration for the last four years. It passed 
the Senate unanimously on February 2. only to 
die in the House committee. Between 30,000 
and 40,000 immigrants are shipped on vessels as 
seamen in Europe and landed in the United 
States every year, and the number is growing. 
Average size vessels are coming to the United 
States with a crew of between fifty and sixty, 
and leaving again with a crew of thirty, leav- 
ing behind them twenty or more persons who 
are of the excluded classes and who could not 
come into the United States at all except by 
being smuggled in. Larger vessels leave larger 
proportions of their crew behind. 

These facts are admitted. The price per 
person for the smuggling ranges from $200 
to $400. This, too, is admitted, and has been 
proved in courts in Hamburg, Germany, and 
in Norfolk, Va. Consuls in Europe know all 
about it. They are doing everything they can 
to stop it, but state, without hesitation, that 
they can do very little, and that the remedy 
is examination of the crews of vessels upon 
arrival in American harbors, so as to distin- 
guish between the bona fide seaman and the 
immigrant who masquerades as a seaman. The 
bill provides for such examination. It is not 
any more difficult to determine who is a bona 
fide seaman than who is a bona fide stenog- 
rapher or watchmaker or shoemaker, or any 
other calling that requires particular skill. A 
few technical questions will determine the 
matter. 

The bill provides that those who are not 
bona fide seamen shall be deported as pas- 
sengers on some other vessels at the cost of 
the vessel which brought them. The bill 
further provides that any vessel in leaving 
must have as many persons in her crew as 
she had on arrival. The bill also provides that 
no one can come as a seaman unless he can 
come as an immigrant; unless, first, he comes 
in a vessel in distress; secondly, unless lie 
comes under the flag of the country in which 
he was born, as distinguished from that coun- 
try's dependencies, colonies or mandate-. It is 
difficult to understand why there should be 



any hesitation about passing this bill, unless 
the opposition offered by foreign shipping 
companies and their governments is to be 
accepted to the extent of permitting them 
to violate American laws. 

In 1924 this bill was submitted to the De- 
partment of Labor, where it was indorsed, and 
to the Commissioner of Navigation, who sug- 
gested an amendment, which was incorporated. 
It was then submitted to the State Depart- 
ment, which answered that there was nothing 
in the treaties to prevent it- passage. It sug- 
gested a minor amendment, which was incor- 
porated in the bill. 

It is difficult to conceive of any legitimate 
reason for hesitating to enact this legislation 
to put a stop to the .smuggling of aliens pre- 
tending to be seamen. — Washington Post. 



STEEL TRUST GENEROSITY 



Judge Gary's little company, known legally 
as the United States Steel Corporation, is tout- 
ing its horn again, pointing out that in the 
last fiscal year it paid $2,537,916 in pension-. 
This is supposed to be generosity, and doubt- 
less many people will think it is generosity. 

The United States Steel Corporation is one 
of the most powerful institutions in the coun- 
try. It boasts of its $500,000,000 surplus. It 
paid about $2,500,000 in pensions in a year to 
men who had gone to the scrap heap after 
years of underpaid service. 

There are unions in the American Federa- 
tion of Labor whose benefits so far surpass 
those of the Steel Trust that comparison is 
childish. There is the Cigarmakers' Union; 
there is the Carpenters' Union, with its home 
in prospect in Florida; there is the Pressmen's 
Union, and there is the Printers' Union, each 
having its fine home for aged members. And 
the Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers closed 
the last fiscal year with $955,008 paid in bene- 
fits to aged members and widows — alm< 
million dollars, and with $318,311 paid in mor- 
tuary benefits in addition. Just this group of 
unions alone has far surpassed the niggardly 
generosity of the monarch of steel. 

The United States Steel Corporation doesn't 
know the meaning of generosity. It was 
organized for profits. 



The holder of a monopoly is a -inner and 
offender. — The Koran. 



16 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



113 



RUBBER IN LIBERIA 



Liberia, at present a totally undeveloped 
country except for a coastal strip of about 
thirty miles in width, is to be opened up for 
cultivation on the large-scale plantation sys- 
tem. 

According to information in the press, nego- 
tiations have now been concluded between the 
government of Liberia and the Firestones 
Plantations Company, whereby this American 
undertaking obtains a lease for ninety-nine 
years of over 1,000,000 acres of forest land in 
Liberia for the cultivation of rubber. The 
agreement has been ratified by the Legislature 
of Liberia, and development work has been 
undertaken. 

It was estimated some months ago that the 
scheme would result in the employment of 
30,000 white workers and 300,000 natives, 
the labor cost per native being less than 
25 cents (U. S.) a day, which is the rate in 
Malaya. It is now stated that the necessary 
labor has been secured without difficulty. 

The Firestones Plantations Company is al- 
ready spending $50,000 monthly on plantation 
work at Monrovia, Cape Palmas and Cape 
Mount, and this activity has helped materially 
toward the solution of the unemployment 
problem. The development of further large 
plantations in several parts of Liberia is being 
undertaken by the company. 

Harbors and roads into the interior will be 
necessary for the opening up of the country, 
and an American loan is being negotiated, 
part of which will be used for these public 
works. A plan for a modern harbor at Mon- 
rovia has already been approved and construc- 
tion works are being begun. 



THE USEFUL VS. THE USELESS 



The habits of our whole species fall into 
three great classes: Useful Labor, Useless 
Labor, and Idleness. Of course, the first only 
is meritorious, and to it all the products of 
labor rightfully belong; but the two latter, 
while they exist, are heavy pensioners upon 
the first, robbing- it of a large portion of its 
just rights. The only remedy is, as far as 
possible, to drive useless labor and idleness out 
of existence. — Abraham Lincoln. 



CROOKS IN STRIKE-TIME 



One of the most interesting news "stories" 
of the recent general strike in England was 
published in the "Daily Graphic." Scotland 
Yard chiefs have been discussing a mystery 
which has baffled not only "The Big Four," but 
every detective in the force. It lies in the ques- 
tion: "Where do crooks go during strike 
time?" The "Daily Graphic" tells us that from 
May 3 to May 17 there was no crime worth 
mentioning in London. "Cat burglars deserted 
Mayfair, and family jewels remained undis- 
turbed. Warehouse thieves and motor bandits 
downed tools. Confidence tricksters . . . also 
suspended operations." And what do you think 
is the answer to the conundrum? "It now 
appears," says the "Daily Graphic," "that when 
the strike was declared, the crooks of London, 
at a secret meeting at Hackney Marshes, 
decided to offer themselves as volunteers for 
emergency work. Thus, while some of the 
crook community were trundling milk-churns 
at King's Cross, others were unloading ships 
at the docks." This is a really wonderful dis- 
covery, and we are glad it has been made, 
not by the labor daily, but by Scotland Yard 
and the "Daily Graphic." But will the com- 
panies who want to retain their strikebreakers 
be able to keep them, now that work is no 
longer an adventure? Scotland Yard, we hear, 
thinks that they will not. — "Catholic Advo- 
cate." 



JUST RIGHT 



A Texas plantation owner had given one of 
his old darkeys a cigar that he had kept in his 
pocket for quite some time. On seeing the 
darkey later he inquired, "Well, Rastus, how 
did you like that cigar?" 

"It was just right, Colonel, just right." 
"What do you mean by just right?" 
"Well, Colonel, if it was any better'n 'twas 
you'se wouldn't give it to me, and if it was any 
worser I'se wouldn't smoke it. It was just 
right." 



The purchase influenced by the Union Label 
strikes two blows — one for industrial justice 
and one against the sweatshop which might 
have profited by the purchaser's need. 



17 



114 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, L92i 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Residence for Citizenship — The U. S. Dis- 
trict Court at New ( Orleans has held in the 
case of Marco Nicolich (No. 5833) that when 
an alien has declared his intention of becom- 
ing a citizen, service on vessels of foreign 
registry does not bar his claim of continuous 
residence with a view to obtaining naturaliza- 
tion. The petitioner — a master mariner — re- 
sided at New Orleans but served on fruiters 
of foreign registry making short trips between 
New Orleans and Central America, and the 
Government contended that this service had 
broken the continuity of his residence-. 

Unseaworthiness of Vessel — The case of 
Decker vs. Steamship West Avinal was tried 
recently the second time in the United States 
District Court tor the Southern District of 
New York. 

Decker claimed that he contracted tubercu- 
losis aboard this ship, during a voyage for 
which he signed Aug. 12, 1920, and which 
ended Jan. 5. 1921. He claimed unseaworthy 
condition of the quarters due to presence on 
board of deck cargo of 230 mules for about 
forty days and consequent filth which collected 
and was washed into the forecastle. Also that 
the defendant failed to treat him after he be- 
came sick or to render him medical assistance 
and that thereby his illness was aggravated. 
The case was submitted to the jury on those 
two causes and resulted in a verdict of $6,000. 
At the first trial the jury brought in a verdict 
for the defendant. 

This is not a large verdict for a man of his 
present physical condition, but considering the 
nature of the illness and the prevalence of such 
disease among seamen, this verdict is quite a 
victory. In all such cases the proof must be- 
very strong that the conditions aboard ship 
are very unhealthy and unsanitary. This is 
due to the fact that the life of a sailor is one 
of exposure to the elements and he is apt to 
become susceptible to the disease if in run- 
down condition. This case was tried by Mr. 
Lucien V. Axtell. 

British vs. United States Law — A seaman 
died on board the steamship Ogontz of the 
Shipping Board, operated in the West African 
service, allegedly from the effects of the bad 
food served on board. Death occurred at 



Accra. It was shown at the trial that the man j 
died of enteritis and it was held that bad food 
might cause enteritis Suit against the Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation was entered by the 
dependents of the seaman and the plea was 
made that as death had occurred at a British 
port the measure of damages was governed by 
British law. The U. S. District Court at New 
York held that damages should be measured 
by the law of the District of Columbia, the 
official situs of the Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion, and the Circuit Court of Appeals (2d 
( "ir. i affirmed this finding- U. S. S. B. Emer- 
gency Fleet Corp. vs. Esther Greenwold. 

Settlement Out of Court— While Michael 
Paul, boatswain of the steamship Abercos, was 
directing the work of rigging up a scaffold in 
the hold one of the plank> slipped, striking 
Paul on the left hand, causing the loss of two 
fingers. Liability was uncertain. ( )n date >ct 
for trial the case was settled out of court for 
|3800.00. Michael Paul was represented by 
the firm of W. J. & II. W. Waguespach of 
New ( Means. La. 

Deportation of Alien Seamen. — The Circuit 
Court of Appeals for the Ninth District has 
sustained the District Court in the case of 
Immigration Commissioner J. I). Magle vs. 
Ragnvald Hansen, an alien seaman, held for 
deportation, but ordered discharged by the 
lower court. The opinion of the Circuit Court 
also settled the following points: (1) That a 
seaman cannot be deported after three years 
have elapsed from date of his arrival; i2) 
That an alien seaman who signs article- in 
a foreign-going vessel while in an American 
port does not thereby surrender his legal 
status as a seaman under the United States 
immigration laws. 



THEIR WIRES CROSSED 



An Idaho man was fishing in Lake Cres- 
cent recently. He caught a big bass, the big- 
gest he had ever landed in his long and busy 
life. Me was elated. He was crazed with joy, 
and he telegraphed his wife: "I've got one; 
weigh- seven pounds and it i- a beauty." 

The following was the answer he got: "So 
have 1; weighs ten pounds. Not a beaut) - 
look- like you. Come home." 



IX 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



115 



BOOK REVIEW 



NEW TACTICS IN SOCIAL CONFLICT. Edited 
by Harry W. Laidler and Norman Thomas. 
Vanguard Press, Inc., Publishers, New York. 
Price 50 cents. 

This little volume is described as a "sym- 
posium" of last summer's conference of the 
League for Industrial Democracy. It is not, 
on the one hand, a stenographic report of all 
that was said, nor, on the other hand, a mere 
summary. The more formal papers appear to 
be given in full, and the more significant parts 
of the general discussion are transcribed di- 
rectly from the shorthand. The members of 
the conference represented all shades of opin- 
ion, from admitted members of the Communist 
party to champions of the social work of some 
of the more liberal corporations. There were 
editors, lawyers, union officials, labor bankers, 
publicity men for corporations. 

During the World War and shortly there- 
after, the big industrial interests decided to 
smash organized labor. They had always 
fought it, but never before with a clear real- 
ization that organized labor and organized 
capital could not continue to live side by side. 
Theretofore big business had fought the 
unions face to face. But in the last decade, it 
has undertaken to attack labor upon the flanks 
and in the rear. It has sold its stock to its 
employees on the installment plan. It has 
offered its workers group insurance at reduced 
rates. It has even organized the workers into 
shop committees and company unions. This 
work, on its face, looks very philanthropic, 
but the speakers at the conference of the 
League of Industrial Democracy, with but few- 
exceptions, were persuaded that the real pur- 
pose of all this benevolence is to give the 
workers something which will keep them aloof 
from real labor unions. 

At the same time, labor has changed its tac- 
tics. It has, indeed, not abandoned its old 
offensive and defensive weapons of strikes and 
boycotts. But just as capital has gone into 
social work, so labor has gone into capitalism. 
The workers have organized banks and insur- 
ance companies. One would hope that the 
learned members of the conference would ex- 
plain what were the forces which led labor 
to adopt these new tactics. But alas, the 
learned gentlemen give us no very definite 
theories. Labor banks seem to be like Topsy, 



they "just growed." At the head of the sui 
ful labor bankers, we find the conservative 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the 
radical Amalgamated Clothing Workers. 

Indeed, what appear to be the contradictions 
in the American labor movement must per- 
suade the thoughtful observer of its real unity. 
One of the speakers at the conference quoted 
the late Samuel Gompers as saying of labor 
banking, "You must go slow, you are digging 
yourself in." Surely, no Communist could 
better phrase his contention that labor bank- 
ing tends to perpetuate capitalism. Another 
speaker quoted Bill Haywood of dreadful 
memory as saying that he believed in anything 
that would get results. No hard-boiled leader 
of the A. F. of L. could find a better explana- 
tion of his tactics. 

The book itself is a summary of many points 
of view. It is boiled down and concentrated. 
It brings home to the thoughtful reader the 
perplexing multiplicity of our labor problems. 
And yet one closes the book with the feeling 
that in spite of all the winds of doctrine, there 
is a simplicity and a unity in the American 
labor movement of our day. The reader finds 
very few questions satisfactorily answered in 
the book. He who consults its pages for a 
vindication of his own theories will probably 
be disappointed. But he who reads it as one 
should always read, for the purpose of stim- 
ulating and clarifying his own thinking, will 
find the hours pass unnoticed, and at last 
close the book with regret. I know of nothing 
that has been published in recent years which 
will so repay careful reading. — G. S. I). 



RICH AND POOR 



The present position which we, the educated 
and well-to-do classes, occupy is that of the Old 
Alan of the Sea, riding on the poor man's back; 
only, unlike the Old Man of the Sea, we are very 
sorry for the poor man, very sorry; and we do 
almost anything for the poor man's relief. We 
will not supply him with food sufficient to keep 
him on his legs, but we will teach and instruct 
him and point out to him the beauties of the 
landscape; we will discourse sweet music to him 
and give him abundance of good advice. 

Yes, we will do almost anything for the poor 
man, anything but get off bis back. Leo 

Tolstoy. 



19 



116 THESEAMEN'SJOURNAL April. 19. 

DO YOU REALLY THINK? THE JAPANESE MANDATE 



"How I love people who say what they 
think!" cried the great Voltaire. And if 
they really did think, they'd be worth lov- 
ing. But the vast majority of men don't 
think at all. They only think they think. 

A widespread conspiracy exists to prevent 
the masses from thinking. Those who dom- 
inate the earth are well aware that the preva- 
lence of thought would destroy their dom- 
inance. So they plot together to propagate 
and encourage mental sloth. 

The plan of campaign is to put opinions 
into the people's minds, and to keep ideas 
out. 

Schools and colleges are founded with that 
object in view. Teach conventional com- 
monplaces, and accepted lies and prejudices, 
but do not start the machinery of thought, 
for that would be exceedingly dangerous to 
sceptered wrongs and enshrined errors and 
the Kingdom of Things As They Are. 

Newspapers are circulated in countless mil- 
lions to substitute inking for thinking. ( Opin- 
ions are injected into the heads of the multi- 
tude by the hireling scribes of the ascendant 
classes, and it is done with the utmost cau- 
tion, lest accidentally the molecules of the 
brain should be set in motion. 

Thus it is that many men go through life 
without ever giving their intellects a show. 
without once gathering up the materials of 
cogitation and forming an idea. 

To think is the high prerogative of t In- 
human race. It constitutes their claim to pre- 
eminence in the scheme of creation. Yet 
thinking is so seldom done! It is absolutely 
unpopular. 

People read, people talk, people vote, peo- 
ple dogmatize, people condemn and applaud. 
But people don't think. 

Where do you come in. brother? Take a 
peep into your thought factory, and see if the 
wheels arc turning. — Australian Worker. Syd- 
ney, x. S. W. 



Stand with anybody that stands right, stand 
with him while he is right, and part with him 
when he goes wrong. — Lincoln. 



The South Sea Islands north of the Equator, 
fonnerh possessed by Germany, were occupied 
by Japanese forces in October, 1914, and were 
placed under a military administration. The 
mandatory administration of the territory was 
inaugurated in April, 1921. The South Seas' 
Bureau, an administrative organ of an entirely 
civil nature, was established in 1922 to super- 
sede the military regime which preceded it. 

The mandated area consists of more than 
1400 islands, islets and reefs scattered over a 
vast expanse of water. The area of the land 
surface, however, is only 2158 square kilo- 
meters. 

For administrative purposes the islands are 
divided into the six district- of Saipan. l'alau, 
Yap Truk, Ponape and Jaluit. Each of these 
districts is administered by a branch of the 
South Seas Bureau. 

By a census taken in 1925 it was ascertained 
that on October 1, 1925, the total population 
of the islands was 56,293. including 7430 
Japanese, 66 foreigners and 48,797 natives. 
Generally speaking, the natives would appear 
to be members of the Micronesian race. They 
belong for the most part to the Kanaka 
(45,845 persons) and Chamorro ( 2952 persons) 
peoples. 

Phosphates, copra and sugar are the three 
nn>st important products of the islands, their 
total values for the year 1924 being 1,090.000, 
1,040,000 and 1,130.000 yen respectively. They 
represent 90 per cent of the total value of the 
exports. Sulphur and manganese afp found in 
very small quantities. The government gives 
grants-in-aid to various industrial" undertak- 
ings, with a view to helping the development 
of productive industry in the islands. It has 
established an industrial experimental station 
in l'alau. and in 1924 it started an investigation 
of marine products. 



We must oust these European patriotisms 

by some greater idea or perish. — H. G. Wells. 



In 1914 Kaiser Wilhelm II reigned, the 
World War broke out, cables between Ger- 
many and the United States were cut by the 
Allies. During the past month President von 
Hindenburg, second President of the German 
people, exchanged greetings with 1 'resident 
Coolidge, formally opening the newly laid 
Kmden-Azores cable. 



20 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



117 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The Shipping Board has sold the 7500-ton 
freighter American Star to Charles Nelson Com- 
pany of San Francisco for $144,500; the 5000- 
ton freighter Milwaukee Bridge to the Matson 
Line for $30,000 cash, and the lake type freighter 
Craycroft to John J. Roen of Charlevoix, Mich., 
for $25,000 cash. 

Henry Ford has been granted an extension of 
one year in which to complete the dismantling 
of the 199 vessels he bought from the Shipping 
Board in 1925. Incidentally, nothing has been 
heard as a sequel to the letter reported to have 
been written to him by Chairman O'Connor, in 
which Ford was urged to route 50 per cent of 
his exports via American vessels. 

During the year 1926 thirty-one foreign-built 
vessels were admitted to American registry. 
Great Britain led with twelve vessels. Other 
foreign-built vessels transferred, were : Norwe- 
gian, 5 ; German, 5 ; Danish, 3 ; Italian, 2 ; and 
Mexico, China, France, and Cuba one each. 
Since 1912 a total of 456 foreign-built ships have 
been placed under American registry. 

The most mysterious region on earth today is 
the bottom of the sea. Only its fringes have 
been partly explored, yet the sea is the mother 
of all life on this planet. Prof. W. E. Allen 
of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography of the 
University of California at La Jolla urges a 
more intensive study of the sea. He has peered 
into the depths long enough to be convinced that 
a better understanding of the biological and phy- 
sical characteristics of the ocean will prove of 
greatest benefit to civilization. 

The Sun Shipbuilding Company, Chester, Pa., 
has booked orders for three oil tankers aggregat- 
ing 41,000 tons and costing more than $5,000,000. 
One is for a 15,000-ton motor vessel for the 
California Petroleum Company, 500 x 70 feet, 
with Sun-Doxford engines. The second is a 
13,000-ton boat for the Sun Oil Company, 500 x 
65 feet, also with Sun-Doxford engines. The 
third, 13,000 tons, 500x66 feet, will be a sister 
ship to the Pennsylvania Sun, constructed in 
1921 for the Sun Oil Company. 

The bureau of Navigation, Department of 



Commerce, announces the transfer of the follow- 
ing United States vessels to foreign registry : 
Georgia (tank s. s.), ex Texaco, ex Texas, 5110 
tons gross, 3476 net, built at Newport News, 
Virginia, in 1908, to German; Honolulan (s. s.), 
ex American, 5399 tons gross, 3381 net, built at 
Chester, Pennsylvania, in 1900, to Japanese ; 
Tamesi (tank s. s.), ex Roma (Br.), 2939 tons 
gross, 2164 net, built at Sunderland in 1889, to 
Italian. 

Last year, 5829 vessels of 23,694,960 tons net, 
entered New York harbor from foreign ports, 
of which 4009 of 17,107,015 tons were under 
foreign flags and 1820 of 6587,945 tons were 
American. Clearances numbered 5611 of 23,- 
225,351 tons, of which 1853 of 6,805,733 were 
American. Direct entries during the year in- 
cluded 3496 foreign vessels of 14,994,378 tons 
and 1516 American vessels of 5,631,383 tons. 
Entries via other ports included 513 foreign ves- 
sels, with a total net tonnage of 2,112,689 and 
304 American vessels, with a total net tonnage of 
956,562. 

Charles S. Haight, an attorney, has obtained 
judgment against the Lloyd Royal Beige for 
$235,872.91, and costs amounting to $642.90. 
The case hinged upon the sale by the Ship- 
ping Board to the Be^ian company of a num- 
ber of vessels which were found defective in 
various respects. Mr. Haight was retained to 
obtain a reduction of the purchase price from 
the board and succeeded, his remuneration be- 
ing based upon a percentage of the abatement. 
Failure on the part of the Lloyd Royal Beige 
to pay the amount mentioned led to litigation, 
with the above result. 

Rescue of fifteen Japanese from a sinking 
fishing smack, 200 miles from Yokohama, was 
reported by Capt. G. K. Bergman of the tank 
steamer Cape Ann, which arrived at San Fran- 
cisco during the month. The Cape Ann, recently 
purchased by the California Petroleum Corpora- 
tion, was homeward bound when the fishing craft 
was sighted, drifting helplessly with the engine 
disabled. Heavy seas precluded the launching of 
a lifeboat. The tanker was brought alongside the 
craft and the men taken off as the smack sank. 
Nine days later the tanker spoke the O. S. K. 
steamer Hawaii Maru, bound for Japan, which 
took the refugees. 

A large Japanese steamer anchored in San 
Francisco Bay in proximity to the landing ol an 



21 



118 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 19. 



electric cable. While the ship was coaling she 
came in contact with a barge and swung around, 
causing her anchor to drag and damage the cable! 
The electric company sued the ship in admiralty 
and obtained damages in the District Court. The 
shipowners appealed and the United States Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals (ninth circuit) reversed 
the verdict below with costs to the appellant, on 
the ground of want of jurisdiction. It was held 
that notwithstanding previous decisions to the 
effect that submarine telegraph cables were sub- 
ject to maritime control, a power cable was not. 
Two lifeboats of the most modern, motor- 
propelled type are being constructed by the 
American Brown Boveri Electric Corporation at 
its Camden, N. J., shipbuilding plant, for the 
Hawaiian Steamship Company's new 17.000-ton 
oil-burning passenger liner Malolo. These boats, 
which are of special design and complete even 
to radio apparatus, have a waterline length of 
30 feet and an overall length of M feet, a beam 
of 10 feet, and depth of 4 feet 6 inches molded 
amidships, with square stern. They are built of 
galvanized steel throughout, and have two water- 
tight bulkheads, a self-bailing cockpit aft and a 
steel-sided roof, with wooden deck over the en- 
gine room and steel deck over the remaining part 
of the hull. 

The S. S. Evangeline, second of two ocean: 
going vessels built for the Eastern Steamship 
Company has been launched at Cramp's in 
Philadelphia. A sister ship, the Yarmouth, left 
the ways November 6. Both vessels will be ready 
May 1 and June 1, respectively. The vessels are 
377.3 x 55 feet, with 18 feet draft. They are of 
the three-deck superstructure type, with continu- 
ous promenade deck and boat deck, making five 
decks in all. The stern is of the cruiser type 
with a bulbous bow and steam raking forward. 
There are four hatch openings with electric 
freight elevators through the main and lower 
decks and eight watertight steel bulkheads in each 
ship. The propelling machinery consists of single 
reduction geared turbines, driving twin screws, 
steam being supplied by six single-ended Scotch 
boilers. 

The S. S. John Tracy has been lost at sea 
and thirty-five seamen have apparently gone down 
with the ship. What happened to the master and 
the crew of this vessel will always be a mys- 
tery, and the name of the John Tracy will be 
added to that long list of ships that disappear 
at sea and from which no word has ever been 



received. The laws of the United States call for 
a radio set on any vessel that carries over fifty 
men. Evidently they do not consider forty-nine 
souls of any great consequence. Of course it is 
necessary to have a limit some place, but in these 
flays with the wonderful feats of engineering 
which are being performed, especially in regard 
to radio, it would seem that some radio apparatus 
that could be used in an emergency on such a 
vessel should be on every vessel that is docu- 
mented by the United States Steamboat- Inspec- 
tion Service. 

An important ruling has been given by the 
United States Circuit Court of Appeals (2d Cir.) 
in the appeal of New )'<>rk & Cuba Mail $. S. 
Co. v. United States. The S. S. Esperanza col{ 
lided in February. 1918. with the destroyer (mi- 
ner, both vessels being damaged. Libels were 
entered on behalf of both vessels in the District 
Court, and the Conner was found alone to blame 
but the owners of the Esperanza were denied 
interest on their recovery because, the court held. 
in a suit authorized by Congress against tin- Govs 
eminent no interest should be allowed unless the 
law specifically provides for interest. ( >n appeal 
by both parties the two vessels were found to 
blame, thereby dividing the damages, but the 
Circuit Court allowed interest, because the intent 
of the law was to grant full indemnity in the 
award against the Government, if any. and "no 
indemnity is complete without interest." 

Having recently completed laying the southern 
half of the new British cable connecting Van- 
couver, B. C, with Suva, Fiji Islands. Capti 
V. F. Sparks, in charge of the expedition on 
the cable ship Faraday, passed through San Fran- 
cisco during the month, en route to his home in 
Portsmouth, England. Captain Sparks said that 
5000 miles of cable between Vancouver and Suva 
was layed in the amazingly fast time of twentv- 
five days. The cable ship Faraday played out the 
new cable from Fanning Islands to Suva. An- 
other expedition on the cable ship Dominio. 
simultaneously laid the cable on the ocean bottom 
from Fanning Islands north to Vancouver. It 
is now transmitting messages with a .speed of 
twelve letters a minute, four times as fast as the 
old cable, according to the expert. It was pointed 
out by Captain Sparks that the new cable be- 
tween Vancouver and Suva is technically known 
as a "loaded" cable, the very latest in submarine 
telegraphy and was laid down by the ships at an 
average of 10 knots an hour. 



22 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



119 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The chamber of Shipping (U. K.) reports that 

|| 230 vessels, of 364,874 tons net, were laid up 

I in the principal ports of the United Kingdom 

January 1 last, which compares with 311 vessels 

and 371,057 tons October 1 last, and 518 vessels 

of 859,739 tons July 1, 1926. 

Two of the 16,500-ton passenger liners build- 
ing in Japan for the trans-Pacific trade of the 
N. Y. K. will have Sulzer motors built at the 
Mitsubishi Dockyard, Nagasaki. The third vessel 
will have B. & W. motors built at the Kawasaki 
Dockyard, Kobe. 

The large French liner He de France build- 
ing at St. Nazaire for the Havre-New York ser- 
vice will be launched this year. She is of 42,000 
tons and an even larger unit is to be built for 
launching in 1930, which will enable the com- 
pany to maintain a weekly service of large-size 
liners. 

No less than 83,392 tons, or 42 per cent, of 
the total tonnage of Finland are represented by 
sailing vessels, among which are some fifty large 
ocean-going ships. Finland is, in fact, the largest 
owner of sailing vessels in Europe. The majority 
of the largest sailing ships belong to private 
owners in Aland, who own fleets of upward of 
twenty ships, mostly of considerable dimensions. 

The Baltic, Black and White Sea and Arctic 
ports of the Soviet Union were visited during 
the fiscal year 1925-26 by 2737 large vessels with 
an aggregate tonnage of 4,365,000. The number 
of ships leaving the same ports was 2806 with 
a tonnage of 4,470,000. During the year 937,000 
tons of goods were imported and 6,438,000 tons 
exported. 

The number of steam vessels engaged in the 
difficult navigation of the Yang-tse River above 
Ichang (including those above Chungking) has 
increased from only 5 in 1915 to no less than 
62 in 1926. Of these 40 are on the Ichang- 
Chungking run, 9 being under the British flag, 
10 American, 3 Japanese, and the remainder 
Chinese-owned. 

The 14,000-ton liner which Blohm and Voss 
of Hamburg have just laid down for the Ham- 
burg-South American Line will have four en- 
gines, each of 1750 b. h. p., running at over 
200 r. p. m. and driving two propeller shafts 



through gearing at a speed of approximately 
80. r. p. m. These owners have had two exactly 
similar ships in service for a couple of years. 

The first large motorship constructed specially 
as a pleasure cruising vessel will soon be 
launched in Sweden for the Bergen Steamship 
Company. During the winter she will make 
cruises in the Mediterranean, but her chief ser- 
vice will consist of trips to the Norwegian fjords 
and to the north of Norway from Newcastle. 
She has the appearance of a fine large yacht, 
being 428x50.6 feet. She is capable of carrying 
200 passengers. 

The Ellerman Lines, Ltd., London, has paid 
a dividend of £75,000 on deferred ordinary 
shares amounting to £1,250,000, of which Sir 
John Ellerman, Bart., owns £975,000. The 
capital issued amounts _ to £4,250,000. The 
balance-sheet shows steamers and shipping shares 
standing at £11,456,132, vessels building £244,- 
670, cash, etc., £ 100,000, securities and deposits 
£4,661,985. The reserve fund stands at £4,- 
200,000, and there is a special reserve . of 
£1,956,490 for destroyed and lost steamers. 

The coal landed at the port of Genoa during 
last year totaled 2,692,654 tons (419,772 tons less 
than in the previous year), of which 1,110,000 
tons came from Great Britain (1,291,890 tons 
less than in the previous year), and 45,245 
tons (32,826 tons less than in the previous 
year) from Russia. Arrivals from Germany 
amounted to 900,200 tons (611,366 tons more 
than in the previous year), those from North 
America to 565,400 tons (an increase of 227,- 
870 tons), those from Danzig to 53,453 ton.-, 
and those from other countries to 18,054 tons. 

The production of Norwegian whaling com- 
panies for 1926 was 660,000 casks of oil, against 
600,000 for the previous year, the increase being 
due to additional concerns that started opera- 
tions. Gross profits for the year are estimated 
at kr. 75,000,000 against kr. 95,000,000 in 1925. 
This decrease is partly the result of lower prices, 
but chiefly of the enhanced value of the Nor- 
wegian krone. The trend of prices of whale oil 
during recent years has been remarkable. The 
South Sea catch was sold in 1920 at a price of 
£90 a ton for No. 0/1, in 1921 the price was 
£31 5s., in 1922 £32, in 1923 £33, and in 1924 
and 1925 £34. 

The German auxiliary vessel Christel Yinnen. 
built in 1922, left San Nicolas in December that 



23 



120 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April. 19i 



year with a cargo of maize for the Azores. A 
leak was suddenly discovered and the ship put 
into Rio. On examination in drydock the cause 
was found to be a missing rivet in the plating. 
The German insurers declined to pay for the 
damage because the vessel was not seaworthy. 
The contention was upheld by three different 
courts, and the German Supreme Court held that 
the insurers had established that the damage was 
not due to an external cause. In the view of the 
court the loss of the rivet was caused by a defect 
in construction which made the vessel unsea- 
worthy when she left port. 

The Danish Sailing Ship Company, Mar- 
stal, owners of twenty-two schooners and 
barks of various sizes, has decided to liquidate. 
The vessels of the company will be sold, prob- 
ably abroad. At the meeting, the chairman. 
A. P. Moller, said that the company was 
formed a couple of years ago, at a time when 
the krone was 40 per cent below par. The val- 
ues of the vessels had fallen, and in conse- 
quence of the rise in the krone to par the share 
capital had automatically disappeared. The 
operation of the vessels had also resulted in 
a loss, but this could only be attributed to the 
adverse conditions existing for sailing vessels. 

At the conference of northern countries on 
maritime law held at Oslo, Norway, last month, 
delegates of the four countries concerned pre- 
pared a draft of proposed alterations in the 
maritime laws containing an entirely new chapter 
about the limitation of shipowners' liability and 
a complete reorganization of the chapter on mari- 
time mortgages. Instead of liability with ship 
and freight, a personal liability has been intro- 
duced limited to the value of the ship plus 10 
per cent. At the same time mortgagee rights 
in ship and freight have been restricted to the 
advantage of the ship mortgagors. The dele- 
gates also prepared a draft law embodying con- 
ventions concerning immunity of state-owned 
ships. 

The contracts placed by the Norddeutscher 
Lloyd for two ships, each of 46,000 tons gross, 
have created considerable interest in engineer- 
ing circles. One of the vessels is to be built at 
the Bremen yard of the Vulcan Company, and 
the other by Blohm & Yoss, Hamburg. The 
machinery will be of the steam turbine type, 
with single-reduction gear, and on trial the power 
to be developed is to be 96,000 h. p., while the 
power in service is to be not less than 80,000 



h. p.. expected to give a service speed of 2<» 
knots. The Mauretania, which is the fastest 
Atlantic liner of today, made on her record voy- 
age an average speed of 26.25 knots between 
New York and Cherbourg. The Majestic, which 
was built as the Bismarck by Blohm & Voss, 
has machinery of 66.000 h. p., and a speed of 
25 knots. 

During the year 1926, 11.476 seagoing ves- 
sels, of a total tonnage of 22,793,537, entered 
the port of Antwerp, constituting a "record" 
in both tonnage and number. Compared with 
the preceding year there was an increase of 
1628 vessels and 2,591,909 tons. It should he 
emphasized that this exceptional growth was 
due in part to the British coal strike, as num- 
bers of British ships entered Antwerp in bal- 
last in order to load coal. It is therefore impos- 
sible to draw serious conclusions from these 
figures, since they are due to some extent to 
exceptional circumstances. The British flag- 
took the leading place in arrivals, no less than 
50 per cent of the vessels entering the port 
in 1926 being British. Germany took second 
rank, then came Belgium. Norway. Holland. 
France, Sweden, Denmark, United Stated 
Italy, Japan and Spain. Germany's resump- 
tion of her pre-war place is noteworthy. 

Among those who have profited by the British 
mining lockout the first place must be given to 
the owners of tram]) ships. The stoppage of coal 
production necessitated the importation of verv 
considerable quantities of that mineral from 
abroad, particularly from the United States and 
the coal-producing countries of the European 
Continent. Notwithstanding the fact that there 
is at present a considerable excess of shipping 
tonnage, this soon had its effect on freight 
rates, causing them to rise, especially in Sep- 
tember and October, to a level not attained since 
1921. The shipping freight index numbers pub- 
lished regularly by the "Economist" give a good 
indication of this. The index number for July. 
1926. was 16 points higher than the average for 
the years 1898 to 1913. In August it was 23 
points higher, in September 31 points, in Octo- 
ber 83 points, and in November no less than 
97 points higher. The rates in October and 
November were 50 per cent higher than in July. 
1926. The increase was still more marked in the 
case of freights between Europe and the United 
States. December saw the inevitable relapse, thd 
index number falling from 196.6 to 147.2. 



24 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



121 



LABOR NEWS 



The United States Supreme Court has held 
the women's minimum wage law of Arkansas 
unconstitutional. Without a formal opinion, 
the court merely affirmed its previous decision, 
wherein the minimum wage law of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia was declared unconstitu- 
tional. Justice Brandeis dissented. 

Sentences ranging from thirty days in jail 
and a fine of $500 up to eighteen months in 
federal prison at Leavenworth and a fine of 
$1000 were imposed on three officials and two 
farmers of Willacy county, Texas, convicted 
in the Federal District Court on charges of 
peonage and conspiracy. Testimony at the trial 
was that men sent to Willacy county as cot- 
ton pickers were charged with vagrancy and 
made to work out their fines under armed 
guards. 

The Brotherhood of Railway Carmen has 
joined the ranks of national and international 
trade unions that own their homes. The build- 
ing is practically new, four stories high, and 
is centrally located at Kansas City, Mo. The 
deal was closed by President Martin F. Ryan 
and the general executive board. A quarter 
of a century ago the union headquarters were 
moved here from Cedar Rapids. At that time 
one room was used. Today the union mem- 
bership is near the 250,000 mark. 

The New York Bureau of Women has re- 
cently made a survey of home work in New 
York City and Rochester. It was found that 
89 concerns farmed out work to be done in 
the homes. Wages averaged only about half the 
amount paid workers in the factories of the 
same firms. The average for factory worker. 1 -: 
in Rochester was $25.92 and for home work- 
ers $13.76. In New York the factory workers 
got an average of $34.81 ; the home workers 
only $10.35. Weekly earnings as low as $7.73 
were found in New York City. 

Forty-two thousand instances in which rail- 
way employes remained on duty more than 
the period prescribed by law were reported to 
the Interstate Commerce Commission for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1926. This is a 
slight increase over the number reported for 
the fiscal year 1925. and a considerable de- 



crease from that reported for 1924. The law- 
requires the reporting of every case in which 
train service employes remain on duty more 
than sixteen consecutive hours per day, teleg- 
raphers more than thirteen consecutive hours, 
or telegraphers in a continuous service, day 
and night office, for more than nine hours. 

Textile workers have organized three locals 
of the United Textile Workers in the Passaic, 
N. J., district within one week. The latest 
is in the Forstmann & Huffman mills, whose 
strike was concluded recently. Unions have 
been established in the powerful Botany mills, 
in the Passaic Worsted, the Dundee, the Gera, 
the New Jersey mills and the United Piece 
Dye Works at Lodi. Robert M. Reinhold, per- 
sonnel director of the Forstmann & Huffman 
plant, has severed his connection with that 
corporation. The textile workers accuse Rein- 
hold of being responsible for the long strike 
in the F. & M. mills. 

Successful management of prison industries 
in Sing Sing, New York, can be largely dis- 
counted, says Assemblyman Goodrich in a let- 
ter to Governor Smith, following a personal 
investigation. Citing the claim that the first 
three months of the present fiscal year showed 
a profit of $43,000 in Sing Sing, as compared 
with $40,000 in 1925-26, Mr. Goodrich says the 
figures disregard numerous items of expense. 
Among them, he says, are $6,080 for convicts' 
compensation, losses of $11,000 through the 
closing of the shoe shop, $11,000 for construc- 
tions and $6,000 for coal and royalties on shoe 
machinery. 

By a 4-to-l vote the membership of the In- 
ternational Brotherhood of Steam Shovel and 
Dredgemen's Union favor amalgamation with 
the International Union of Steam and Oper- 
ating Engineers. The decision ends a ten- 
years' jurisdictional dispute. District charters 
of steam shovelmen will be issued by the Inter- 
national Union of Steam Engineers. The inter- 
national president and secretary-treasurer of 
the Dredgemen's Union will serve as repre- 
sentatives of the steam engineers' organiza- 
tion. The agreement was signed by represen- 
tatives of both interests. The chairman of the 
committee was W. R. Roberts, legislative 
representative of the A. F. of L. 

Since the passage of the restrictive immi- 
gration law there has been a marked diminu- 



25 



122 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April. 1927 



tion in the percentage of unskilled immigrants, 
During the years 1911t1914 the unskilled con- 
stituted 41 per cent of the total; in 1^25 and 
1926 only IS. 7 per cent. While fewer un- 
skilled were coming in, a larger percentage of 
those returning to their native countries were 
unskilled, so that the net gain in population 
shows even a greater tendency toward a pre- 
ponderance of skilled workers among new 
residents. From 1 ( M1 to 1914 32 per cent of 
the permanent gain in the foreign born were 
unskilled. This class now represents only 
6.S per cent. 

Preventable- sickness and postponable 
deaths cost workers of this country at least 
$1,800,000,000 annually, according to Dr. Wal- 
ter L. Niles of the Cornell University Medical 
College. In discussing public health problems 
before a group of business men, Dr. Niles -aid 
the average annual loss per person through 
illness was between eight and nine working 
days and that probably one-half of the 500,000 
deaths of workers could be classed as "post- 
ponable" by adequate medical provision. "! 
venture the opinion," Dr. Niles continued, 
"that this loss could be cut to a point where, 
over and above the costs of prevention, a bal- 
ance of $1,000,000,000 annually could be left 
in the pockets of the working population and 
industries of the United States." 

This year marks the 100th anniversary of 
the formation of the first labor union in Brits 
i.-h North America, according to the Labor 
Gazette, issued by the Canadian Department 
of Labor. "Departmental records show the 
first Canadian trade union to have been organ- 
ized in the city of Quebec in 1827, being com- 
posed of printers," the Gazette states. "This 
pioneer union was followed in 1832 by the 
organization of another body of printers, which 
was formed in York ( now Toronto) under the 
name of the York Typographical Society, 
Although both of these organizations lapsed 
for a number of years, they have had the long- 
est continuous existence as trade unions in 
Canada, both eventually becoming identified 
with the International Typographical Union, 
under charter from which they are now oper- 
ating." 

Increasing accidents in the metal industry 
has alarmed these employers, and a group of 
fifty owners and representatives of metal man- 



ufacturing plants in Xew York met to discuss 
the need for greater safety. Added costs and 
a fear of drastic legislation were the impelling 
motives for the meeting. One speaker said that 
the average cost of accidents was tending 
steadily upward. The loss from preventable 
accidents and deaths is staggering, it was 
stated. Based on the Xew York compensation 
law valuation of. life, the total for the country 
is $2,300,000,000 a year. This is sufficient, in 
six years, to pay off every debt the foreign 
countries owe the United State-. 

The Lnited State- Supreme Court's annul- 
ment of the Texas "white primary law" may 
affect the seating of Senators-elect Yare of 
Pennsylvania and Smith of Illinois. The 
decision is construed in some quarters as a 
vindication of the theory that the federal gov* 
eminent has authority to regulate primary 
elections, despite a contrary judgment in the 
Newberry case. Yare-Smith partisans hold 
that the federal government has no control 
over primary elections. Tin- Texas law that 
has been declared void provides: "In no event 
shall a negro be eligible to participate in a 
Democratic party election held in the state of 
Texa-, and should a negro vote in the Demo- 
cratic primary election such ballot shall be 
void, and election officials are herein directed 
to throw out such ballot and not count the 
same." 

A delegation of seventy-five Porto Ricans 
who were tricked to come to this country 
l>y Arizona cotton grower- made a persona] 
appeal to Governor Hunt to send them home. 
The governor said this was the fifth group 
of these people who have asked him for aid) 
Spokesmen for the Porto Ricans explained 
that they have been unable to obtain work 
in the valley and that they are without food 
and shelter. The state has no funds to care 
for them, and in a letter to the Cotton Grow? 
ers' Association the governor said: "As I 
understand it the cotton association brought 
these people into the valley through some sor| 
of an arrangement with the Federal Immigra- 
tion Department. Please try to conciliate the 
situation in some manner that will assure that 
these people are not allowed to go hungry. 
As you know, the public will not stand foi 
the complaints of any considerable number of 
people who are asking for food." 



2<> 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



123 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



An act to provide old age pensions for resi- 
dents of British Columbia has been introduced 
in the Legislature by Premier John Oliver. 
The bill would authorize British Columbia to 
enter into a general scheme of old age pensions 
with the Dominion on a basis of payment by 
the Dominion quarterly of an amount equal 
to one-half the net sum paid out during the 
previous quarter by British Columbia. 

Under a Royal Italian decree of Jan. 17, 1927, 
the Minister of Communications is empowered 
to strike off from the seamen's register for a 
period of five years the names of seamen whose 
presence on board national vessels may be deemed 
subversive of the national interest, even if no 
legal action is possible against them on account 
of acts actually committed. There is no appeal 
from such blacklisting, save to the Council of 
State, in case of abuse of authority by the min- 
ister. 

The lonely South Atlantic island of Tristan da 
Cunha has been supplied with several packages 
of New Zealand willows and poplars, especially 
developed for fast growth, in the hope of help- 
ing the island to grow wood for houses and fuel. 
The women of the isolated island are now com- 
pelled to retrieve driftwood from the sea to build 
homes, and many young couples have been com- 
pelled to postpone their marriage indefinitely be- 
cause of the lack of material from which to 
shape a home. 

The "Daily Herald" reports that all air 
liners carrying ten or more passengers will in 
future have a qualified wireless operator, so 
that the pilot will be free to attend to the navi- 
gation of his machine. Another new depart- 
ure which comes into force immediately is that 
wireless conversations will be carried on in 
Morse, as, owing to the steadily increasing- 
traffic on the airways, communication by wire- 
less telephony is liable to too much interrup- 
tion. This decision has been come to by the 
International Commission for Aerial Naviga- 
tion. The British Company Imperial Air- 
ways, Ltd., is now training a number of its 
flying mechanics as wireless operators. 

Notwithstanding their disastrous general strike 
and the miners' strike, British trade unionists 



are rallying against the government's plan to 
weaken their movement by legislation. The spirit 
of the workers was expressed by Walter Citrine, 
secretary of the British Trade Union Congress, 
who gave notice to the government, in a public 
speech, that their attacks would be resisted by 
labor. "We of the trade unions," added Mr. 
Citrine, "say to the government, 'We are not 
afraid of your impending attack. Co on with 
your legislation. You have forced it upon us, 
and we will do our best to make it unworkable. 
Your legislation can stay on the statute book 
until the next labor government orders its re- 
peal.' " The trade union official urged workers 
to profit by two years' experience and build up 
their industrial organizations. 

A conference was held at Amsterdam recently 
between representatives of British and Conti- 
nental labor unions for the purpose of discuss- 
ing the possibility of bringing about uniformity 
in shipyard hours and conditions of labor. The 
conference did not arrive at any conclusion, but 
served to show that many complications have 
to be taken into account, and compelled those 
who participated in it to take broader and longer 
views than they had previously done. It was 
found at the conference that standardization is 
carried farther on the continent than in the 
United Kingdom, that there are great differences 
in taxation, subventions, tariffs, methods of pro- 
duction, labor organization, and that men in 
continental shipyards can be shifted from one 
line of work to another as may be found advis- 
able from time to time. 

The British Trade Union Movement has 
just won, in the matter of the political levy 
of trade unionists, a notable victory which will 
be of value in all future disputes on the sub- 
ject. A member of the Shop Assistants' 
Union claimed that his union must not either 
directly or indirectly use contributions for 
political purposes. After a thorough-going in- 
quiry, the judge rejected the suit for constitu- 
tional reasons, reminding the appellant that it 
is a principle of British courts to interfere as 
little as possible in the administration of asso- 
ciations, and observing also that it is extreme- 
ly difficult to draw a sharp dividing line in 
trade union action between social and political 
purposes. The noisy campaign of the Con- 
servatives for new legislation to restrict the 
freedom of action of trade unions has thus re- 
ceived a sharp setback. 



27 



124 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1923 



The Labor Federation of the Republic of 
Panama has protested to the American Fed- 
eration of Labor against the treaty which the 
United States is seeking to impose on Panama. 
"It is very astonishing that a rich and powerful 
nation such as the United States of America, 
with immense territory and so many millions 
of inhabitants, desires to maintain in economic 
servitude and subjugation the people of Pana- 
ma, which is one of the most generous nations 
of America and which has made possible the 
building of the Panama Canal by the United 
States for the benefit of the world," says the 
protest. Despite the pressure to which they 
have been subjected, a majority of the mem- 
bers of the Panama Congress have refused to 
ratify the treaty, on the ground that it is an 
unreasonable invasion of the independence of 
their country. 

Italian emigration last year amounted to 
279,357, a decrease of 40,000 as compared with 

1925. The largest number of emigrants, 60,000, 
went to Argentina, with an increase over the pre- 
vious year. There was a slight fall in the number 
of emigrants to the United States, 36,000 in 

1926. Emigration to I'.razil increased to 11,000, 
while the figures for Canada rose by 3000. Emi- 
gration to Central America increased threefold, 
while that to Australia, on the other hand, sank 
from 5000 in 1925 to approximately 4000. The 
French labor market absorbed 80 per cent of 
emigrants to continental countries, the figures 
reaching 130,000. a lower total than in 1925, 
After France came Switzerland, Belgium, Hol- 
land and Luxemburg. A feature of the statistics 
is the great increase of skilled artisans and spe- 
cialist workmen among those leaving the country. 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT. 

CIRCULATION. ETC.. REQUIRED BY THE ACT OF 

CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24. 1912. 
<>f "Seamen's Journal." published monthly at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, for April 1, 1927. 
State of California, County of San Francisco — ss. 

Before me, a Notary Public, in and for the State and county 
aforesaid, personally appeared Paul Scharrenberg, who, having 
been duly sworn according to law, deposes and says that he is 
the Editor and Manager of the "Seamen's Journal," and that 
the following is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, a true 
statement of the ownership, management (and if a daily paper, 
the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication for the date 
shown in the above caption, required by the Act of August 24, 
1912, embodied in section 411, Postal Laws and Regulations, 
printed on the reverse of this form, to wit : 

1. That the nanus and addresses of the publisher, editor, manag- 
ing editor, and business managers are : 

Publisher, International Seamen's Union of America. 

Editor, Paul Scharrenberg, 525 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Managing Editor, Paul Scharrenberg. 

Business Managers, none. 

2. That the owner is: (If owned by a corporation, its name 
and address must be stated and also immediately thereunder 
the names and addresses of stockholders owning or holding one 
per cent or more of total amount of stock. If not owned by a 
corporation, the names and addresses of the individual owners 



must be given. If owned by a firm, company, or other unincor- 
porated concern, its name and address, as well as those of each 
individual member, must be given.) 

International Seamen's Union of America, Andrew Furuseth, 
President, Washington, D. C. ; Victor A. Olander, Secretary- 
Treasurer, 359 North Wells Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security 
holders owning or holding one per cent or more of total amount 
of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: (If there are none, 
so state.) 

None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the 
owners, stockholders, and security holders, if any, contain not 
only the list of stockholders and security holders as they appear 
upon the books of the company, but also in cases where the 
stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the 
company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name 
of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is acting, 
is given; also that the said two paragraphs contain statements 
embracing affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the circum- 
stances and conditions under which stockholders and security 
holders who do not appear upon the books of the company as 
trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that 
of a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to believe 
that any other person, association, or corporation has any in- 
terest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other 
securities than as so stated by him. 

5. That the average number of copies of each issue of this publi- 
cation sold or distributed, through the mails or ot h er wise , t<. 
paid subscribers during the six months preceding the date shows 
above is . (This information is required from daily pub- 
lications only.) 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 28th day of March. 
1927. 
(Seal) ANNE F. HASTY. 

(My commission expires September 20, 1927.) 
Form 3526. — Ed. 1924. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVE ROBERTS, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Elliot 11 3S 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM SHERIDAN, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574. Phone 336 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE. Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214. Phone Main 2233 

SAN PEDRO, Cal Ill Sixth Street 

JOE WADE. Agent 
Phone 1317J 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRAXCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN. Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

Phone Elliot 3425 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

Phone 147 

MONTEREY HOOK AND LINE FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

MONTEREY, Cal 409 Alvarado Street 

J. PIETROBONO, Secretary 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Phone Elliot 6752 
Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

Phone Black 241 
KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box 201 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

OAKLAND, Cal 219 Federal Telegraph Bldg. 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Lakeside 3.">91 



28 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



125 



WHY DELAY 
WHEN IN PORT 

Guaranteed service performed by spe- 
cialists where work is completed with- 
out delay, and you are assured the 
price will be reasonable — and Satisfac- 
tion Guaranteed. When in port, first 
have your teeth examined, without 
cost. 

So Convenient to Seafaring Men 

A Great Dental Organization to Serve 
You with 18 modern dental offices in 
13 ports. Dental work started in one 
Parker office may be completed in any 
office of the Parker System. 

PAINLESS PARKER DENTIST 
Using E. R. Parker's System 



Offices in the following forts 
San Diego, Fourth and Plaza; Long Beach, 
Third and Pine Sts.; San Pedro, 706 Palos 
Verdesj San Francisco, IS Stockton St., 1012 
Market St., 1802 Geary St. » Los Angeles, 
550 So. Broadway, 104^ W. 7th St., 432 
So. Main St. j Oakland, 1128 Broadway; 
Eureka, 210 F St.; Santa Cruz., 121 Pacific 
Ave.; Portland, Ore., cor. Washington and 
Broadway; Seattle, 206 Union St.; Tacoma, 
1103 J^ Broadway; Bellingham, Holly and 
Commercial Sts.; Vancouver, B. C, 101 
Hastings St. E.; Boston, Mass., 581 Wash- 
ington St. 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

No. 14 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 
in 

San Francisco 



They Furnished Facilities 
"Breddern, sistern," said the pas- 
tor, sadly surveying his dark flock 
with a face full of woe, "when I 
done took this cong'gation I was 
promised a salary. This salary was 
to be paid in chickens. I has been 
expoundin' de scripture for two 
months, and now I wishes to ax — 
whar is dem chickens?" 
There was a long silence. 
Then a gaunt deacon arose and 
said: "Rev'rend Jones, we is mos' 
heartily sorry dat yo' has been de 
victim of a mistakenship. Yo' has 
misunderstood de method of which 
our pastors is paid. We provide yo' 
wid de lantern and two gunnysacks 
and den yo' collecks dat salary 
yo'self." 



Meant Nothing 

Emmanuel, who was a mule 
tender, appeared one morning on 
crutches. 

"Lor'!" exclaimed a friend. "Ah 
thought yo' was one o' de bes' mule 
handlers in de business." 

"So Ah is," said Emmanuel proud- 
ly, "but we done got a mule in dis 
mornin' dat didn't know mah reputa- 
tion." 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Davenport 537 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



Buy Union Stamped Shoes 



.WORKERS UNION, 



We ask all members of organized labor to 

purchase shoes bearing our Union Stamp on 

the sole, inner-sole or lining of the shoe. We 

ask you not to buy any shoes unless you <J?%) 

actually see this Union Stamp. factory 



Boot & Shoe Workers' Union 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 

246 Summer Street, Boston, Mass. 

COLLIS LOVELY CHARLES L. BAINE 
General President General Secretary-Treasurer 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union •( 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring m«n 

prompt attention 

531 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney For 
Marine Firemen and Waterten^ors' 

Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
10 Embarcadero Tel. Davenport 3134 
676 Mills Bldg. Tel. Douglas 1058 
San Francisco, Callfc-nia 



Telephone Garfield 306 



Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

(Heidelberg & Murasky) 

Flood Building, San Francisco 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 

INFORMATION WANTED 



Former members of the crew of 
the S. S. Santa Isabel who know 
something about Mr. William 
Mohring, the bos'n who was injured 
in March, 1925, please communicate 
with Silas B. Axtell, 11 Moore 
Street, New York City, N. Y. 




29 



126 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April. 1923 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Ftore No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2— Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co, 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Crematory anil Columbarium In 
Connection 



Broadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES. HATS 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 



Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

103-107 First Avenue South 
Near Yesler Way SEATTLE 



Do You Smell Anything? 

Customer — My, what smells so? 

Hebrew Merchant — Do you smell 
it, too? 

Customer — Yes, what is it? 

Hebrew Merchant Business. It's 
rotten. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

8AN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



PROVIDENCE, R. L 



TAXI 



CALL GASPEE 5000 

Red Top Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 

67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. I. 



Bill's Smoke Shop 

Right alongside the Sailors' Union 
Hall 



Complete Line of Smokes 
371 Richmond St., Providence, R. 



Matty's Union Barber 
Shop 

Special Attention to Seafaring Men 
95 Point St. Providence, R. I. 



Eastern Restaurant 

Corner Point and Eddy 
HOME COOKED MEALS 

The Best Cup of Coffee in the Port 

One block from Union Hall 
Corner Point and Eddy Streets 



To Hell and Return 

The various uses to which Ford 
cars have been put pass comprehen- 
sion. The latest suggestion is to use 
them in return trips to I lades. We 
seriously doubt the feasibility of the 
plan, but it" anyone wishes to try it 
— well, that's up to him! 

"The Ford car has taken more 
people to hell than any other thing 
1 can mention,*' declared a minister 
from a pulpit recently, during a 
sermon in which he charged the 
automobile with being responsible 
for the lack of church attendance. 

"Praise the Lord! I 'raise the 
Lord!" reverently shouted an old 
lady in the front row. 

"What's the meaning o\ this, sis- 
ter?" demanded the pastor. 

"The Ford never went any place 
that it couldn't make the round 
trip," responded the old lady. "So 
praise the Lord!" 



Poor Opinion of Life 

The doctor had just been visiting 
an Irish patient, and as the man's 
wife was showing him out he said 
to her, "Your husband's not so well 
today, Mrs. Maloney. Is he sticking 
to the simple diet I prescribed?" 

"He is not, sorr," came the reply. 
"He says lu'U not be after starvin' 
himself to death just for the sake of 
livin' a few years longer." 



Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Seamen employed on board the 
S. S. Englewood, at Mariner's 
Harbor. Staten Island, on October 
30, 1926, having any knowledge con- 
cerning accident to Joseph 1'eltz, 
A, I'... who fell through a hatch, 
kindly communicate at once with the 
undersigned, attorney for Mr. l'eltz, 
Frederick K. Graves, 29 Broadway] 
New York City. X. Y. 

Mr. George Matson, former 
captain, please communicate or call 
at the office of Silas B. Axtell. 11 
Moore Street. New York City, X. Y. 



Surprises Never Cease 
A man was arrested on the charge 
iii robbing another of his watch and 
chain. There was so little evidi 
however, that the magistrate quickly 
said. "Discharged!" The prisoner 
stood still in the flock, amazed at be- 
ing given his freedom so soon. 
"You're discharged," repeated the 
magistrate. "You can go. You'r« 
free." Still the prisoner stood star- 
ing at the magistrate. "Don't you 
understa n d ? You have been 
acquitted. Gel out!" shouted the 
magistrate. "Well," stammered the 
man, "do I have to give him back 
his watch and chain?" 



A Heavenly Plan 

Anyone who wishes to do so may 
try Pat's plan of getting inside the 
pearly .uates. but we have our seri- 
ous misgivings about the su< 
Of it. 

"Pat," said the priest, "how do 
you expect to get into heaven if you 
go on leading this wicked life and 
doing no work?" 

"Sure, an' it's aisy, yer reverence," 
said Pat. "For when Oi doie Oi'll 
go to the gates o' heaven, and Oi'll 
kape on shuttin' thim and openin' 
him, till St. Peter, getting impatient. 
hollers out, 'For goodness sake, 
aither come in or stay out.' " 



Glory Be! 



"Well, Mrs. Johnsing," announced 
the colored physician, after taking 
her husband's temperature, "Ah has 
knocked de fever outen him. Pit's 
one good thing. - ' 

"Sho" miff." was the excited reply. 
"Does dat mean dat he gwine to gil 
well, den." 

"No," replied the doctor, "dey's 
no hope fo' him; but you has de 
satisfaction ob knowin' dat he died 
cured." 



30 



April, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 127 

ABERDEEN, WASH. 



BOSS™ TAILOR 

NOW AT 

1048 MARKET STREET 

Five Doors Below Granada Theater 

We Use the Only Label Recognized by The American Federation of 
Labor. Accept no Other. 



IUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

at Popular Prices 




All Work Don* 

Under Strictly Union 

Conditions 



You May Remember My Name, But Sure Would Like to Have You 
Remember the Number 

1048 MARKET STREET 



i JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's OH Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

I 110 EAST STREET Near Mission 

Kearny 3863 San Francisco 

H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

I Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES 

One Minute from Ferry Building 

The 

ANCHOR CHAIN 

SAFE DEPOSIT CO. 

11 Steuart Street 
San Francisco, California 



RELIABLE TAILOR 

Popular Prices 

TOM WILLIAMS 



48 CALIFORNIA ST., near Davis 

Phone Douglas 4874 

San Francisco 



Phone Davenport 505 With Morgen's 

BEN HARRIS 

Formerly of 218 East Street 

125 MARKET STREET 
Bet. Spear and Main Streets 

WORK AND DRESS CLOTHES 
SHOES, HATS, CAPS 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

88 Third Street, at Mission 




KODAKS and CAMERAS 

Exchanged, Bought, Sold, 

Repaired and Rented 

Developing and Printing 



TAGOMA, WASH, 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



GEO. LONEY, President 
H. O. HAUGEN. Sec.-Treas. 

HAUGEN & LONEY 
TAILORS 

High Grade Custom Tailoring 

942 Pacific Avenue 

PHONE MAIN 8000 

Tacoma, Wash. 



SMOKE 

SAN TEX CIGARS 

Union Made 

San Tex Cigar Co. 937 Tacoma Ave 

Tacoma, Wash. 

31 



A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING. HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS. 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 
321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Fhirts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Mad* 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash. 

on the Water Front 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUBLIC 



Phone 263 

NIELS JOHNSON 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



Telephone Garfield 694 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre-War Prices 
Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 
San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

Personal Management of 

JACOB PETERSEN 

Proprietor 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH 

HOUSE 

7 Market St. and 17 Steuart St. 

San Francisco 



GEO. A. PRICE 

— SAYS — 
Our success is due to the fact that 
our merchandise is superior and our 
prices are right. Boss of the Road 
and Can't Bust 'Em Union-made 
products are sold with money's worth 
or a money back guarantee. 

First-Class Seamen's Outfitters 
19 The Embarcadero 
San Francisco, Calif. 



128 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April, 1<>_7 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
Bona] supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
l any branch of Navigation. 

The class oL teachers of Navigation 
1 the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions hi\< 
• il, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who h.ts 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law. and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be. even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG.. SAN FRANCISCO 



INFORMATION WANTED 



If Fritz George Schultz, formerly 
a member of the Marine Firemen. 
Oilers and Watertenders' Union of 
the Pacific, membership book No. 
465, will communicate with Patrick 
Flynn, Secretary, 58 Commercial 
Street, San Francisco, he will hear 
something to his advantage 




BETTER DENTISTRY 
Better Health 

DR. C. S. FORD 

DENTIST 
702 MARKET STREET 

At Market — Geary — Kearny Streets 
Sutter 2860 
Daily Office Hours: 8:30 a. m, 
Sunday Hour: 

"One Patient Tells Another 



p. m. 
9 a. m. till noon 



Established 1896 




James Ji. Sorensen 

Jres and Jreaa. 



Easter and Confirmation Gifts 

Select them from our large stock that com- 
bines variety and quality with low prices 
DIAMONDS WATCHES JEWELRY 

CLOCKS SILVERWARE 

Established 1896 
Jewelers and Opticians 

715 Market Street between Third and Fourth Streets 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Watch and Jewelry Repairing — Guaranteed 
GOOD ALARM CLOCKS, 85c NOW 



HALE BROS 

Genuine Cowhide 
Suit Cases 

$13.50 



The sort of case 
you'll want when 
you step ashore at 
Shanghai ! Sturdy, 
well-made, and neat- 
appearing. Of brown 
or black cowhide, 
made on a strong 
frame, with hand- 
sewed corners — and 
in the popular sizes 
— 24 or 26 inches. A 
real value for the 
money. 

— Fourth Floor. 

Market at Fifth 

Fourth Floor 

SAN FRANCISCO 



UNION LABEL 
WORSTED $QO 
SUITS OJ7 

Unconditionally Guaranteed to 
Wear and Wear and Wear 
See Them In Our Windows 




852-868 MARKET ST. 
SAM FRANCISCO 

Opposite The Emporium 



Like the Oak 

Your savings account may be 
small now and growing slowly. 
But like the oak it will grow 
much faster after it gets a good 
start. Our "Ambition Bond" will 
help it along. Ask for a copy. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

Savings — Commercial — Trust 

783 Market Street, near Fourth 

San Francisco, Calif. 



32 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union-;**! AV*e«c^ » * 

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A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's to { 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use the 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 




Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

Page 

ENFORCING THE SEAMEN'S ACT . 131 

WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING 132 

WORKING HOURS AT SEA 133 

SLOW PASSING OF SLAVERY 133 

EDITORIALS: 

DOLLAR'S CHINESE CREWS 134 

HUMAN VERSUS TRADE RIGHTS 134 

USING THE DEPORTEES 135 

WHAT'S WRONG IN CHINA .136 

FILIPINO INDEPENDENCE VETOED 137 

SALMON FISHERMEN'S AGREEMENTS 138 

U. S. LABOR CRUSHERS BUSY IN LATIN AMERICA 139 

TEN YEARS AFTER 140 

AUSTRALIA'S NEW CAPITAL 141 

THE WELLAND SHIP CANAL 142 

THE CASE OF SACCO AND VANZETTI 143 

NEEDED— PUBLICITY! 144 

THE IRON HEEL IN BRITAIN 145 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 146 

BOOK REVIEW— (Windjammers and Shellbacks) 147 

CASH VALUE OF HUMAN BODY 148 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 149, 150, 151, 152 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 153, 154, 155 



VOL. XLI, No. 5 
WHOLE No. 1960 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
MAY 1, 1927 



IIIIIIICIIIIIIIIIIIIOIIIII C3llllllllllllC2l1llllllllllC3lltilltllltlC3lll4IIIIllllC3 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C ^ 1 1 1 M 1 1 TC3 1 1 ■ II 1 1 1 1 1 ■ ■ C3 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1C 3 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 C 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II ■ I IC3 1 1 IIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIOIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIHIIHIiailtf 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated. with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 
369 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass PERCY J. PRYOR. Secretary 

lVfc Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 1258. 
Branches: 

PROVIDENCE. R. I RALPH RIVERS. Agent 

37."» Richmond Street. Phone Dexter S090. 

NEW YORK, N. Y CHRIS RASMUSSEN, Agent 

67-69 Front Street 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa S. HODGSON. Agent 

216 S. Second Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE, Md M. A. SCHUCH. Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 5010 

NORFOLK. Va DAN INGRAHAM. Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23Sfi<? Norfolk. 

MOBILE. Ate WM. ROSS. Agt-nt 

66% Government Street. Phone Bell 1796 

NEW ORLEANS. La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Jackson 5557 

GALVESTON. Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street, Phone 2215 

PORT ARTlini, lex 

131 Proctor Street 

MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK. N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON. Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE. Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE. R I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa OTTO A. OLSSON, Agent 

216 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

735 So. Broadway 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS. La CHARLES THORSEN. Agent 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON. Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 
PORT ARTHUR, Tex. 

222 Proctor St. 

MOBILE. Ali. WM. ROSS, Agent 

66% Government Street. Phone Bell 1796 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 
Branches: 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch) J AS. ALLEN, Agent 

Phone Cortlandt 1979 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS. Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE. Md FRANK STOCKL. Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK. Va DAN INGRAHAM. Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

MOBILE, Ala WM. ROSS, Agent 

66% Government Street. Phone Bell 1796 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex 

131 Proctor Street. 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

288 State Street Phone Richmond 0827. 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER. Mass THOMAS COVE. Agent 

209 Main Street. Phone Gloucester 1045. 

NEW YORK. N Y JAMES J. PAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton Street. Phone John 1 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR EM- 
PLOYES UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 

NEW ORLEANS, La S. C. OATS. Secretary 

910 N. Dorgenois S treet. P hone Galvez 6210-J 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, Til 359 North Wells Street 

VICTOR A. OLANDER. Secretary 
Phone Superior 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

308 Superior Avenue. W. Phone Main 1S42. 

MILWAUKEE. Wis CHAS. BRADHERING. Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT. Mich GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

652 Jefferson Ave. W., Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO. N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY. Secretary 
ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, Ohio PATRICK ADAMS, AgeiJ 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phoni Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis. ERNEST ELLIS, AgetJ 

L62 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich [VAN HUNTER, Aged 

662 Jefferson Avenue, w. Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 CHARLES GUST AFSON, Agenf 

:;:>:* North W- lis Street. Phone State 5178 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS UNION 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N Y. .1. M. SECORD, SecretarJ 

35 West Eagle Street Telephone Seneca 0898 

Branches; 

CHICAGO. Ill 25 W. Kinzie Street 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 

308 Superior Avenue. W. Phone Main 1S42 

MILWAUKEE, Wis., 162 Reed St.. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT. Mich 

652 Jefferson A venue. W . Phone Randolph 0044 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSBN, Agent 

2207 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE. Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash MARTIN OLSEN, Agent 

310 So. G Street 
P. O. Box 280, Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, ORE JOHN M. MOORE. Agent 

242 Flanders Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 So. Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68, Telephone 1713W 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal PATRICK PLTNN, Secret*!] 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 3699 
Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVE ROBERTS, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Billot 1138 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM SHERIDAN, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574. Phone 336 
(Continued on page 87) 



j May. 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



131 



ENFORCING THE SEAMEN'S ACT 







EFINITE and final instructions have 
been issued by the United States 
Steamboat Inspection Service to all 
supervising and local inspectors di- 
recting them to notify the owners 
and masters that the watch provisions of 
Section 2 of the Seamen's Act must be com- 
plied with and that in violation of the section 
action will be taken against the licenses of offi- 
cers who are responsible. This indicates that 
the United States attorney-general has upheld 
the contention made by Secretary Olander that 
the inspection service has the power and the 
duty to suspend or revoke the licenses of mas- 
ters who fail to obey the law. The official 
order which has now reached all supervising 
and local inspectors under the jurisdiction of 
the service follows : 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Steamboat Inspection Service 
WASHINGTON 
CIRCULAR LETTER 

March 21, 1927 

U. S. Supervising and Local Inspectors of the First, 

Second, Third, Fifth, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and 

Eleventh Districts, excepting Albany, New York, 

Steamboat Inspection Service. 

Subject: In re Section 2 of the Seamen's Act. 

Referring to the Bureau's circular letters of March 8, 
1926, and November 16, 1926, in regard to the standing 
of watches under Section 2 of the Seamen's Act, you 
are informed that, in view of the complaints that have 
been received at this office alleging that this section is 
not being enforced consistently with the opinion of the 
supreme court of the United States in the case of Wil- 
liam O'Hara and Sven Tjersland vs. the Luckenbach 
Steamship Company, you are directed to take this mat- 
ter up with the owners and masters of the vessels af- 
fected with a view of determining whether the law is 
being properly complied with and if in any instance 
you find cases that indicate a willful violation of the 
section in question, you will institute proper inquiry, 
and if the facts justify, take such action as may be nec- 
essary against the licenses of the officers responsible. 
D. N. HOOVER, 

Supervising Inspector General. 

Back of the foregoing instructions stands the 
opinion of John W. Sargent, attorney-general 
of the United States, rendered upon request of 
Secretary of Commerce Hoover. The attorney- 
general's opinion reads: 

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 
WASHINGTON 

March 17, 1927 
Sir: 

I have your letter of February 8, 1927, which re- 
quests my opinion as to whether Section 4450 of the 
revised statutes of the United States authorizes local 
boards of inspectors to revoke or suspend the license 
of a master of a vessel for failure to comply with the 



provisions of Section 2 of the Seamen's Act of March 
4, 1915 (38 Stat. 1164), relating to the division of 
watches while at sea. 

Section 4450 of the revised statutes provides: 
"The local boards of inspectors shall investigate all 
acts of incompetency or misconduct committed by any 
licensed officer while acting under the authority of his 
license,- and shall have power to summon before them 
any witnesses within their respective districts, and 
compel their attendance by a similar process as in the 
United States circuit or district courts; and they may 
administer all necessary oaths to any witnesses thus 
summoned before them; and after reasonable notice in 
writing, given to the alleged delinquent, of the time 
and place of such investigation, such witnesses shall 
be examined, under oath, touching the performance of 
his duties by any such licensed officer; and if the 
board shall be satisfied that such licensed officer is in- 
competent, or has been guilty of misbehavior, negli- 
gence, or unskillfulness, or has endangered life, or 
willfully violated any provision of this title, they shall 
immediately suspend or revoke his license." 

The acts which this section authorizes the local 
boards of inspectors to investigate are limited to those 
committed by "a licensed officer while acting under 
the authority of his license." If, after that investiga- 
tion, the board is satisfied that the licensed officer, by 
the act or acts investigated, has been guilty of mis- 
behavior, negligence, or has endangered life, it shall 
suspend or revoke his license. 

Section 2 of the Seamen's Act of March 4, 1915 
(38 Stat. 1164, c. 153), so far as here applicable, pro- 
vides: 

"That in all merchant vessels of the United States 
of more than one hundred tons gross, excepting those 
navigating rivers, harbors, bays, or sounds exclusively, 
the sailors shall, while at sea, be divided into at least 
two, and the firemen, oilers, and water tenders into at 
least three watches, which shall be kept on duty suc- 
cessively for the performance of ordinary work inci- 
dent to the sailing and management of the vessel." 

The general purpose of this Seamen's Act, as stated 
in its title, is to promote safety at sea. The supreme 
court in the case of O'Hara vs. Luckenbach Steamship 
Company, 269 U. S. 364, rules that .the primary pur- 
pose of this section was to insure the safety of the 
vessel and of those on board. It is not to be read as 
intended only to regulate the working hours. The 
court said, pp. 367, 368, 370: 

"The general purpose of the Seamen's Act is not 
only to safeguard the welfare of the seamen as work- 
men, but, as set forth in the title, also 'to promote 
safety at sea.' The act as a whole shows very clearly 
that, while hours of work and proper periods of rest 
were regarded as considerations of primary concern 
while the vessel is in a safe harbor, these considera- 
tions must yield, as they have always yielded, to the 
paramount necessity of safety while the ship is at sea. 
And, as indicating that the provision under review was 
not intended primarily as a regulation of working 
hours, it is significant that it does not apply to the 
entire crew, but requires a division into watches only 
of the sailors and the firemen, oilers and water tenders. 
It is natural to suppose that if the purpose ot Con- 
gress was chiefly to regulate hours of work, something 
would have been said about the service, while at sea, 
of those employed in the steward's department as 
well. And not only is the division confined to those 
of the crew engaged in the mechanics of conducting 
the ship on her voyage, but the imperative require- 
ment is that the watches into which they are divided 



132 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1927 



'shall be kept on duty successively,' that is to say by 
turns. So that one watch must come on as another 
goes off. The evident purpose was to compel a divi- 
sion of the men for duty on deck and in the fireroom 
and continuity of service to the end that in those de- 
partments the ship should at all times be actively 
manned with equal efficiency. It probably is true, as 
said below, that to construe the statute as compelling 
numerical equality of the watches will result, so far as 
the sailors are concerned, in the perfprmance of Less 
work on deck at night. And it may be noted, in that 
connection, that in the hearings before the hous,e com- 
mittee having charge of the bill, it was objected on 
behalf of the shipowners, obviously, as the context 
shows, upon the theory that such equality was in fact 
contemplated by the provision, that, 'on cargo steam- 
ers, it would be an injustice to keep a lot of men on 
watch, all night, and have nothing for them to do.' 
House hearings on S. 136, Vol. 104, pt. 2, p. 5, Feb. 
24, 1914. But the provision, fundamentally, is a meas- 
ure of precaution against those perilous and often un- 
expected emergencies of the sea when only immediate 
and wakeful readiness for action may avert disaster or 
determine the issue between life and death; its effect 
as a regulator of working conditions is a matter of 
subordinate intent. It is not unreasonable to con- 
clude that congress determined that each of the 
watches, like the crew as a whole, should be "adequate 
in number," competent and in state of readiness "for 
any exigency that is likely to happen" — such as a 
collision, the striking of the ship upon a reef of rocks 
or an iceberg, the sudden breaking out of fire, and 
other happenings of like disastrous tendency — and to 
this end meant to provide for successive and continu- 
ous watches to be constituted in numbers as nearly 
<.-qual as the sum of the whole number would permit." 
(Italics ours). 

The failure of the master to comply with the provi- 
sions of Section 2 of the Seamen's Act (supra) relat- 
ing to the division of watches at sea, by this rule may 
be regarded as an act of omission of the master com- 
mitted while acting under authority of his license, and, 
as the facts are determined, may amount to misbe- 
havior or negligence or be said to have endangered 
life. 

I am, therefore, of the opinion that local boards of 
inspectors, under Section 4450 of the revised statutes, 
have authority to revoke or suspend the license of the 
master of a vessel for failure to comply with Section 
2 of the Seamen's Act (supra) relating to the division 
of watches while at sea. 

Respectfully, 

(Signed) JNO. W. SARGENT, 

Attorney General. 
The Honorable 

The Secretary of Commerce. 



WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING 



THE VOICE OF AN OLD-TIMER 

By R. H. Cortes 
(Member, International Seamen's Union of America) 



To the cold dim past an era has flown, 
Since I bid thee, O sage Sea, adieu; 

But my love for thee with the years has grown 
More mature, and stable and true. 

And oft in my dreams thou haunt'st me still — 

I see thy waters, so deep, so blue; 
I grip the wheel — I feel a thrill — 

Thy spirit moves me through and through! 

Forget thee? Never! Though God above 
His erring children should cease to love. 

When right to love thee is lost to men, 
I shall, mayhap, have forgotten thee then! 



Again in the amount of tonnage in course of 
construction throughout the world is noted in 
the report just issued by Lloyd's Register of'j 
Shipping, covering returns for all maritime 
countries, for the quarter ended March 31, 
1927. This gain, which is upward of 600,000 
tons, as compared with the beginning of the 
year, brings the world total to more than 
2,500,000 gross tons for the first time since late 
in 1 ( »24. Practically the entire increase, how- 
ever, has been due to three factors — Great 
Britain and Ireland, with a gain of 456,000 
tons over the total of December 31 last; Ger- 
many, with an advance of 139,000 tons, and 
the United States, with an advance of 27,000 
tons. The relative position is shown in the 
following table of comparison, in gross tons, ! 
between the two quarterly periods: 

Mar. 31, 1927 Dec. 31,1926 

United States 179.325 151,635 

Great Britain and Ireland 1,216.932 760,084 

Germany 350,933 211,062 

Other Countries 822,674 810,246 

World Total 2,569,864 1,933,027 

French shipyards showed a gain of about 
11,000 gross tons over the previous quarter, 
but this was more than offset by the losses in 
the smaller maritime countries. The increased 
work secured by the shipyards of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland represents a 60 per cent ad- 
vance over their total for the beginning of 
this year; while Germany's gain is 66 per cent. 
An increase of 18 per cent is noted for the 
United States. Included in the current total 
for Great Britain and Ireland are 20,083 gross 
tons of work on which suspensions. nave been 
ordered; but in the December quarter these 
suspensions aggregated 99,468 tons. 

The total work now in the hands of the 
world's shipbuilders is tbout 560,000 gross tons 
more than it was at this time last year. At 
that time the world total was 2,010,206 ton* 
of which 843,000 tons was being constructed in 
Great Britain and Ireland; 117,000 tons in the 
United States; 298,000 tons in Italy, and 216,^ 
000 in Germany. All these countries, with the 
exception of Italy, are now building a greater 
amount of tonnage. 



Truths are first clouds, then rain, then har- 
vests and floods.— Beecher. 



May, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



133 



WORKING HOURS AT SEA 






The Governing Body of the International 
Labor Office (functioning under the auspices 
of the League of Nations) met in Geneva re- 
cently to take a final decision on the question 
of placing on the agenda of a maritime session 
of the international labor conference the sub- 
ject of the regulation of hours of work on board 
ship. 

Mr. Wolfe, the representative of the British 
government, declared that national agreements 
between shipowners and seamen sufficed for 
the settlement of questions affecting workers 
in the merchant marine. The British govern- 
ment would not be opposed to a conference 
which had for its object the international regis- 
tration of such national agreements. But he 
was opposed to the placing on the agenda of 
the regulation of hours of work on board ship, 
and he therefore proposed a resolution for the 
adjournment of the matter until the agenda for 
the 1929 conference came up for discussion. 

This proposal was resisted by the workers' 
group. Mr. Jouhaux stated that Part 13 of 
the treaty of peace was drawn up more particu- 
larly in order that satisfaction might be given 
to the claims of labor, and that the demands 
of the seamen were an expression of the desires 
of the whole community of workers. The de- 
mand now under consideration, he added, had 
been formulated by seafarers as a whole, from 
officer to seamen. 

Mr. Fontaine, the representative of the 
French government, said that his government, 
whatever its own legislation might be, would 
be prepared to consider such a system as would 
place seamen in a proper position from the 
point of view of conditions of work, without in- 
volving commitment to any strict formula. On 
the principle of the question, it was not possi- 
ble to refuse to seamen alone the benefits given 
to other workers. As to the practical aspect 
of the matter, he observed that most of the ar- 
guments adduced against the regulation of 
hours of work were the same as those used in 
the past against any form of regulation of labor 
in industry. In order, however, to obtain the 
support of Great Britain, to which he attached 
very great importance, he put forward as a con- 
ciliatory suggestion the proposal that the gov- 
erning body should postpone for a year the 



summoning of a maritime international labor 
conference, but should definitely decide that 
such a conference should be held in 1929. 

The representatives of the German, Belgian 
and Italian governments declared themselves 
in favor of placing the question of the regula- 
tion of hours of work on board ship on the 
agenda of a conference. 

The employers' group pronounced against 
this. 

On a vote, the proposal of the British gov- 
ernment representative was rejected by 15 to 8, 
with one abstention. 

The proposal of the French government rep- 
resentative, for the formal placing of the regu- 
lation of hours of work on board ship on the 
agenda of a maritime international labor con- 
ference to be held in 1929, was adopted by 
fifteen votes. The six employers' representa- 
tives voted against it. Three government rep- 
resentatives, including the representative of 
the British government, abstained from voting. 
All the other government representatives, to- 
gether with the six workers' representatives, 
voted for the proposal. 



SLOW PASSING OF SLAVERY 



Most of us think of slavery as something 
that ended at least a generation ago all over 
the world. As a matter of fact, the British 
government finished abolishing slavery in 
Burma only last week. It has prohibited the 
sale or giving away of slaves while arrange- 
ments are being made for their release, the 
government compensating the owners. About 
5000 slaves will be set free. 

This has been the British method for nearly 
100 years. France abolished slavery in her 
realm by revolution in 1794, America by civil 
war in 1863; Britain by legal enactment and 
compensation, beginning in 1831. 

In that year, the British crown emancipated 
its own slaves. Two years later, a bill was 
passed abolishing slavery in the British col- 
onies, and appropriating 20,000,000 pounds 
sterling for the owners. Slave holding regions 
added to the British Empire since have been 
dealt with piecemeal. The Burmese slaves are 
the last ones left. 

Slavery lasted in Cuba till 1886, in Brazil 
till 1888, in China till 1910. 



134 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1927 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW PURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

THOMAS CONWAY, Second Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. V. 

P. B. GILL, Third Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fourth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
OSCAR CARLSON, Fifth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 
PATRICK O'BRIEN, Sixth Vice-President 

55 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

PETER E. OLSEN, Seventh Vice-President 

49 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $150 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURNAL 
is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 






MAY 1, 1927 



DOLLAR'S CHINESE CREWS 



Mr. Stanley Dollar, in behalf of the Dollar 
Steamship Company, has very generously 
offered to turn over their newly acquired fleet 
to Uncle Sam, if the latter should need those 
ships to carry American soldiers to China. 

It will he remembered that the Dollar inter- 
ests purchased these ships from the Govern- 
ment at bargain counter rates. It should be 
further remembered that, notwithstanding* 
many vigorous protests, the Dollar Company 
still gives employment to hundreds of Chinese 
seamen. This much by way of explanation. 

Of course, it was most thoughtful for Mr. 
Dollar to tender his fleet to the Government. 
Such an offer has a patriotic flavor even though 
it is a moral certainty that Uncle Sam will pay 
Mr. Dollar handsomely for every moment the 
ships may be requisitioned. So far, only one 
of the Dollar liners has been placed in the 
Government transport service. This particular 



vessel, the President Grant, carried only a par- 
tial Chinese crew. Even so, it became neces- 
sary to replace the Cantonese Chinamen in the 
Steward's Department before the Army and 
Navy authorities would consent to use the ship 
as a transport. Some of the other Dollar liners 
carry Chinese crews in all departments and if 
it should become necessary for the Govern- 
ment to take over one of these all-Chinese 
manned ships the transfer would be meaning- 
less until another crew had been secured. 

This little incident ought to open the eyed 
of certain complacent Americans who talk so 
much about the urgent need of an adequate 
merchant marine. 

No country's merchant marine is, or can be, 
adequate unless manned by its own nationals. 

The platform of the Republican party upon 

which the present administration was elected 

contained this meaningful declaration: 

The Republican party stands for a Strong and 
permanent merchant marine built by Americans, 
owned by Americans and manned by Americans, td 

secure the necessary contact with world markets t<>r 

our surplus agricultural products and manufactures; 
to protect our shippers and importers from exorbitant 
ocean freight rates and to become a powerful arm of 
our national defense. 

The Chinese crisis shows the value of an 
American-manned merchant marine. The 
Chinese crisis also strikingly directs attention 
to the fact that the Republican party's platform 
pledge relative to an American-manned mer- 
chant marine has not been honored. 



HUMAN VERSUS TRADE RIGHTS 



It organized workers simply refuse to handle 
a nonunion product such action is an interfer- 
ence with interstate commerce and therefore 
illegal, rules the United States Supreme Court 

The absence of picketing or boycottin: 
other activity which courts are pleased to term 
"threats and coercion" does not make the work- 
ers' refusal legal. 

This far-reaching decision was made in the 
case of Indiana stone companies against the 
Journeymen Stone Cutters' Association ot 
North America. 

Justices Holmes and Brandeis dissented. 
The latter made this significant statement: "If 
on the undisputed facts of this case, refusal to 
work can be enjoined, Congress created by the 
Sherman law and the Clayton law an instru- 



May, 1927 



ment for imposing restraints on labor which 
remind us of involuntary servitude." 

The stone companies, several years ago, de- 
clared for the anti-union shop and the case has 
been in the courts since then because the 
unionists would not handle the nonunion 
product. 

The companies were refused an injunction 
in the Federal District Court and the Circuit 
Court of Appeals. In the latter court Judge 
Alschuler said the defendants were within 
their right not to work on the objectionable 
product, even though such action "might have 
tended in some degree to discourage builders 
from specifying appellants' stone and thus to 
reduce the quantity of their product which 
would enter interstate commerce." 

The companies appealed to the United States 
Supreme Court, which has reversed the lower 
courts on the ground of interference with inter- 
state commerce. Justice Sutherland, in the 
majority opinion, swept aside the question of 
fundamental rights and emphasized the loss of 
trade. 

Judge Brandeis upheld the union and con- 
tended that there was no unreasonable re- 
straint of interstate commerce shown. He 
showed that the majority decision went far 
beyond decisions in the Danbury Hatters' case, 
the Duplex case and the Bucks Stove case. 
He said that the court permitted the Steel 
Trust to combine in a single corporation 50 per 
cent of the steel industry of this country, domi- 
nating the trade through its vast resources. 
In the Shoe Machinery case, said Justice Bran- 
deis, the court permitted capitalists to combine 
in another corporation practically the whole 
machinery industry of the country, necessarily 
giving it a position of dominance over shoe 
manufacturing in America. 

"It would indeed be strange," said Justice 
Prandeis, "if Congress had by the same act 
willed to deny to members of a small craft of 
working men the right to co-operate in simply 
refraining from work when that course was 
the only means of self-protection against a 
combination of militant and powerful employ- 
ers. I cannot believe that Congress did so. 

"The manner in which these individual stone 
cutters asserted rights to perform their union 
duty by refusing to finish stone 'cut by men 
working in opposition to' the Association was 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13; 



confessedly legal," continued Justice Brandeis. 
"They were innocent alike of trespass and of 
breach of contract. They refrained from vio- 
lence, intimidation, fraud and threats. They 
did not picket. They refrained from obstruct- 
ing otherwise either the plaintiffs or their cus- 
tomers in attempts to secure other help. They 
did not plan a boycott against any of the plain- 
tiffs or against builders who use the plaintiff's 
product. On the contrary they expressed entire 
willingness to cut and finish anywhere any 
stone quarried by any of the plaintiffs except 
such stone as had been partially 'cut by men 
working in opposition to' the Association." 



USING THE DEPORTEES 



Several months ago the Journal commented 
upon the growing disposition on the part of 
the United States immigration authorities to 
substitute alien deportees for American seamen 
on vessels sailing for foreign ports. 

Despite the fact that there is a surplus of 
American seamen on the Pacific coast, certain 
officials of the immigation service are continu- 
ing to supply shipowners with aliens awaiting 
deportation for the purpose of manning vessels 
about to sail for foreign ports. 

George Larsen, acting secretary of the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific, wired Secretary 
of Labor Davis, early during the past month, 
that two sailing vessels, the Chillicothe and 
Tonawanda, which had taken on cargoes on 
the Columbia River, were about to sail for Aus- 
tralia with crews composed of alien deportees 
furnished by the immigration authorities at 
Seattle and Portland. 

Receiving no reply to his telegram within a 
reasonable length of time, Larsen wired Sec- 
retary Olander of the International Seamen's 
Union of America. Olander sent a telegram 
to Secretary Davis, setting forth the facts and 
concluding with this pointed language: 

It is manifestly wrong even for a private employ- 
ment agency to give preference in employment to per- 
sons unlawfully in the country, and it is even worse 
for the Government to indulge in such unfair practice. 

Assistant Secretary of Labor White replied 
to Olander's telegram sent to Secretary Davis 
by saying that the matter was "receiving the 
careful consideration of the department." 

Patrick Flynn, first vice-president of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America, also 



136 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, VM7 



sent a long protesting telegraphic message to 
Secretary of Labor Davis from San Francisco 
and received no satisfactory replies. 

Vice-President Flynn's telegram to Secre- 
tary Davis was as follows : 

Two American sailing ships, Chillicothc and Tono- 
wanda, will sail in the immediate future from Colum- 
bia River manned by aliens exclusively who have been 
held for deportation. 

This practice is surely not conducive to the young 
American to seek the sea as a livelihood, continued 
the telegram; neither is it for the best interests of es- 
tablishing and maintaining 100 per cent American mer- 
chant marine. It surely is not in accord with the 
fundamental principles of our country. As a matter of 
fact, it is nothing short of slavery. 

On behalf of the organized seamen of this country 
in general, and of the Pacific Coast in particular, I re- 
spectfully but most emphatically protest against said 
practice and ask that an immediate investigation be 
had and instructions sent nullifying same in reference 
to the two vessels mentioned and for all time to come. 

While the protests of the various union offi- 
cials did not stop the immigration authorities 
from supplying aliens who had been ordered 
deported there was at least a redeeming feature 
in the situation. 

On previous occasions these unfortunate 
aliens have been supplied to foreign going 
ships at wages far below the standard rates of 
the port. In this instance, when the Chillicothc 
finally got away, she carried seven deportees 
from the immigration station at Seattle. All 
seven had signed articles for $65 per month. 
which was at the same rate of pay received by 
the other able seamen in the crew. 

So, while the shipowner got the deportees, 
notwithstanding the union's protest, he was at 
least required to pay the prevailing wage. This 
would not have been done had the union re- 
mained silent in the matter. 



WHAT'S WRONG IX CHINA? 



Secretary dander has supplied the secretar- 
ies of all district and local unions with valuable 
reference data relating to the new Railway 
Labor Act. Secretary Olander emphasizes the 
point made by the recent Washington conven- 
tion that unions under the jurisdiction of the 
I. S. U. of A. should under no circumstances 
agree to arbitration under the Railway Labor 
Act without first consulting the International 
Office at Chicago. 



Not a day passes over the earth but men 
and women of no note do great deeds, speak 
great words, and suffer noble sorrows. — 
George Eliot. 



What's wrong in China? It's a difficult 
question to answer. Anyhow, here is a trial 
at the }ob. 

For decades western nations have coolly 
taken possession of bits of Chinese territory. 
here and there, and have set up their own sys^j 
terns of government therein, with their own 
law.-, and policemen and soldiers to enforce 
them. The same nation- have Hooded China 
with missionaries, to convince the Chinese that . 
they are heathens, and discredit their ancient 
faiths. 

As the net result of the combined missionary 
work the Protestants claim 600,000 follower* 
in China, while the Catholics claim about t\\<> 
million adherents. Inasmuch as the popula- 
tion of China is in round numbers four hundred 
millions, the Christians constitute less than 
}4 of 1 per cent of the total population. Not 
much progress when we analyze percent 

But what is the matter with China? Why 
is China raising all these violent objection-, 
all at once? 

Well, to the candid observer it would appear 
as it" the people of China are merely asserting 
their right to control and administer then- 
domestic affairs without foreign interference. 

Yet, to many statesmen and politicians of the 
superior white race it seems that the Chinese 
are trespassing upon "Our" property and 
threatening "Our" liberties. 

The time has come, however, for the western 
nations to get all the old ideas of China out «»i 
their heads. Exploiting capitalists t have car- 
ried things with a high hand in that country, 
and have enriched themselves prodigiously in 
the process. They have made "loans" to the 
Chinese, and under cover of these dubious 
transactions have seized their lands, their rail- 
ways, their customs revenues, and established 
a system of exterritoriality that is only a thinly 
disguised annexation. It has worked for very 
many years, but it will work no longer. The 
Chinese are busily engaged in dissipating the 
belief that they take a real pleasure in being 
cheated and ill-treated by interlopers who claim 
to be a superior people. That is the whole 
trouble in China. It is one that cannot be cured 
by gunboats, marines and ultimatums. Cer- 
tainly, the waging of war will not cure it. 



8 



.May, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



137 



FILIPINO INDEPENDENCE VETOED 



President Coolidge has vetoed independence 
for the Philippine Islands. 

The bill vetoed by Coolidge had been passed 
by the Philippine Legislature and repassed by 
a two-thirds majority over Governor General 
Leonard Wood's veto. It proposed to hold a 
plebiscite among - the islanders on the question : 
"Do you desire immediate, absolute and com- 
plete independence of the Philippine Islands?" 
Under the organic law of the territory, the 
President of the United States has final author- 
ity on all bills passed by the native Legislature. 
Hence, there will be no plebiscite and inde- 
pendence in the Philippines is still a remote 
subject. 

It was significant as the first time a Presi- 
dent had vetoed an act of the Philippine Legis- 
lature. 

President Coolidge's veto message, some 
3000 words in length, frowned on the plebiscite 
on the grounds that its yes-or-no method 
would be unconvincing and unfair; that native 
discussion of independence is untimely ; that 
the little brown men still need the economic 
and military protection of Big Brother U. S. 

King George of England used similar lan- 
guage and equally faulty logic when the Amer- 
ican colonists humbly prayed for a degree of 
independence in the affairs of their new coun- 
try. Every schoolboy knows that King George- 
did not put an end to the longings for Amer- 
ican independence. It is equally certain that 
President Coolidge's veto message will not 
stifle the voice of Filipino independence. 

More power to our little brown proteges ! 

What was that slogan the whole country 
was shouting just exactly ten years ago today? 
Does this sound like it? "Self-determination 
for small nations." 



WHO CONTROLS THE PRESS 



Concentration of the ownership of American 
newspapers into fewer and fewer hands is pro- 
ceeding rapidly — and with it the mighty con- 
trol over American public opinion that the 
press exercises. Figures compiled by the trade 
journal, Editor & Publisher, show that there 
are now 55 separate groups operating two or 



more newspapers in different cities of the 
United States; that these 55 ownerships con- 
trol 228 daily newspapers — 172 evening, 56 
morning and 89 Sunday issues, and that the 
total combined circulation of these newspapers 
is 13,790,710 daily and 11,052,450 Sunday. 

Comparison with a similar compilation made 
by Editor & Publisher in 1924 shows a remark- 
able growth in every respect. The number of 
groups has increased from 31 to 55. The num- 
ber of daily newspapers controlled has in- 
creased from 153 to 228. The total circulation 
has increased from 9,594,553 copies daily to 
13,190,710 copies and from 8,806,951 copies 
Sunday to 11,052,450 copies. Three years ago 
circulation of group-owned newspapers in- 
cluded 30.5 per cent of the total daily and 41 
per cent of the total Sunday circulation. The 
group-owned newspapers today circulate 36.6 
per cent of the total daily and 45.1 per cent of 
the Sunday circulation. The largest number 
of daily newspapers published under one own- 
ership is that of Scripps-Howard, which now 
operates 26 dailies, while the largest circula- 
tion is the 4,931,330 daily copies of the 25 
Hearst newspapers. 

A business enterprise controlled by the few 
and all too often used in the interests of the 
few — that is the American press today. Until 
labor can build a powerful press of its own, 
controlled by the many, furthering their inter- 
ests and voicing their aspirations, the trustified 
control of American opinion will remain un- 
challenged. 



It is reported that an increase of $25 a month 
to chief engineers, $10 to first and second as- 
sistants and $5 to third assistants on motor- 
boats has been granted by the shipping board. 
This increase is said to be justified on the 
ground that not only is special skill required 
for the supervision of motor engines, but serv- 
ice in motor engine rooms is also far more 
telling upon the constitution than steam engine 
duty. The effect of the gases, always more or 
less present in motor engine rooms, has not yet 
been determined, but it is agreed among medi- 
cal authorities that it is not conducive to better 
health. If this is agreed to, there certainly can 
be no good reason for withholding a similar 
increase in wages from the unlicensed engine 
room personnel of motorships. 



138 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1927 



SALMON FISHERMEN'S AGREEMENTS 



The annual migration of salmon fishermen 
from Pacific Coast ports to Alaska has been in 
full swing during the past month. It is gratify- 
ing to note, in this connection that the Alaska 
Fishermen's Union has renewed its agreement 
with the Alaska Packers' Association covering 
wages, percentages and working conditions, for 
a period of three years. The Alaska Packers' 
Association was organized in 1893 and has 
had continuous contractural relations with the 
organized fishermen for nearly a quarter of a 
century, the first agreement between the union 
and the association having been signed in the 
spring of 1903. As is well known, the Alaska 
Fishermen's Union is an important unit of the 
International Seamen's Union of America. 

As in the past, the agreement with the Pack- 
ers' Association provides for the employment 
of members of the union, sets forth their work- 
ing conditions and specifies, in detail, (1) the 
wages to be paid, and (2) the percentages of 
the catch to be credited to fishermen at each 
cannery. 

Following are the more noteworthy gains 
in the new agreement: 

Bristol Bay Canneries — Hereafter the fisher- 
men will have credited to their accounts one- 
third of the price paid by any cannery for all 
fish delivered to said cannery by others than 
the fishermen regularly assigned to same. For- 
merly this arrangement aplied only to fish re- 
ceived from other companies. 

For the season of 1 928 each Bristol Bay Can- 
nery will pay an additional ^4 cent for each red 
salmon caught. For the 1929 season another 
'4 cent will be added to the prices paid at the 
respective Bristol Bay Canneries. 

The price paid for king salmon will be in- 
creased 5 cents each during the PCS season and 
the same increase will remain in effect during 
1929. 

Southeastern Canneries — In these canneries 
a flat increase of % cent per case per man is 
provided for. such increase to take effect dur- 
ing the season of 1928 and to remain in effect 
in 1929. 

In considering these increases it should be 
borne in mind that the length of the fishing 
season has been reduced to approximately 3/^ 
months, whereas formerly the season averaged 



about 5 months. This materially lessens the 
time actually required for the season's work 
and therefore automatically increases the sea- 
son's earning-. 

Sailors and Firemen — The Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific and the Marine Firemen, ( )ilers 
and Watertenders Union of the Pacific will 
again supply the men of that calling required 
in the Alaska salmon fishing industry. Wages 
for sailors on the steamships operated by the 
packers will be $80 per month, with 80 cents 
per hour for overtime work. Sailors on the 
tug boats will receive $95 per month. Marine 
tin-men will be paid SI 05 per month. 

Columbia River Agreement — The Colum- 
bia River Fishermen's union, embracing a 
number of sub-locals on the lower river, has 
also reached an agreement with the packers 
operating on that river by which a rate of 14 
cents a pound will be paid for fish during the 
coming season, which opened May 1. 

This is an increase of half a cent a pound 
over last year's rate. The higher price was ob- 
tained through negotiation due to the strength 
of the organization. Last year, with the fish- 
ermen partly disorganized, a strike ensued and 
only after an organization had been effected 
did the fishermen secure the 13^2 cent rate. 

There is a provision in the agreement that 
a radical change in the market price of fish, if 
occurring during the fishing season, will make 
possible the opening of the scale for revision. 
This is considered improbable. Another con- 
tingency provided for is a run of fish of ex- 
ceptionally poor quality, which infrequently 
occur-. In this case the packers are to have the 
right to open negotiations for a lower rate- to 
equalize the consequent lower value of the 
packed product. 



As the editor was searching for live news to 
fill tin- World's Workers column of the JOURNAL 
he came across this item in the monthly news 
letter of the International Transport-workers 
Federation : 

Application for Affiliation — The MaKyarors/a^i 
Gepjarmnvezi-mk Egyesiikete has applied for affilia- 
tion to the I. T. F. 

What docs it mean? No, nothing dangerous 
or revolutionary. The three words with so 
man}' letters when translated mean Hungar- 
ian Chauffeurs' I nion. 



10 



May, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



139 



U. S. LABOR CRUSHERS LEAD FIGHT 

TO DESTROY LATIN AMERICAN 

FREEDOM 



By John P. Frey 
President Ohio State Federation of Labor 



The American government's attitude and 
policy in Latin American countries, particu- 
larly those north of Panama, has a direct 
bearing upon the welfare of the North Amer- 
ican trade union movement. 

There is much more involved than oil depos- 
its, gold, silver and copper mines, timber lands, 
tobacco and sugar acreage, and fruit planta- 
tions. These, however, are important, not only 
because of the great amount of American 
money invested, but also because of the large 
number of Latin American workmen who are 
employed by American interests. 

One American corporation financially inter- 
ested in several of these countries employs 
some 75,000, the majority of these being na- 
tives of the Latin American countries where 
the corporation carries on its wofk, and this 
corporation is not interested in oil or metals. 
The richest soil, the most valuable mineral and 
metal deposits in San Domingo, Haiti, Cuba, 
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa 
Rica, as well as Mexico, are owned and con- 
trolled by American capital. 

These American investors from the begin- 
ning have looked to the United States govern- 
ment to assist them in protecting their prop- 
erty. Their representatives in these Latin 
American countries endeavor, through every 
means possible, to apply the industrial policies 
and programs which will yield the greatest 
profits for their companies. 

A checking up of the great American banks 
who finance these industries in Latin America, 
and the leading Americans who direct them, 
discloses that, with scarcely an exception, they 
represent the same groups that stand at the 
head of the "American plan" and "open shop" 
policy in the United States. They are as much 
opposed to the existence of trade union organ- 



Editor's Note — This article by Mr. Frey, long a 
student and keen observer of Latin American affairs, 
and delegate to Pan-American Federation of Labor 
conventions, is one of the most illuminating and im- 
portant contributions to an understanding of what is 
back of the dramatic and sinister moves against Latin 
American freedom now being made. 



izations in Latin American countries as they 
are north of the Rio Grande. Their antagonism 
toward the American Federation of Labor is 
no greater than their opposition to the national 
trade union movements in these Latin Amer- 
ican countries, or toward the Pan-American 
Federation of Labor. 

Until within a few years ago labor in Latin 
American countries was practically helpless. It 
could be exploited mercilessly, and govern- 
ment, the leaders of the party in power, eager 
to secure some of the money dribbling through 
the fingers of American investors, refused to 
take any steps which would protect the natives 
from the methods of employment Americans 
might choose to apply. 

But the Latin American workmen began to 
organize, their organizations very largely de- 
veloping as American methods of employment 
became better known. The growth of Latin 
American trade unionism very largely parallels 
the rapid development of American investment 
and employment policies. 

The workers in Cuba org-anized into na- 
tional unions and developed a Cuban Federa- 
tion of Labor. After the revolution which 
overthrew the tyrannical government of Diaz 
in Mexico, trade unionism made such rapid and 
substantial progress that at the present time 
the Mexican Federation of Labor represents 
approximately 2,000,000 members. 

The development of a practical trade union 
movement in Cuba and Mexico encouraged the 
wage earners in the smaller Latin American 
countries to organize. Leaders of the trade 
union movement of both these countries vis- 
ited the others to secure advice and assistance 
in the building up of trade unionism. In Cuba, and 
particularly in Mexico, the national trade union 
leaders consulted continually with the American 
Federation of Labor, looking to our great trade 
union movement for advice and support. 

A few years ago even the American trade 
union movement doubted the possibility of a 
practical federation with the trade union move- 
ments of the Latin American countries. Within 
a few years, through the influence of the Pan- 
American Federation of Labor, most substan- 
tial progress has been made. A unity of purpose 
and policy more practical than exists in any 
other part of the world has been established. 

This rapid growth of trade unionism and 



11 



140 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1927 



friendly relations between Latin American 
trade unions and the American Federation of 
Labor has met with the outpsoken opposition 
of the American investors. They have used 
what influence they possess, and it is by no 
means little, with our government, so that the 
development of trade unionism in the Latin 
American countries might be handicapped. 

In these countries the American interests 
have consistently and continually supported 
the election of public officials who are in har- 
mony with the American anti-union policy. 
Any Latin American in public life who publicly 
advocates the right of labor to organize, who 
calls attention to the necessity for trade union 
organization, meets with their open, active 
opposition. This opposition is a tremendous 
factor, for American citizens have more money 
invested in Cuba, Mexico and the Central 
American countries than the investors of all 
other countries combined. 

Since American capital became a dominating 
factor in these Latin American countries, their 
friendliness or opposition to the personnel of 
the governments has been an active fatter. 
There are the best of reasons for believing 
that it has been a prominent force in our State 
Department's instructions to our diplomatic 
representatives in these countries. 

While oil has apparently been the outstand- 
ing feature of recent diplomatic relations with 
Mexico, there have been some other important 
factors which are not generally recognized. 

The Cuban trade union movement has prac- 
tically been annihilated by the Cuban govern- 
ment. The Cuban Federation of Labor has 
been utterly destroyed. It no longer exists. 
Most of the national unions have been wiped 
out. All of this was done under the eyes of the 
United States representative in Cuba. It could 
not have taken place without his knowledge, 
but he made no protest. 

The strongest trade union movement which 
has developed is the Mexican. Both ( Ibregon 
and Calles asserted the right of labor to organ- 
ize, and pledged themselves to support and 
defend this right. The Mexican trade union 
movement is the backbone of trade unionism 
in the Latin American countries. The Amer- 
ican investors in Mexico abominate the Mexi- 
can government because of the recognition it 
gives to trade unionism. 



A >trong. ably led Mexican trade union 
movement means the spread of trade unionism 
in the other countries, and the building up of 
effective national federations of labor. l\ the 
Mexican trade union movement could be weak- 
ened or destroyed, as it has been in Cuba, then 
the great American corporations interested in 
Latin American countries would succeed un- 
hampered in carrying out their anti-union 
policy. 

In all that is taking place, so far as the diplo- 
matic relations of the United States with differ- 
ent Latin American countries is concerned, 
there lies in the background the active hostility 
on the part of American investors to the exist- 
ence of trade unionism. The right of the Latin 
American workmen to trade union organiza- 
tion is at stake. This is one reason why the 
American trade union movement cannot help 
but be profoundly interested and affected by 
our government's attitude toward those of the 
Latin American countries. 



TEN YEARS AFTER 



"We went to war to end militarism, and 
there i- more militarism today than ever 

before. 

"We went to war to make the world safe for 
democracy, and there is less democracy today 
than ever before. 

"We went to war to dethrone autocracy and 
Special privilege, and they thrive everywhere 
throughout the world today. 

"We went to Avar to win the friendship of 
the world, and they hate us today. 

"We went to war to purify the soul of Amer- 
ica, and instead we only drugged it. 

"We went to war to awaken the American 
people to the idealistic concepts of liberty. 
justice and fraternity, and instead we awak- 
ened them only to the mad pursuit of money. 

"All this, and more, the war brought us. 
It is our harvest from what we sowed. 

"You ask me if I would vote against war to- 
day as I voted ten years ago this day. The an- 
swer is. I would." — From an interview with L\ 

S. Senator George W. Norms. 



Did it ever occur to you to ask yourself 
how much of the blame for labor unions 
being as backward as they are is traceable 
directly to yourself? 



12 



.May, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



141 



AUSTRALIA'S NEW CAPITAL 



Canberra, the new Federal capital of Aus- 
tralia, was formally opened by H. R. H. the 
Duke of York, on May 9. 

Although Australia as a British colony is 
139 years old, the Federation of Australian 
States has only existed for twenty-seven years. 
It was in July, 1900, that the people of New 
South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South 
Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania 
assented to the Commonwealth of Australia 
constitution act, which united them as a Fed- 
eral Commonwealth under the Crown of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 
One of the last official acts of the late Queen 
Victoria was her proclamation of September 
17, 1900, ratifying the will of the Australian 
people. 

The act of Parliament creating the Common- 
wealth of Australia provided that its perma- 
nent seat of government should be in territory 
granted to or acquired by the Commonwealth, 
and should be not less than 100 miles distant 
from Sydney. After years of consideration, 
Canberra, in the district of Yass, in the south- 
ern portion of New South Wales, was accepted 
as the most desirable site for the new capital. 
Located 209 miles from Sydney, New South 
Wales; 429 miles from Melbourne, Victoria; 
912 miles from Adelaide, South Australia; 929 
miles from Brisbane, Queensland, and 2607 
miles from Perth, Western Australia, Canberra 
is said to combine all the qualities of the ideal 
site. 

In March, 1913, the foundation stones of the 
new capitol were laid, with appropriate cere- 
monies, but the World War delayed its com- 
pletion. At that time about 5000 people 
gathered by horse and buggy to witness the 
laying of the foundation stones, while for the 
ceremony this year it is estimated that 50,000 
motor cars will bring visitors from all parts of 
the Commonwealth, and hotels as far from the 
scene as sixty miles are being rapidly booked 
up. 

The total area of the Federal Territory of 
Canberra approximates 900 square miles, or 
576,000 acres. An area of 12 square miles is 
set apart for the site of the city proper, with 
further reservations of 100,000 acres for parks, 
boulevards and roads, an extensive arboretum. 



and Duntoon Military College, the West Point 
of Australia. Australia's Naval College, cor- 
responding to Annapolis in the United States. 
which was formerly located at Geelong, was 
transferred in 1915 to Jervis Bay, 123 miles 
from the new capital. 

It is interesting to Americans to know that 
Australia's new capital is laid out according 
to the design submitted by an American archi- 
tect, Mr. Walter Burley Griffin, of Chicago, 
and its pattern is strikingly suggestive, in gen- 
eral arrangement and outline, of that of Wash- 
ington, the capital of the United States. In 
a report of a former American trade commis- 
sioner at Sydney, Canberra's site is described 
as generally level, at an altitude of 1840 feet 
above the sea, with hilly country close at hand, 
and flanked by mountains nearer the horizon. 
"Like Washington," he writes, "it is a city of 
magnificent distances." 

Land in Canberra cannot be held in fee sim- 
ple, the title always residing in the govern- 
ment. A maximum lease of 99 years, however, 
may be obtained by bid at auction, and upon 
payment- of the government rental at the rate 
of 3 per cent on the unimproved capital value 
of the land as fixed by the final bid. The first 
sale of leases took place in December, 1924. 
The land ordinances prevent speculation. Erec- 
tion of building by the lessee must begin 
within two years and be completed within 
three years of the day of the lease. Buildings 
must be constructed in accordance with plans 
previously submitted far approval, and no 
lease may be transferred until they have been 
erected as prescribed. Every care is taken to 
preserve the uniformity of the city as outlined 
in the original plans. The first appraisement 
of the land is to take place in twenty years, and 
a new reappraisement will be made every ten 
years thereafter. 

Canberra's present population is between 
5000 and 6000, but with the inflow of Federal 
government department employees from the 
old capital city, Melbourne, it is estimated that 
the permanent population by the end of 1927 
will approximate 12,000. 



The law, in its majestic equality, forbids the 
rich man as well as the poor to sleep under 
bridges, to beg in the street, and steal bread. 
— Anatole France. 



13 



142 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1923 



THE WELLAND SHIP CANAL 

The linking of Lake Ontario with Lake Erie 
by artificial means, to overcome the obstacle 
of Niagara Falls, will be effected with the com- 
pletion of the new Welland Ship Canal in 1930, 
at a cost to the Canadian people of approxi- 
mately $115,000,000. 

This form of public ownership has not yet 
been subjected to the vicious attacks made 
upon publicly owned railroad- by the anti- 
public ownership forces, due, no doubt, to the 
fact that "private enterprise" once undertook 
the task of building the canal and broke down 
on the job. On November 30, LS24. the first 
sod was turned on the original canal, but some 
years later the canal was taken ever by the 
government of Upper Canada (now Ontario) 
and it and the three subsequent canals, includ- 
ing the one now under construction, have since 
been owned and operated by the state — with- 
out a whimper from the champions of private 
ownership. 

The new canal is being constructed in the 
belief that one day in the not too distant future 
ocean liners will ply the waters between the 
head of the Lakes and the seven seas, relieved 
of the handicap of unloading and reloading 
caused by such barriers as Niagara Falls and 
the rapids of the St. Lawrence River. 

Compared with the two great canals of the 
world — the Sue/, and the Panama — the Wel- 
land Ship Canal will stand out as a fine monu- 
ment to Canadian engineering skin and 
enterprise, and, too, as one of the most com- 
modious and best equipped waterways. Some 
comparative figures of the Welland Canal and 
the Panama — both lock canals, as distin- 
guished from the Suez, which requires no locks 
— are of interest : 

Length of canal, Welland Ship Canal, 25 
miles. Panama 50 miles, from Atlantic to Pa- 
cific; width of locks. Welland 80 feet, Panama 
110 feet; length of locks, Welland 829 feet, 
Panama 1000 feet; length of time to pass ships 
through entire canal, Panama slightly over 
nine hours from ocean to ocean, W r elland eight 
hours from lake to lake. 

Most workers are familiar with the labor 
conditions which have prevailed on the con- 
struction of this ''big ditch." A strike oc- 
curred in 1914 which brought out machine 



guns. etc. Each Minister of Labor since the 
work begun has been called upon to establish 
fair conditions of labor, and it was only a few;' 
weeks ago that the present minister, Peter 
lleenan, conferred with the chief Canadian 
executive officers of the crafts involved in an 
efTort to bring tranquility for 1927. However. 
as the work is being done by contractors in- 
stead of by day labor, there is danger that his 
work will be nullified. 

It is expected that the new Welland Ship 
Canal will be completed and open for naviga- 
tion by the summer of 1930, and when the St. 
Lawrence River is deepened vessels may be 
seen on the Great Lakes that now make 
Quebec their furthest inland port. 



FORCING OUT THE TRUTH 



[ntercoastal steamship owners, who held a 
secret conference at Hot Springs. Ark., in Jan- 
uary, at which time, it is alleged, agreements 
were made in reference to shipping rates and 
a decision reached to cut the wages of em- 
ployees and to refuse to recognize organiza- 
tions affiliated with the American Federation 
of Labor, will make a report of their proceed- 
ing- to the United States Shipping Board. 

Information concerning the decision of the 
steamship owners finally to comply with the 
shipping and anti-trust laws of the United 
State- comes from San Francisco, where the 
Labor Clarion made a first page feature of an 
International Labor News Service story senl 
from Chicago in reference to the Hot Springs 
conference. Other labor papers published in 
seaport cities also carried the story. 

Section 15 of the Shipping Act of 1916 re- 
quires that a memorandum of such agreements 
as were alleged to have been entered into at 
Hot Springs shall be filed "immediately" with 
the Shipping Board, and a penalty of $1000 a 
day is provided for violation of the act. More 
than sixty days had elapsed between the date 
of adjournment of the Hot Springs meeting 
and announcement that the intercoastal car- 
riers were ready to comply with the law. 

This is another clean-cut victory for the 
American labor press, which alone had the 
courage to publish the facts in reference to 
alleged violations of law by a giant combine of 
steamship owners which may involve fines of a 
million dollars or more. 



14 






May, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



143 



SACCO AND VANZETTI 



The Supreme Court of Massachusetts has 
upheld the conviction of Sacco and Vanzetti 
for a payroll robbery and murder in Braintree, 
in April, 1920, and the men have been sen- 
tenced to death. 

This is the famous case which has echoed 
round the world. The two men will go to 
the chair, unless some means can be devised to 
take their case to the Supreme Court of the 
United States, or unless the Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts pardons them or commutes their 
sentence. 

Yet a great number of competent and con- 
servative investigators who have studied the 
case — including Felix Frankfurter of the Har- 
vard Law School — believe Sacco and Vanzetti 
innocent. This belief rests, in part, on the 
following facts : 

1. Sacco and Vanzetti are radicals, and were 
caught in the "red" hysteria that followed the 
war. The report of the trial shows clearly that 
anti-radical sentiment was appealed to freely 
by the prosecutor, and was shown by the judge. 

2. Of the four persons who identified Sacco 
at the trial as being an occupant of the bandit 
car, three positively refused to identify him 
when he was first arrested, and the fourth was 
a fugitive from justice, at liberty by favor of 
the prosecuting attorney. 

3. One person identified Vanzetti, saying 
that he drove the car. All other witnesses 
described a totally different man as driving the 
car, and thirteen witnesses swore that Vanzetti 
was in Plymouth, peddling fish, on the day of 
the crime. 

4. No money from the crime has been traced 
to Sacco and Vanzetti, and their conviction 
leaves the rest of the payroll gang unaccounted 
for. 

5. A man under sentence for another crime 
has confessed to taking part in the Braintree 
raid, exonerating Sacco and Vanzetti. This 
confession, and evidence gathered as the result 
of it, accounts for part of the money and all 
the crooks. 

These facts — and many more — have con- 
vinced an overwhelming majority of the impar- 
tial students of the case that the guilt of Sacco 
and Vanzetti has not been proven. 

The Supreme Court of Massachusetts con- 



fined itself to the most technical kind of tech- 
nicalities, and refused to go into the merits 
of the case at all — though higher courts go into 
the merits or demerits of a case fast enough 
when a corporation claims that its property is 
being "confiscated." 

Whether guilty or not, it is crystal clear that 
these men did not have a fair trial. They are 
ignorant, they are foreigners, they are radicals, 
but the evidence does not show they are mur- 
derers. 



HAVE WE LOST OUR FACE? 



Chester Rowell, distinguished journalist and 
traveler, is among the many who have attempt- 
ed to answer the question "What's Wrong in 
China?" 

To Mr. Rowell it seems as if the present 
turmoil is no more and no less than "common 
hostility to the white man's overlordship." 
Says Mr. Rowell: 

Europe (which to the Chinese mind includes Amer- 
ica) lost more than men and money in the great Euro- 
pean war. It lost what, in the Orient, counts for most 
of all. It lost "face." The yellow and the brown man 
found the white man out. His bluff is punctured for- 
ever. The Asiatic may submit to him for a while as 
the stronger, but he no longer defers to him as the 
superior. The coolie refuses to be kicked, and the 
gentleman to be scorned. 

This, more than anything else, is at the bottom of 
the demands for the abolition of extraterritoriality and 
of the concessions. Returned students, trained in 
western universities of western ideas, aspire to these 
things for national and political reasons. But even the 
common coolie recognizes them as breaking the bul- 
warks of the white man's arrogance. The Oriental 
values his dignity above his life. The "European," 
meaning also American, might ride rough-shod over 
that dignity, so long as he was a demigod. Now that 
the coolie who served in the labor corps in France, the 
student who studied in Berkeley, Yale or Oxford, and 
the observer who saw the disintegration of Europe by 
war, all know better, the European or American must 
respect the sensitive dignity of the Chinese, as an equal, 
or the Chinese will no "longer do business with him, 
or associate with him and will, if necessary, fight him. 



There are four methods which the workers 
must pursue in order to bring about a new- 
social order: Political, Economic, Co-opera- 
tive and Educational. The great task and ob- 
ject of the Labor Movement is, therefore, to 
organize the workers on the economic and po- 
litical fields and educate them in order that 
they may be able to use their collective power 
intelligently.— William Bloom. 



A starving man has a natural right to his 
neighbor's bread. — Cardinal Manning. 



15 



144 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1923 



NEEDED— PUBLICITY ! 
(By James M. Lynch) 



The Supreme Court of the United States has 
spoken again in a labor case, adding another 
tetter to the activities of the unions. What will 
the unions do about it? Fume and fuss for a 
time, and then go along a- best they can until 
another decision arouses them from their 
slumbers. 

The instant case is that of the stone cutters. 
They had refused to cut stone prepared by non- 
union men, or to use their own definition, cut 
by men working in opposition to their associa- 
tion. The affected companies applied for an 
injunction to prevent the stone cutters from 
carrying on their policy, and the district Fed- 
eral Court refused a preliminary injunction 
and it was upheld by the Federal Circuit Court. 
The Supreme Court reversed the Circuit Court 
and granted the injunction. 

It was under Section 16 of the Clayton Act 
that the injunction was sought for relief 
"against threatened loss or damage by a viola- 
tion of the anti-trust laws." 

Approval of the use of the injunction in 
labor disputes was given by a divided court. 
Justices Brandeis and Holmes sharply dis- 
sented. In separate opinions Justices Sanford 
and Stone concurred with the majority. 

This case is the outgrowth of long standing 
trouble between limestone corporations oper- 
ating in the Bedford-Bloomington district of 
Indiana and the Stone ("titters' Union. 

The suit brought by the Bedford Cut Stone 
Company and other corporations charged that 
the general unions of the stone cutters and 
-nine of its officers and affiliated local union- 
had combined and conspired to commit acts 
in restraint of interstate commerce. An injunc- 
tion was sought to prevent the union men from 
committing what was alleged by the corpora- 
tions to be "great and irreparable damage." 

The Clayton Act, when it became a law, was 
heralded as a new charter of liberty for the 
wage earners. It has since been changed by 
the courts into a new and very embarrassing 
legal fetter. 

What can the unions do in the face of this 
new decision? Nothing so far as this particu- 
lar case is concerned but accept the decision. 
But they can also accept the fact that unless 
they adopt the method so generally and suc- 



cessfully used by the corporations — publicitv — - 
and make their ideals and aspirations known 
to the people in a quest for public sympathy 
and public support, they may expect more and 
more adverse decisions, accompanied by the 
dissents of Justices Brandeis and Holmes. If 
the>- do not arouse themselves to the ne< 
ties of a new day and a new order, they may 
not be surprised to find some day that Justices 
Brandeis and lb. line- have realized that they 
stand alone in their passion for industrial free- 
dom, and that their dissents are seed sown in 
barren ground. Publicity of the right kind is 
the great modern weapon in the struggle for 
industrial liberty ami equal opportunity. 



THE LAND SPECULATOR 



Buy real estate in southern California, says-; 
the real estate editor of the Los Angela 
"Time-". Use common sense in making the. ; 
purchase. Hold on t<» the property. It will 
make you independent and your children 
wealth}-. 

Fifty-nine years ago Alonza E. Horton: 
bought 960 acres for $265, think of it. at the 
rate of 27 cents an acre. That property to- 
day is the heart of the San Diego busi- 
ness section. It i> worth something like 
$50,000,000. 

The editor goes on to say that since Mr. 
Horton bought his 960 acres of land at 27 
cents an acre millions of people have come 
to southern California to live, and the same 
inducements that brought them will bring 
millions more. "So don't delay," the editor 
says, "but buy southern California real estate 
while you have the opportunity." And he 
add-: "It is the fellow with the foresight and 
the decision to back his judgment that gathers 
in the shekel 

This is the counsel of the go-getter. South- 
ern California is an attractive place. Many 
people have come here. There are indications 
that many more people will come in the next 
few year-. All these people must have land 
upon which to live, to do business, and to 
raise crops. They may bring with them all 
manner of goods and supplies, but they must 
use the land that is already here. 

Hence, buy that land now, says the realtor, 
and sell it or lease it to those who come 



16 



May, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



145 



after. To the man who comes to southern 
California next year, fix the price a little 
above the price of this year. Next year add 
again to the price; the year after, increase it 
again, and so on, always adding all you 
dare, short of an amount that will drive the 
builder away. 

This is the way the "fellow with the fore- 
sight and the decision to back his judgment" 
reaps the wealth of soil and climate that 
nature supplied in such perfection. When 
Mr. Horton came to San Diego in 1867 he 
bought land at 27 cents an acre. But the man 
who wants to use that same land today must 
pay $50,000 an acre. 

This is the law and custom. We must have 
permanent possession, in order to secure the 
best use of land. But is there any reason 
why a progressive commonwealth should tax 
alike lands that increase in value so fabu- 
lously, and buildings and goods that de- 
teriorate with age? 



THE IRON HEEL IN BRITAIN 



WHAT'S IN A NAME? 



The more I contemplate the wor d 
SLACKER, as we in the labor movement use 
it, the more horrified do I become over the 
actual meaning of this, the most descriptive 
word to be found in the American vocabulary. 

In analyzing the name which the organized 
men and women in America have bestowed 
upon certain specimens of the human family, 
I cannot but come to the conclusion that in 
this name the letters are well chosen, for this 
is what they seem to say : 

S stands for S-cab, S-coundrel, and S-kunk. 

L stands for L-iar, L-ummox, and L-ocust. 

A stands for A-ccursed, A-nthropoid, and A-pe. 

C stands for C-ontemptible, C-oward, and C-heat. 

K stands for K-nave, K-nocker, and K-illjoy. 

E stands for E-nslavement, E-vasion, and E-yesore. 

R stands for R-ascal, R-enegade, and R-at! 

Once more do I ask; What's in a name? 
— Contributed by I. A. Haarklau. 



The tall cocoanut palm tree helps supply 
mankind with buttons, soap, candles, candy, 
butter, sugar, paper, rope, baskets, brushes, 
mucilage and many other articles. To the 
savage it supplies all earthly needs, building 
materials, fuel, sleeping mats, food, drink and 
medicine. 



London information indicates that moderate 
members of the Conservative party, now in 
control of the government, are not enthusias- 
tic over the government's attack on the trade 
union movement. 

Organized labor is united against the bill 
and the moderates fear its passage will destroy 
every possibility of industrial undertsandings 
between employers and employed. 

The bill annuls rights granted to workers 
100 years ago, by outlawing "any strike calcu- 
lated to coerce the government or intimidate 
the community." Anyone "declaring, instigat- 
ing or promoting" such a strike shall be liable 
to a fine or two years' imprisonment. Trade 
unionists who join strikebreakers cannot be 
expelled from their union nor deprived of any 
benefits. No government employee can affiliate 
with the trade union movement. Picketing 
and trade union political activity are also re- 
stricted. 

As a result of the national and the miners' 
strikes there has been a general understanding 
that the government would submit anti-union 
legislation, rather than attempt to remove in- 
dustrial ills that caused these strikes. 

The bill is backed in the House of Commons 
by Winston Churchill, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, and Neville Chamberlain, minister of 
health. During the miners' strike the latter 
refused to permit communities that were pol- 
itically controlled by workers to distribute poor 
relief. Communities raise this money by a tax 
levy. Messrs. Churchill and Chamberlain, to- 
gether with Lord Birkenhead, are outstanding 
figures in the group of "die hards" of the Con- 
servative party, who have evidently swung 
Premier Baldwin to their side. The latter has 
made many pleas for industrial peace. 

Debates on the bill will be sensational. The 
workers point out that the proposal is more 
sweeping than the famous Tafif Vale decision 
of twenty-five years ago, which held that indi- 
vidual workers are liable for strike damages. 
This decision was annulled after an agitation 
that swept England and established the present 
Labor party. 



If a man makes himself a worm, he must 
not complain when trodden on. — Kant. 



17 



146 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May. 1927 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 

Loggers Under State Compensation Law — 
Although the making of logs into booms in- 
volves work on navigable waters which is es- 
sentially maritime, such employment pertains 
to local matters having no direct relation to 
navigation and commerce, and conic within the 
provision of State Workmen's Compensation 
Act. It was so held by the Supreme Court of 
the State of Washington in the case of Eclipse 
Mills Co. et al. vs. Department of Labor and 
Industries, 1927 A. M. C. 432. The question in- 
volved was whether the employers, the Sultan 
Railway & Timber Company and the Eclipse 
Mills Company, were obliged to contribute to 
the State Compensation Act, to cover the em- 
ployment of certain men who worked on the 
navigable waters of the Snohomish River in as- 
sembling and breaking up the booms of logs. 

Validity of Contract Relating to Working 
Hours — Three seamen shipped at New Orleans 
for a voyage to Europe as firemen and trim- 
mers on the British steamer Mount Everest 
under shipping articles which provided for 
their working eight hours per day and no more 
From the beginning of the voyage they were 
required, over their protest, to work ten hours 
a daw When the vessel reached Norfolk they 
left the vessel and returned to New ( Orleans. 
The U. S. District Court awarded them wages 
at the contract rate for the time they served, 
the cost of their transportation from Norfolk to 
Xew ( )rleans, and one month's extra wages 
at the contract rati-. The decree was challenged 
on the grounds: (1) That the proof did not 
show that the articles called for only eight 
hours' work a day; (2) that it was customary 
on the ship for firemen to do the work which 
was exacted after they had worked as firemen 
eight hours a day; (3) that the men were not 
entitled to recover because they were desert- 
ers; and (4) that the contract was governed 
by British law, and that law was not proved. 
The U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals (Fifth 
Circuit) held that the proof of the existence 
of a custom on the Mount Everest of firemen 
doing the work which was exacted here after 
they had worked eight hours each day, could 
not properly be given the effect of changing 
the contract of employment or of justifying 
the exaction of more than eight hours' work a 



day. The men had the right to discontinue 
their sen ices because of the breach of the eon- 
tract by the recjuirement that they work ten 
hours a day when the contract called for only 
eight hours' work a day. They were not guilty 
of desertion by leaving the ship because of 
such a violation of their contract rights. That 
contract having been breached by the ship or 
her master, the men were entitled to wages 
at the contract rate for the time they served, 
to compensation for the work they were re- 
quired to do in addition to what they COM 
tracted to do, and for damages for the breach 
of the contract. Decree affirmed. — Sefton S. 
S. Co. vs. Mohamad Ahmed et al. (No. 4S25). 
Damages for Master's Brutality — This was 
an action for assault. The plaintiff stated that 
while employed as a member of the crew of the 
steamship West Keene, he came aboard -aid 
vessel at Bahia at about 10:30 p. m. and went 
to bed. At about 12 o'clock he was awakened 
to take his watch. He was >ick and protested 
against taking his watch and asked that he be 
relieved, but was ordered to the forecastle head, 
lie did go to the forecastle head, and there fell 
asleep. He was set upon and tied with rope 
around his elbows in front of him and hand- 
cuffed behind him. He was dragged by the 
master and mate from the forecastle and put 
in the brig and locked in this room. He begged 
the mate to take the handcuffs off him at 5:30 
a. m., and the mate instead of loosening them 
put his foot on them and tightened them up. 
They were already so tight that it required 
the weight of the foot to tighten them more. 
These were taken off about 10 a. m. At this 
time his hands were swelled Up and his wri>t 
was cut. The doctor testified that. the nerve 
in the thumb and the first linger had been 
injured by the pressure of the handcuff> and 
the cutting into the wrist. There was some 
evidence that the man had been drinking be- 
fore coming on board. The court charged the 
jury that had the master used reasonable care 
necessary to subdue the man if the man be- 
came belligerent, instead of using brutal and 
unjust methods to subdue him, he could re- 
cover for such damages as he sustained The 
jury awarded $3500. This case was tried by 
.Mr. I .ucien V. Axtell. 



We produce wonderfully; we distribute 

abominably. — Victor Hugo. 



18 



May, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



147 



BOOK REVIEW 



WINDJAMMERS AND SHELLBACKS. By E. 
Keble Chatterton. Publishers J. B. Lippincott 
Co., Philadelphia. Price $4.50. 

Not so many years ago, when the grand old 
race of shellbacks, accustomed to only wind- 
jammers, flocked together in certain meeting- 
places in the world's great ports whilst their 
vessels loaded their cargoes of wool, tea or 
grain, it would have been as easy for a beggar 
to be invited into a palace, as for a layman to 
be admitted into one of these gatherings ! To- 
day, thanks to these strange, true stories of the 
sea collected by Mr. Chatterton at first hand 
from a fast disappearing race of men, the days 
of wooden ships and old-time crews singing 
their shanties from the fo'c'sle, have been 
brought to us "with a vividness that challenges 
the unsympathetic grip that routine has laid 
upon our daily lives." 

There is an old sailor's adage which says : 
"Only a two-inch plank lies between a sailor 
and eternity, and even that plank may be rot- 
ten." And as we read these vivid tales, "Sea 
Wanderers," "Windjammer Days." "Living 
Dangerously," and "The Call of the Sea," we 
realize that the sailor of the last three hundred 
years, whose yearning for the sea was beyond 
all dissuasion, gave us a picture of the real 
freedom and loneliness of the seas which our 
present age of molly-coddling puts almost be- 
yond the power of imagination. 

Men in those days thought nothing of a voy- 
age that lasted three or four years and covered 
over 100,000 miles, in weather that at times would 
freeze the ship sails into a solid block of ice. 

The age of progress has given us our 
modern steamships arranged like a hotel, even 
to its over-heating, for not even on deck does 
the passenger get the real sea breeze through 
the heavy plate glass windows that line the 
deck and that may be opened but seldom are. 

And yet in spite of it all, there is still the 
lure of the sea, and the boy still runs away 
from home to join the Marines, or to ship to 
some far-distant port and return home a wiser 
man, even though he does not understand a 
"jury-rig," nor "how to lash the top sail clew 
to the main yard." 

Men like Captain John Beebe, who sailed in 
the Brewster in the 60's give us a picture of the 



finest type of old-time sea captains — courteous, 
honest, fearless — to offset those bullies and 
drunkards whom the crews have been known 
to put in irons and return to port ! And that is 
life — the good and the bad — and that is why 
these stories come so near the heart of things 
and thrill us with their truth. 

Romance needs the element of time to make 
it truly powerful, and when our age of the 
steam Leviathan has passed into the Limbo, 
and something else has superceded it, we will 
look back and sigh for the romance that is ours 
today, but that we cannot see. 

Until that time, we thrill to the romance of 
the clippers, and we owe a debt of gratitude 
to Mr. Chatterton for keeping those days alive. 
— Ekel. 



UNCLE SAM'S SEAL FARM 

Uncle Sam's seal farm on the Pribilof Is- 
lands, Alaska, seems to be a paying propo- 
sition. 

These two little islands off the Alaskan 
coast are maintained as a Government seal 
preserve. They are inhabited by about 325 
natives, Aleuts, the chaps Aleutian Islands 
are named for, probably a cross between In- 
dian and Eskimo. 

A Government staff of some 12 persons dis- 
tribute supplies, teach the children, doctor 
the sick and maintain order. 

Uncle Sam furnishes virtually all the neces- 
saries of life ; though the natives catch some 
fish and birds, and eat the seal meat. 

When the time for taking the skin crop 
comes, these natives drive the "holluschickie," 
that is "bachelors," or young male seals not 
yet mated, inland from the rest of the herd, 
kill and skin them. They get a small fee for 
each pelt. The Government sells these pelts 
at public auction in St. Louis each year. 

The Government makes a good profit above 
all expenses, besides preserving the seals. 
which were on the verge of annihilation a 
few years ago, and doing a good turn to the 
Aleuts. 



Freedom, the synonym of equality, is, from 
the very rudest state in which man can be 
imagined, the stimulus and condition oi prog- 
ress. — TIenrv ( leoree. 



10 



148 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

CASH VALUE OF HUMAN BODY 



May, 19. 



The person who cannot see anything in life 
except what he sees in a test tube or under 
a microscope is to be pitied, Dr. Allen Craig 
of Chicago said in an address before the 
American College of Surgeons. The speaker 
ridiculed dollar estimates that are so com- 
monly placed on man. 

"It is the spirit within him that makes 
the man supreme in the world and allows 
him to control materialistic things," said 
Doctor Craig. 

Describing the chemical constituents of 
the human body, Doctor Craig said : 

"Consider the average 150-pound body of a 
man from its chemical aspect. It contains 
lime enough to whitewash a fair-sized chicken 
coop, sugar enough to fill a small shaker, 
iron to make a ten-penny nail, plus water. 
The total value of these ingredients is 98 
per cent, or about 60 cents per hundred- 
weight on the hoof. Yet the insurance com- 
panies place the economic value of a man 
at $5000. How do they account for the dif- 
ference of $4,999.02?" 

The answer, he said, was in the value of the 
spirit within the man. 



A "COMPANY UNION" TOWN 



The perfect example of the feudalistic "com- 
pany town" maintained in various sections <>t' 
the country by employers who seek to keep 
their employees from "contamination" by 
union organizers and in complete subjection. i> 
brought to the attention of Labor by a reader 
who has made a personal investigation. 

Westwood, California, with 3500 inhabit- 
ants, has no more political or economic rights 
than the Red River Lumber Company is will- 
ing to grant it. and that amounts to exactly 
nothing. 

The lumber company owns the homes, the 
streets, all stores, and is the only authority in 
matters that affect the lives and welfare of the 
population. It works its men ten hours a day 
and pays them as low as 33 cents an hour. 

Coupon books are issued that are exchanged 
for merchandise at every establishment with 
the exception of the postoffice and express 
office. Because prices in company stores are 



very high, vendors of fruit and vegetables have 
been flocking to Westwood and doing a lively 
business by underselling the company stores.} 

That this invasion of the sacred domain of 
the corporation would be resented and resisted 
was evident, and the following letter addn 
to every inhabitant is the method employed to 
dispose of the "nuisance": 

"To All House Tenants: 

"This is to advise all of our tenants in the town ni 
Westwood that all houses, sheds and cabins arc rented 
with the distinct understanding that under no circum- 
stances is any person to he housed therein, who is 
selling or soliciting any article or merchandise what 
ever, unless he has the permission of this company to 
canvass, sell or solicit. 

"The scale of rents adopted for the houses is based 
on the assumption that the mercantile busines>> will 
he transacted with the company. 

"We would call your attention to the fact that water 
and sewer service, garbage collection, fire and police 
protection is furnished by the company free of charge 
to tenants. It is also true that the present state of I 
the lumber market is such that the present scale of 
wages cannot be continued without the profits derived 
from the mercantile department. 

"The responsibility rests upon the tenant to know 
that any one rooming with them is not peddling or 
soliciting. 

"We inclose herewith a stamped, self-addressed post 
card, which we ask you to kindly sign and drop in 
the postoffice, thus acknowledging receipt of this 
letter. Yours truly, 

"THE RED RIVER LUMBER I 

"By 1". L. Walker." 



LAW OFFICES "FACTORYIZED" 

"Factoryized" was the term used to de- 
scribe law offices in New York City by An- 
drew Ten Kyck. well known lawyer and 
secretary of the Williamstown Institute of 
Politics. In an address to young lawyer- who 
had joined a legal fraternity, he said: "The 
facto ryization of the profession in large conn 
munities like New York is pretty nearly accorn* 
plished. The old-fashioned lawyer and the 
old-fashioned law office are gone. The mod- 
ern law office is a great big factor)' where the 
client is met by the man who excels in han- 
dling people and in fixing fee-, and probably 
sees no one else. In my opinion, unless we. 
as lawyers, change our whole mental attitude 
we will forfeit whatever confidence the com- 
munity has left in us." 



Far better to have the front of one's face 
pushed in by the fist of an honest prizefighter 
than to have the lining of one's stomach cor- 
roded by the embalmed beef of a dishonest 

manufacturer. — Jack London. 



20 



lay, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



149 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The steamship West Cape, 5597 tons gross, 
14180 net, 880 tons d. w., steams I0y 2 knots, 
built at Seattle, Wash., in 1918, now lying in 
James River, and owned by U. S. Shipping 
Board, has been sold to the McCormick S. S. 
Co., San Francisco. 

Canadian Vickers, Ltd., Montreal, has been 
purchased by a syndicate headed by Mr. James 
Playfair of Midland, Ont., a prominent factor 
in the shipping business in Canada. Canadian 
Vickers, Ltd., is one of the more complete and 
modern shipbuilding companies in Canada. The 
purchase price has not been announced but it 
is believed that it totaled several million dol- 
lars. 

The League of Red Cross Societies is intend- 
ing to consider suggestions for a universal sys- 
tem of facilitating medical advice by wireless 
at sea, and the standardization of sea medicine 
chests to enable prescriptions to be more easily 
wirelessed from ship to ship. It has been sug- 
gested that a number be given each drug to 
assist wirelessing medical advice to ships on 
which no doctor is carried. 

The steamships Mary Weems, ex Plainfield, 
3133 tons gross, 1903 net, 3500 tons d. w., 
steams 11^ knots, built at Elizabeth. N. J, 
n 1918, and the Esther Weems, ex Tipton, 
3049 tons gross, 1850 net, 3500 tons d. w., 
steams 11 ^4 knots, fitted for oil fuel, built at 
Wilmington, Del., in 1918, both owned by the 
Baltimore & Carolina S.S. Co., Inc., Baltimore, 
have been sold to the Pacific S.S. Co., Seattle. 

In passing through the Panama Canal re- 
cently the United States steamship Rochester 
pent a little more than forty-eight hours in 
Gatun Lake, and during this time observations 
were taken of the effect of the fresh water on 
the marine growths on the bottom of the ves- 
sel. It was found that this period of immersion 
n fresh water was sufficient to kill barnacles 
and make their shells readily removable from 
the hull and keel. 

Joseph E. Sheedy, general manager of Snip- 
ing Board operations in Europe is reported to 
have "resigned," effective May 31. It is denied 
that the resignation is the prelude to another 
hake-up of personnel, but it is also whispered 



that for a long time the decapitation of Mr. 
Sheedy has been mooted and that it would 
not be surprising if a couple of high officials 
of the Merchant Fleet Corporation soon re- 
ceived their "walking papers/' 

United States exports of marine engines and 
motor boats in 1926 were valued at $2,283,- 
803, an increase of more than $450,000 over 1925. 
Detachable engines accounted for a total of 
$577,451, compared with $377,149 in 1925 ; motor 
boats totaled $562,077 ($422,361), and other 
engines $1,144,275 ($1,029,242). The increase 
in motor boats and marine engines exports in 
the past year is characteristic of the gradual gains 
made during each of the past five years, with 
the exception of 1924. 

Government navy yards have again demon- 
strated their ability to underbid privately- 
owned ship-building concerns. In submitting 
estimates for the construction of six cruisers, 
the Mare Island Navy Yard, at Vallejo, Calif., 
bid $6,514,000 each for the construction of two 
vessels, and the Puget Sound yard, at Bremer- 
ton, Wash, bid $7,380,000. The lowest bid from 
a private yard was almost $10,000,000. This 
will probably result in the construction of four 
of the six cruisers in government yards. 

The Canadian customs having driven the boot- 
leggers out of Vancouver by the simple process 
of demanding double duty on stored liquor, the 
rum runners are reported to have shifted their 
base to the Island of Tahiti, the French colony 
in the South Pacific. Tahiti is considerably 
further away from the United States Pacific coast 
than the French island of St. Pierre is to the 
United States Atlantic coast.; still the profits of 
the business are such that the runners do not 
mind the distance — the customers are always 
willing to pay. 

During the calendar year 1926, 1262 tank ships 
transited the Panama Canal, carrying 7,117,408 
tons of mineral oil products. These vessels had 
a combined net tonnage of 7,323,942, Panama 
Canal measurement, on which tolls of $6,447,- 
399.40 were collected. Tank ships comprised 23.1 
per cent of the total commercial transits during 
the year ; 28.3 per cent of the total Panama Canal 
net tonnage; 26.9 per cent of the total tolls col- 
lected; and 25.7 per cent of the total cargo 
carried in commercial vessels through the Canal 
during the year. 

The coast of Maine at Moose Peak Light had 
more fog during the last fiscal year than any 



21 



150 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1927 



other spot on either coast of the United States, 
according to the Lighthouse Service. The 
total time in which fogs lay over this section 
of the Atlantic coast was 1468 hours, or 17 per 
cent of the whole year. In general, the aver- 
age amount of fog recorded during the past 
year on all coasts, including the lake district, 
has been 16:5 per cent below normal, and all 
stations had a decrease compared with the pre- 
vious year, with the exception of Alaska and 
the Pacific Coast. 

Another series of tests of pulverized coal for 
raising steam on shipboard will be started next 
week at the League Island Navy Yard with an 
improved pulverizer and some readjustments 
of the Peabody burner. Results already at- 
tained have been so highly satisfactory that it 
is expected the system may be installed on one 
of the 9000-ton Shipping Board cargo v< 
in June for a two months' test under regular 
operating conditions. Economics greater than 
those achieved by the internal combustion en- 
gine are expected to be attained through the 
adoption of this fuel. 

The latest available statistics show that on 
March 1, 1927, seagoing merchant vessels of 
500 tons gross and over flying the American 
flag (exclusive of Shipping Board tonnage), 
numbered 1977 of 6,850,562 tons gros>, against 
1988 of 6,857,263 tons gross on February 1, 
\ ( )27, a decrease of 11 vessels and 6701 tons. 
In addition, 889 vessels of 4,583,112 tons were 
owned by the U. S. Shipping Board, against 
890 of 4,587,798 tons on February 1. 1927. 
Altogether 2866 merchant vessels of 11,433,674 
tons gross were under the American flag on 
March 1, 1927, of which 221 1 vessels of 10,638,- 
653 tons were built of steel. Of the letter num- 
ber 1322 of 6.055,541 tons were privately 
owned. 

What is declared to be an outstanding non- 
stop run for a motorized oil tanker was com- 
pleted at San Pedro, California, during the 
month, with the arrival of the Norwegian 
tanker Nordanger. According to Captain Olaf 
Lie, master, the oil carrier left Bombay and 
the engines never once were stopped until the 
craft dropped anchor in Los Angeles harbor. 
Average speed of the voyage was 11.1 knots 
with forty-two days required for the trip. Since 
the vessel was launched June 25, 1925, at Ant- 
werp the craft has done 125,000 miles without 



a single miss by the motors, two Werkspodi 
J Kesels. The craft is owned by Westfal-Larsen 
& Company and is under charter to General 
Petroleum Corporation of Los Angeles. 4 ne 
Nordanger is now en route for Manila and 
Hongkong with 103,000 barrels of kerosene. 

The American-Hawaiian Steamship Company 
reports a net loss of $446,328 from operations 
last year. This amount includes depreciation and 
is $339,878 less than the operating deficit for 
1925. The net loss for the year was reduced to 
$155,781 by profit from sales, interest and divi- 
dends on investments and other sources, leaving 
a surplus on hand of $6,636,830, as com] tared 
with $6,011,286 at the end of 1925. Conditions 
in the intercoastal trade, in which the twenty- 
one vessels now owned and operated by the com- 
pany are employed, are still unsatisfactory, the 
report says. Cargo tonnage handled by the fleet 
showed a material increase in 1926 over \ () 25, 
but the average freight revenue per cargo ton 
was lower than in 1925. The company has claims^ 
totaling $3,003,800 against tke German govern- 
ment, which the Mixed Claims Commission 
allowed, but Congress has not yet devised means ; 
for settlement. 

Six of the twenty-three lines maintained by 
the Shipping Board are said to be operating at 
a profit ; i. e.. are bringing in more revenue than 
their cost of maintenance. The lines mentioned 1 
are the America-France Line, managed by the 
Cosmopolitan Shipping Company, Xew York, 
and operating between North Atlantic ports and 
Havre, Dunkirk, Bordeaux, and St. Xazaire; 
American Scantic Line, managed by Moore & 
McCormack Company, Inc.. and operating be- 
tween North Atlantic ports and Denmark, 
Sweden, and Finland; American-West African 
Line; Mississippi Valley-European Line, from 
Xew ' )rleans to Havre. Antwerp and Ghent ; 
American Premier Line, from Gulf ports to 
Mediterranean ports, and Gulf-West Mediterra- 
nean Line, from Gulf ports to Spain, Portugal 
and North Africa, the America-France Line 
operates 10 steamers of 87,845 tons d. w.. the 
American Scantic Line 7 steamers of 54,350 tons 
d. w., the American-West African Line 8 of 
66,944 tons d. w., the Mississippi Valley-Euro- 
pean Line 5 of 43,123 tons d. \\\, the American, 
Premier Line 5 of 39,140 tons d. w., and the 
Gulf-West Mediterranean Line 6 of 54.246 
tons d. w. 



22 



[ay, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



151 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



There are now under construction in Russia 
Sixteen motorships, totaling between them about 
p2,O0O tons gross. Two tankers of about 5000 
Rons deadweight have lately been completed, and 
two more vessels, named Alexis Rykoff and Ian 
jRudzutak, were launched a few weeks ago. In 
these vessels a six-cycle two-stroke single-act- 
ing mot®r is to be fitted, developing about 1800 
p. h. p. According to the Soviet program of 
{shipbuilding, made public some time ago, it was 
Intended to proceed with the construction of a 
substantial number of motor vessels during the 
bourse of the next few years. 

Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Newcastle- 
bn-Tyne, will lay down two 7300-ton Diesel 
motor vessels for the transport of locomotives. 
The ships will be provided with large hatches, 
and each will be fitted with an electric crane 
lifting 100 tons, and another crane with a 
capacity of thirty tons. The engines will be 
pf the Sulzer type, developing 1350 horse- 
bower. The ships will be run under the Nor- 
wegian flag and managed by Christen Smith. 
Uslo, who also manages a fleet of seven motor 
L-essels, all specially designed, two of which 
kre about 2140 tons gross each, one 2405 tons, 
[wo 2880 tons and two 7200 tons. 

The National Assembly of the republic of 
Panama has approved the contract between 
the government and the United Fruit Com- 
pany, by which the company acquires a forty- 
rear concession on 16,000 hectares (49,520 
teres) of land in the Tonosi valley of Los 
pantos province for planting bananas. The 
nvestment will total $12,000,000. The fruit 
company agrees to build a modern port at Tonosi 
For accommodating ocean liners. There will be 
Concrete wharves, seventy kilometers (43) miles 
bf standard railway; the Tonosi river will be 
bridged, and the town will be built up for hous- 
ng the employees. They also plan an oil storage 
ank system for fuel. 

The Diesel-engine ship is said to have lost 
|he high popularity it enjoyed in Italy last 
hear. According to Syren & Shipping (Lon- 
lon), owners are beginning to realize that 
rreater speeds, economy of working and lower 
bitial costs are possible with vessels fitted 



with the latest types of geared turbines and 
steam-raising facilities. Signor Mussolini's 
project for having two exceedingly fast trans- 
Atlantic liners built has not yet reached the 
stage of practical politics. It would appear 
that the vessels will be designed for a maxi- 
mum speed of 32 knots— which is much more 
within the bounds of probability than the orig- 
inal story of 40-knot ships. 

The contract for the construction of six de- 
stroyers for the Chilean Navy has been won by 
John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., Southampton. 
The contract is worth £1,000,000 and is the 
first of its kind the Thornycrofts have ever 
received, for although they have tendered bids 
to foreign goverments for destroyers, they 
have never previously been successful. They 
have, however, designed extensively for for- 
eign governments, and quite recently the Rou- 
manian government accepted Thornycroft's 
plans for destroyers to be built in Italian yards. 
The Chilean destroyers will each have a ton- 
nage of about 1320, and a length of approxi- 
mately 280 feet, with a speed of 35 knots. 

The three liners which the Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha have ordered for their service between 
Japan and San Francisco, and which will be 
built in Japanese yards, are to be somewhat larger 
than the Swedish motor liner Gripsholm and 
with substantially higher power. They will have 
a gross tonnage of 16,000, and the specification 
calls for a maintenance of 17 knots at sea as 
the average speed for a complete voyage. The 
twin-screw double-acting Ikirmeister & Wain 
machinery, to be installed in one vessel, will have 
a total output of 15,500 s, h. p., as compared 
with 13,500 s. h. p. in the Gripsholm, but in the 
two remaining ships there will be four shafts, 
each driven by a 4000 s. h. p. Sulzer-type engine. 

Star contra-propellers fitted to the Lloyd 
Sabaudo liner Conte Rosso are said to have 
improved her speed by about half a knot, 
although extremely heavy weather was expe- 
rienced on the voyage. Between Gibraltar, 
Naples and Genoa, the Conte Rosso steamed 
at 19.10 knots on the same ftiel consumption 
and the same number of revolutions as during 
all her previous voyages in the past five years, 
during which her average speed was 18J^ 
knots. The Lloyd Sabaudo has decided to fit 
Star contra-propellers to their Conte Verde 
and Conte Biancamano and also to the new 
Conte Grande, building at Monfalcone and 



23 



152 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1927 



expected to be ready for delivery about this 
time next year. 

The steamship company Dannebrog, Copen- 
hagen, the largest Danish company operating 
tramp tonnage, which owns a fleet of 31 steam- 
ers, aggregating about 114,600 tons d.w., re- 
ports a net surplus for 1926 of kr. 957,804, 
including kr. 121,423, brought forward from 
last year, which compares with a surplus of 
only about kr. 63,000 at the end of 1925. The 
Danish steamship company Torm, Copenha- 
gen, reports a decrease in freight earnings from 
kr. 5,600,000 to kr. 4,600,000. However, operat- 
ing expenses have been reduced from kr. 4, ( >()().- 
000 to kr. 3,700,000, so that the profit shows an 
increase. The dividend of 20 per cent is no 
doubt the highest paid this year by a Danish 
steamship company. 

British shipowners still feel that they have 
a grievance respecting the failure of their gov- 
ernment to compensate them for the retention 
of ships with coal cargoes on board during 
the coal strike, on the ground that the vessels 
were detained and not formally "requisi- 
tioned." The Chamber of Shipping's report 
says that the methods employed were "by re- 
fusal or withdrawal of clearance and order- to 
captains to remain where they were and, 
wherever practicable, to retain crews on board. 
It is impossible to imagine any more effective 
act of requisitionment, and it may be doubted 
whether the refusal of the government to pay 
the compensation (beyond payment on ac- 
count of crews' wages) provided for is not. in 
effect, unconstitutional." 

A much improved outlook for South Amer- 
ican trade was indicated at the meeting oi 
Lamport & Holt, Ltd. This company, which 
has been established on the route between 
North and South America for more than fifty 
years, has felt the full force of the government- 
owned shipping of the United States and 
Brazil! Now some of the U. S. government 
vessels have been disposed of to private in- 
terests, and the hope is expressed that b} 
mutual arrangement among the lines this trade 
may be conducted in future on a commercial 
basis, with reasonably satisfactory results to 
all concerned. The last Argentine maize crop. 
n\ which considerable shipments have been 
made this year, was a good one, and a "record" 
exportation of the new maize crop, beginning 
in the summer, is anticipated. Large ship- 



ments of the wheat crop have also been made 
this year. 

Considerable interest has been shown in the 
new steamship Matra of the Brocklebank- 
Cunard Line, which has arrived at New York 
from Calcutta. This vessel represents what 
is regarded as the last word in freighters for 
long-distance trade, and is the fifth of a series 
of new ships built for this company, each of 
which marks a progressive step, her forerun- 
ners being the Mahronda, Mahout, Maidan and 
Mahseer. Her maiden voyage from Calcutta 
occupied only thirty-eight days, which is two 
days under the record for this long journey, 
including stops at Colombo, Port Sudan and 
Port Said. The Matra is the company'.^ stan- 
dard freighter, and all new ships of the tleet 
will be built on her plans. She can carry 11,200 
tons of cargo and has been designed especially 
for the Indian trade. Holds and hatches are 
extremely large and well ventilated, the latter 
feature being an important one in view of the 
extreme temperature ranges from the time the 
vessel leaves Calcutta and the hot Indian ocean: 
until she reaches the colder climate of the 
Atlantic. 

Compensation has been paid by the French 
government to the widows of the captain and 
chief officer of the British steamship Fdith' 
Cavell, who died as a result of the hardships 
they endured in a prison of French (iuiana. 
Their ship, while near Cayenne, with a locaL 
pilot aboard, struck an uncharted rock and 
became a total loss. The captain and chief 
officer were arrested on the charge of having 
cast the ship away and were thrown into a 
filthy prison. There they remained for a 
month, until their release on bail was procured 
by the British government. The sufferings 
they endured, however, brought them to a 
premature grave, and the case for their depen- 
dents was championed in Parliament until the 
British Foreign Office placed the facts before 
the French government and urged that com- 
pensation should be paid. The French govern- 
ment first disclaimed responsibility for what 
had been done in a French colony. But it has 
just been announced that the widows of the 
two victims have been granted compensation 
for the wrongful arrest and imprisonment of 
their late husbands — £1000 being awarded in 
the case of the captain and £750 in that of 
the chief officer. 



24 



Alay, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



153 



LABOR NEWS 



Organized labor of Illinois and several influ- 
ential fraternal organizations are supporting 
he Soderstrom-Sneed old age pension bill. 
The measure proposes the formation of an old 
kge pension commission, consisting of mem- 
bers of the State Industrial Commission, to 
kdminister a pension fund to be raised by levy- 
ng a tax of one and one-half mills for each 
lollar of assessed valuation of taxable property 
n the state. 

The farmers' distress is shown by a state- 
ment issued by the Bureau of Farm Economics 
pf the Department of Agriculture on the num- 
ber of farmers who lose their properties. Dur- 
ng the year ending March 15, 1926, 400 farmers 
ost their homes each day. These bankruptcies 
plo not tell the whole story, as many holders 
pf mortgages know they will lose more by fore- 
closure and are taking a chance that they will 
receive at least part of their interest. The 
pureau finds that conditions are worst in the 
Rocky Mountain States. 

Governor Smith of New York has signed 
the compromise 48-hour-week bill for women 
in industry. Passage of the act ends a contro- 
versy that has been prominent in state politics 
tor several years. The bill, which grants a 
N-9j4-hour week where Saturday half holidays 
are given to women workers and also provides 
tor 78 hours during the year in which women 
pay be worked over the schedule laid down in 
the new law upon approval by the State Indus- 
trial Commission, was framed after a year's in- 
vestigation by the Legislative Industrial Sur- 
vey Commission. The former maximum was 54 
hours a week. 

The steel trust's annual report shows high 
earnings for 1926, but the trust's boasted 
"high" wages can not be sustained by analysis. 
The corporation employed 253,199 persons last 
year. They received wages and salaries total- 
ing $467,409,446. This is an average of $1910 
for each person, and includes salaries for exec- 
utives. With these salaries eliminated the rate 
for wage-earners would not average $1910. The 
year was a successful one for stockholders. 
Aside from usual dividends, a 40 per cent 
stock dividend was issued. This means that 



for every 100 shares of stock the holder now 
has 140 shares. 

The Arizona Cotton Growers' Association 
would use the police power of the state to 
compel Porto Ricans to labor. The Porto Ric- 
ans were lured to the cotton section by glow- 
ing promises. They are being fed and housed 
by organized labor and other citizens, and 
Governor Hunt has called on the cotton grow- 
ers to care for these men, women and children. 
The cotton growers reply that they will pro- 
vide work, and that public officials should take 
a "firm stand" against loitering. This is con- 
strued as a demand that the police power of 
the state be turned over to the employers in 
enforcing peonage. 

The Journeymen Barber s' International 
Union will hold a referendum vote on a change 
in the constitution whereby an apprentice will 
be eligible to join the union after two years' 
apprenticeship, instead of three years, as is 
now provided for. It is pointed out that in 
some states having barbers' laws only a two 
years' apprenticeship is required, and in the 
province of British Columbia only one year 
is required. International officials of the union 
are urging the membership to vote to change 
the clause, as they believe it would result in 
many barbers, after passing the required exam- 
ination, joining the union instead of drifting 
into labor-hating shops and becoming non- 
unionists. 

The Dominion House of Commons has 
passed the government's old age pension bill. 
The measure is now before the Senate, where 
it was defeated a year ago. If the bill becomes 
law the government will pay $20 a month at 
the age of 70 years, provided the provincial 
government of the province in which the pen- 
sioner lives pays 50 per cent of this amount. 
Organized labor of Canada is supporting the 
bill and will trust to the future to secure nec- 
essary adjustments. The first of these that will 
be urged will be to make the pension $30 a 
month, reduce the age requirement from 70 
years to 65 years and have the federal gov- 
ernment contribute a larger amount to the 
pension fund. 

A general contract for the construction of 
the home for aged members of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners at 
Lakeland, Fla., has been let by the executive 
board of the union. The contract price was 



25 



154 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1927 



$875,000. The structure is of Spanish design, 
with a capacity of 400 residents. The home 
is situated on a tract of 1,826 acres of land 
near Lakeland, Fla., owned in fee simple by 
the national union. .Much of this land already 
has been improved by fruit tree planting and 
other improvements. There will be a large 
auditorium and stage in the building and a 
power house for light and power and a private 
water system will also be features of the plant. 
The home is expected to be the last word in 
convenience and comfort for aged members 
of the union. 

American industrial production broke all 
records with less workers in 1925, announces 
the United States Census Bureau. The record 
is probably equalled or exceeded slightly in 
1926, but it is too early for complete data to 
be available. Although the total value of pro- 
duction in 1925 was greater than in any other 
year, the average number of wage earners em- 
ployed was smaller. Compared with 1923 the 
decrease was 4.4 per cent, and compared with 
1919 it was 6.7 per cent. This points to greater 
industrial efficiency, because fewer employees 
are turning out a larger total of production. 
That the increased use of machinery is respon- 
sible for this change is indicated by a consider- 
able increase in the horsepower employed. 
Automobile production in \ { )2S was first, fol- 
lowed by meat packing, steel works and rolling 
mills, petroleum, and printing and publishing. 

The company "union" of the [nterborough 
Rapid Transit Company of Greater New York 
has its troubles. Members refuse to pay dues 
and the company insists that only good-stand- 
ing members of the "union" shall be employed. 
The company refused to accept the anti-dues- 
paying decision and insisted on a referendum. 
The same verdict resulted. The street car 
men accept the company's claim that the 
"union" belongs to them. "If this i> true," the 
workers say, "why can't we vote to dispense 
with dues?" A more serious trouble, however. 
confronts the company. Employees are join- 
ing the Amalgamated Association of Street and 
Electric Railway Employes. Last summer a 
large section of the company "union" staged 
an independent strike, but were defeated. The 
company lost several million dollars. The 
strikers were reinstated after being "severely 
reprimanded." They are now quietly drifting 
into the regular organization. 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



Following the announcement made by the 
Empire Settlement Board to the effect that an 
agricultural settler can now travel from Great 
Britain t<> Winnipeg for $27, an increased 
immigration from Great Britain is expected. 

In 1926, 2S3.442 persons emigrated from 
Italy and 170.203 returned to the fatherland. 
The net emigration was therefore 113,239, or 
about one-fourth the increase in population. 
This is the lowest movement away from Italy 
since 1921, when the excess of departures <>ver 
arrivals was but 77,292. 

For the first time in history, the shepherds and 
cowherds of Russia have been placed on a trade: 
union basis. The Soviet Government has directed 
that hereafter employers must provide shepherds; 
with social insurance, free lodgings and a shorn 
working day, among other things. The ownerJ 
are forbidden to exploit the shepherds or curtail 
their wages for minor infractions. 

The bill providing old age pensions has 
passed the Senate of the Dominion of Canada 
and will become law when assented to by the 
Governor General. The measure provides forj 
a maximum pension of S240 yearly for British 
subjects who have attained the age of 70 years 
and been resident in Canada for twenty years. 
provided that the recipient of the pension is 
not in receipt of as much private income as 
$365 per year. 

It is said that an effort is about to be made 
in Germany to interest large numbers of Ger-« 
mans to immigrate to Paraguay and establish 
colonies. It is also expected that a number ofM 
Russian colonists will locate near Villa Hayes. 
The third contingent of Mennonites recently 
arrived in Paraguay : and reports from the pointj 
of their colonization state that they have found 
conditions even more satisfactory than was antic- 
ipated. 

Child labor regulation is becoming more : i 
sary in Paris because of modern traffic. Children 
pulling or pushing twa-wheeled carts are a com- 
mon sight in Paris, but the many accidents have 
aroused criticism. A law exists limiting the 
weight of a cart and its load to less than 300 
pounds when pulled by a boy up to 17 years old. 
but it has been disregarded. The speed of auto- 



26 



Aav, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



155 



mobiles has made quick stops imperative, and 
scores of children are hurt every year because 
their heavy carts sweep them into collisions. 

It is reported that a tentative agreement has 
been entered into between the Italian Commis- 
sioner General of Emigration and a representa- 
tive of the Argentine Railways whereunder the 
railway company will organize a colonization 
[company which will engage and transport 
Italian colonists to Argentina. The colonists 
will be assigned to certain tracts of land and 
will be furnished with tools, housing and food. 
[They will participate in the proceeds of their 
work and will, at the end of twenty years, by 
means of installment payments, become the 
proprietors of the land which they cultivate. 

The wage scales for the engineers and deck 
and engine crews of Norwegian vessels have 
been accepted by the parties concerned as 
fixed by the State Mediator. The proposal 
calls for a reduction from the present wages of, 
respectively, 6 and 7]/ 2 per cent. It is reported 
that shipowners regard the new tariffs as being 
very far from meeting the reduced freight 
returns caused by the increased value of the 
Norwegian krone and higher running expenses, 
especially insurance. The rates also remain 
higher than those of certain foreign compet- 
itors, particularly German, taking into consid- 
eration the rigorous overtime stipulations for 
Norwegian ships. 

Stolid women, clad in knee-length skirts of 
burlap and with pads of sacking on their heads, 
have an important part in the coaling of vessels 
in the harbor of St. Thomas. When the whistle 
of an incoming steamer screeches into the hills 
— the signal that it is putting in for coal — they 
gather at the docks and, for 2 cents a basket, haul 
coal on top of their heads from the big piles 
into the hold of the vessel. Carrying such bur- 
dens develops in many of the women an unusu- 
ally graceful poise, although it produces minor 
deformities in some of the weaker ones. Due 
to lack of a steady nourishing diet, however, the 
natives are unable to work with the vigor of the 
white man. Their low wages, therefore, do not 
result in much, if any, saving for the ship own- 
ers when compared with the higher pay given 
stronger workers. 

Women workers constitute about one-third of 
the total industrial population of Japan, this 
large proportion being due to the importance of 
the textile industry, in which they play a pre- 



ponderant part. But trade union organization of 
women is so backward that as yet there are only 
about 10,000 women trade unionists in Japan. This 
is partly because many girls only take up indus- 
trial work in order to save up some money for 
marriage ; but partly, also, on account of the dor- 
mitory or compound system. Ten thousand five 
hundred and seventy of the 25,600 textile fac- 
tories of Japan are equipped with dormitories, 
where the women are compelled to live under the 
strict supervision of the managers. Their con- 
tact with the outside world is thus greatly 
restricted, and should a strike break out they 
may be kept in these dormitories and cut off 
from communication with their fellow workers. 
The Japan General Federation of Labor has, nev- 
ertheless, been recently pushing the organization 
of women workers. Since its organization it 
has established a women's section, which has a 
publication of its own, and arranges periodical 
lectures, etc. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 
OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214. Phone Main 2233 

SAN PEDRO, Cal Ill Sixth Street 

JOE WADE, Agent 
Phone 1317J 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

Phone Elliot 3425 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

Phone 147 



MONTEREY HOOK AND LINE FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

MONTEREY, Cal 409 Alvarado Street 

J. PIETROBONO, Secretary 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Phone Elliot 6752 
Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

Phone Black 241 
KKTCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box A17 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

OAKLAND, Cal 219 Federal Telegraph Bldg. 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Lakeside 3591 



27 



156 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL May, 191 

BROADCASTING—* 

A $475,000 NOTE ISSUE 

SAFETY: 

You naturally want Safety; our NOTES are backed by FIRST MORT- 
GAGE BONDS 10% in excess of the amount of money received by this 
Company from the general public; thus making a 110% security against 
your investment. This 110% in First Mortgage Bonds to be held as 
security by one of the largest Trust Companies on behalf of the Note- 
holders; this to guard against any possible failure on the part of The 
Anchor Chain, Inc., to meet its obligation-. 

MARKETABILITY: 

No one can foretell the requirements of the future; you may want all or 
part of your money on very short notice. Our NOTES are redeemable 
on demand ; this is 100% marketability. 

SPECULATION: 

Many investments are speculative, that is, they rise or fall from the original 
cost. Our XOTES remain at PAR; they will not fluctuate in price; you 
know at all times the value of your holding and the price you can get for 
it on demand is the amount paid in, less a brokerage fee of 50 cents per 
certificate. 

INTEREST RATES: 

Interest is assured and depends upon the amount that you invest. Our 
N< )TKS are issued in the following denominations: 



; 50.00 

75.00 

100.00 

500.00 

1000.00 



Interest 4y 2 % Per Annum 

H 5 % „ 

6 % .. 

6 % .. 

6 % ,. 



A copy of the Permit issued to this Company by the State Corporation 
Department relative to the sale of the above described Notes will be mailed 
upon request. 



THE ANCHOR CHAIN, Incorporated 

1 1 Steuart Street San Francisco, Calif. 



Additional literature for the asking. Apply at our 
SAFE DEPOSIT VAULT— 7:30 a.m. to 11:30 p.m. 



28 



May, 1927 



TH 



WHY DELAY 
WHEN IN PORT 

Guaranteed service performed by spe- 
cialists where work is completed with- 
out delay, and you are assured the 
price will be reasonable — and Satisfac- 
tion Guaranteed. When in port, first 
have your teeth examined, without 
cost. 

So Convenient to Seafaring Men 

A Great Dental Organization to Serve 
You with 18 modern dental offices in 
13 ports. Dental work started in one 
Parker office may be completed in any 
office of the Parker System. 

PAINLESS PARKER DENTIST 
Using E. R. Parker's System 



Offices in the following forts 
San Diego, Fourth and Plaza j Long Beach, 
Third and Pine Sts.; San Pedro, 706 Palos 
Verdesj San Francisco, IS Stockton St., 1012 
Market St., 1802 Geary St. \ Los Angeles, 
550 So. Broadway, 104J^ W. 7th St., 432 
So. Main St. j Oakland, 1128 Broadway } 
Eureka, 210 F St.; Santa Cruz., 121 Pacific 
Ave.} Portland, Ore., cor. Washington and 
Broadway j Seattle, 206 Union St.; Tacoma, 
1 101 J4 Broadway; Bellingham, Holly and 
Commercial Sts. ; Vancouver, B. C, 101 
Hastings St. E.; Boston, Mass., 581 Wash- 
ington St. 



E SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 
INFORMATION WANTED 



157 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

No. 14 

EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 
in 

San Francisco 



Seamen employed on board the 
S. S. Englewood, at Mariner's 
Harbor, Staten Island, on October 
30, 1926, having any knowledge con- 
cerning accident to Joseph Peltz, 
A. B., who fell through a hatch, 
kindly communicate at once with the 
undersigned, attorney for Mr. Peltz, 
Frederick R. Graves, 29 Broadway, 
New York City, N. Y. 



"West Holbrook" vs. "West 
O'Rowa," case set for May 18. 
Members of the West Holbrook 
who have not yet taken steps to col- 
lect their salvage money for the 
salvage of the West O'Rowa, should 
write at once to S. T. Hogevoll, 909 
Pacific Bldg., S. F. 



Valentino Delanghe please com- 
municate with your sister, Mary De- 
langhe, Bon Huer 1156, Halfway, 
Michigan. 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 
— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Davenport 537 



Professional Cards 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



Buy Union Stamped Shoes 



We ask all members of organized labor to 
purchase shoes bearing our Union Stamp on 
the sole, inner-sole or lining of the shoe. We 
ask you not to buy any shoes unless you 
actually see this Union Stamp. 



Boot & Shoe Workers' Union 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 

246 Summer Street, Boston, Mass. 

COLLIS LOVELY CHARLES L. BAINE 
General President General Secretary-Treasurer 



29 




Attorney for the Sailors* Union •( 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 

531 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Marke* 

Streets, San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney For 
Marine Firemen and Waterter.Uors' 

Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers* Association No. 49 
10 Embarcadero Tel. Davenport 3134 
676 Mills Bldg. Tel. Douglas 1058 
San Francisco, California 



Telephone Garfield 306 

Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

(Heidelberg & Murasky) 

Flood Building, San Francisco 



S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damage*. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 




158 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1' 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

*tore No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2— Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Go. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Crematory and Columbarium In 
Connection 



Sroadway at Olive St. 



Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 



Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

715 First Avenue 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



And, Oh, the Upkeep 

Dumb — "My girl is a bungalow 
girl." 

Belle — "Never heard of that. \\ hat 
do you mean?" 

Dumb — "That's simple. Shingled 
in back, painted in front, has no 
attic." 



M. BROWN & SONS 

8AN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



TAXI 



CALL GASPEE 5000 
Red Tod Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 

67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. 



Bill's Smoke Shop 

Right alongside the Sailors' Union 
Hall 



Complete Line of Smokes 
371 Richmond St., Providence, R. I. 



Matty's Union Barber 
Shop 

Special Attention to Seafaring Men 
95 Point St. Providence, R. I. 



Eastern Restaurant 

Corner Point and Eddy 
HOME COOKED MEALS 

The Best Cup of Coffee in the Port 

One block from Union Hall 
Corner Point and Eddy Streets 



"I'll be good for a nickel, Ma." 
"For shame, why aren't you like 
your father, good for nothing." 



TACOMA, WASH. 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



GEO. LONEY, President 
H. O. HAUGEN, Sec.-Treas. 

HAUGEN & LONEY 
TAILORS 

High Grade Custom Tailoring 

942 Pacific Avenue 

PHONE MAIN 8000 

Tacoma, Wash. 



SMOKE 

SAN TEX CIGARS 

Union Made 

San Tex Cigar Co. 937 Tacoma Ave, 
Tacoma, Wash. 

30 



Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Notice to Members of Crew S.S. 
"Nervier" 



Will any member on deck this 
steamer at Turner Terminals, Mo* 
bile, Feb. 15, 1925, who was witness 
to serious injury to Peter Hjeds, 
Danish seaman, please communicate 
with his attorney, Alex. T. Howard, 
Mobile? Please give facts and cause' 
of injury and your own address, 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 

Kearny 3863 San Francisco 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



A FULL STOCK OF 
UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES. COLLARS. SUSPENDERS. 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 
321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Phlrts, 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 So. F Street, ABERDEEN, Waih. 

on the Water Front 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

Made-to-Measure Clothing 

Heron and F Sts., Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Europe 

NOTARY PUULH' 



Phone 263 

NIELS JOHNSON 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



Pay, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



1 59 



Savings 



PIONEERS IN MODERN LABOR BANKING 



Thrift 




WmMf*&rs«& WkB&wM wmk 



Commercial 



of San Francisco 

MEMBER OF FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 

Brotherhood Bank Building 

26 O'Farrell Street 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 



Exchange 



Old Farmer Tightmoney wasn't 
exactly stingy, but mighty economi- 
cal. One day he fell into the cistern. 
The water was over his head and 
cold, but he could swim. His wife, 
attracted by his cries, yelled excited- 
ly down to him: "I'll ring the dinner 
hell so the boys will come and pull 
you out." "What time is it?" the 
tanner called up. "'Bout 11 o'clock." 
"No, dang it, let 'em work on till 
dinner time. I'll just swim around 
till they come." 



H. SAMUEL 



THI 



OLD UNION STORI 
Established 1874 



Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES 

One Minute from Ferry Building 

The 

ANCHOR CHAIN 

SAFE DEPOSIT CO. 

11 Steuart Street 
San Francisco, California 



RELIABLE TAILOR 

Popular Prices 

TOM WILLIAMS 

48 CALIFORNIA ST., near Davis 

Phone Douglas 4874 

San Francisco 



Phone Davenport 505 With Morgen's 

BEN HARRIS 

Formerly of 218 East Street 

125 MARKET STREET 

Bet. Spear and Main Streets 

WORK AND DRESS CLOTHES 
SHOES, HATS, CAPS 



BOSS™ TAILOR 

NOW AT 

1048 MARKET STREET 

Five Doors Below Granada Theater 

We Use the Only Label Recognized by The American Federation of 
Labor. Accept no Other. 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

at Popular Prices 




ty|i|| All Work Doni 
M£>| Under Strictly Union 
0O$^Q\\\ Condition! 



You May Remember My Name, But Sure Would Like to Have You 
Remember the Number 

1048 MARKET STREET 



The Humble Pocketknife 

According to the American Cutler, 
there are no less than 30,000,000 
pocketknives in use in the United 
States. Every year more than 15,- 
000,000 new knives worth $10,000,- 
000 are produced. These knives 



Telephone Garfield 694 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre- War Prices 
Quick Service 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 
San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

88 Third Street, at Mission 




KODAKS and CAMERAS 

Exchanged, Bought, Sold, 

Repaired and Rented 

Developing and Printing 

31 



require 2,500,000 pounds of fine 
steel, much of which has to be im- 
ported. Thirty-five large manufac- 
turing firms as well as numerous 
small ones, are engaged in turning 
out pocketknives for American men 
and boys. 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

Personal Management of 

JACOB PETERSEN 

Proprietor 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH 

HOUSE 

7 Market St. and 17 Steuart St. 

San Francisco 



GEO. A. PRICE 

— SAYS — 
Our success is due to the fact that 
our merchandise is superior and our 
prices are right. Boss of the Road 
and Can't Bust 'Em Union-made 
products are sold with money's worth 
or a money back guarantee. 

First-Class Seamen's Outfitters 
19 The Embarcadero 
San Francisco, Calif. 



160 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May, 1927 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
[any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
l the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studi' 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kiinln d 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




White Palace Shoe Store 



34 MARKET STREET,o PP s p 
JOE WEISS, Prop. 

Phone DAVENPORT 7S95 

Large stock of men's Nunn, Bush and 

Crossett shoes. Repair work done neatly 

while you wait. 

COME AND GIVE US A TRIAL 

Branch Store at 41 Fourth Street 

Near Market Street 



Bldg., SAN FRANCISCO 





BETTER DENTISTRY 
Better Health 

DR. C. S. FORD 

DENTIST 
702 MARKET STREET 

At Market — Geary — Kearny Streets 

Sutter 2860 

Daily Office Hwurs: 8:30 a. m. — 8 p. m. 

Sunday Hours — 9 a. m. till noon 

"One Patient Tells Another" 



Established 1896 




James Jt. Sorensen 

fret and Jreas 



Diamond Engagement Rings 

Select them from our large stock in attractive 
Platinum and White Gold Mountings that com- 
bines Quality with Low Prices. 

Diamonds - Watches - Jewelry 
Clocks &l Silverware 

715 Market St., between 3rd and 4th Sts. 
JEWELERS & OPTICIANS 

All Watch Repairing Guaranteed 

A GOOD ALARM CLOCK FOR 85c NOW 



HALE BROS. 

INC. 

Cowhide 

TRAVELING 

BAGS 

$ 15.00 

Sturdy Traveling Bags made 
of genuine cowhide. All have 
hand-sewed frames and extra 
corners. 

Show n in 1) o t h single and 
double handle types. 

Shades of tan. brown or black, 

These well made bags will 
give years of service. 

— Fourth Floor 

Fifth and Market 
SAN FRANCISCO 



UNION LABEL 

WORSTED $QO 
SUITS OI7 

Unconditionally Guaranteed to 
Wear and Wear and Wear 
See Them In Our Windows 




852-868 MARKET ST. 
SAW rRANCISCO 

Opposite The Emporium 



Like the Oak 

Your savings account may be 
small now and growing slowly. 
But like the oak it will grow 
much faster after it gets a good 
start. Our "Ambition Bond" will 
help it along. Ask for a copy. 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

Savings — Commercial — Trust 

783 Market Street, near Fourth 

San Francisco, Calif. 



32 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

^f flf C3lllllllllf f IC3tIllII11lf <IC3 f;ilII3TIlllC3lllIIflllIIIC3Ill I ■ 1 f ■ 1 1 1 1 C 3 1 * 1 1 1 1 1 ■ ■ » 1 1 C2 1 1 f I ■ I IllfllCSIIfl lltlltiir-S li3TPtffIC2IJJIIIj;ilirC^lllirilIIfMC:3tIItl3M]riIC3IIIIIilS!IEtC311irtMtfMlC3ltlllllfIII3C3*lIllll lltl<r^311lf IllltlllC^fl 



1 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



\ 



Contents 

Page 

RIGHT TO STRIKE CURTAILED 163 

REGULATIONS FOR SEAMEN'S ENTRY 165 

UNCLE SAM'S TOBACCO TREASURY 165 

EDITORIALS: 

FLYING ACROSS THE ATLANTIC 166 

ANOTHER DOLLAR MUTINY 167 

PROPERTY RIGHTS! 167 

THE LAWYERS' UNION 167 

THE ARBITRATION BUBBLE _.168 

HUNTING ICEBERGS 169 

PALATIAL INLAND STEAMSHIPS 170 

LABOR INJUNCTION TRACED TO DAYS OF ANCIENT ROME 171 

SAILORS' SNUG HARBOR 172 

THE "YELLOW DOG" CONTRACT 173 

THE UNION LABOR BROADCASTING STATION 174 

AN AUTOMOBILE OF THE OCEAN 174 

LONGSHOREMEN'S COMPENSATION, FROM THE LEGAL VIEWPOINT. ...176 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 178 

BOOK REVIEWS - 179 

THE NICARAGUA CANAL 180 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 181, 182, 183, 184 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 185, 186, 187 



VOL. XLI, No. 6 
WHOLE No. 1961 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
JUNE 1, 1927 



! uniiiiiii uiiiMiiuiiiuiiiiuiiiiioiiiiiitiitoiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiiinuiiiin uniiiiiiiiiiuiiiimoi iiuii unci uiiitiiiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiiiiini iiiioiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiininiiK? 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 
359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS* ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass PERCY J. PRYOR. Secretary 

D/& Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 1258. 
Branches: 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Dexter 8090. 

NEW YORK. N. Y CHRIS RASMUSSEN. Agent 

67-69 Front Street. Phone Bowling Green 0524 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

216 S. Second Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE, Md M. A. SCHUCH, Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phono Wolfe 5010. 

NORFOLK. Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 2«W<? Norfolk. 

MOBILE. Ala WM. ROSS, Agent 

06% Government Street. Phone Bell 1796 

NEW ORLEANS. La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Jackson 5557 

GALVESTON. Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street, Phone 2215 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex 

131 Proctor Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTEN 
UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 
Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON, Mass TONY ASTE, 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, 

375 Richmond Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa OTTO A. OLSSON, 

216 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, 

735 So. Broadway 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YTJRASH, 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex 

222 Proctor St. 

MOBILE, Ala WM. ROSS, 

66% Government Street Phone Bell 17'."; 



DERS' 

Street 

Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 

Agent 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 
Branches: 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch) JAS. ALLEN, Agent 

Phone Cortlandt 1979 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE. Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS. La CHAS THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

MOBILE, Ala WM. ROSS, Agent 

66^ Government Street. Phone Bell 1796 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex 

131 Proctor Street. 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

288 State Street. Phone Richmond 0827. 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass THOMAS COVE, Agent 

209 Main Street. Phone Gloucester 1045. 

NEW YORK. N Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton Street. Phone John 4539. 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR EM- 
PLOYES UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 

NEW ORLEANS, La S. C. OATS. Secretary 

910 N. Dorgenois S treet. P hone Galvez 6210-J 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 359 North Wells Street 

VICTOR A. OLANDER. Secretary 
Phone Superior 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue. W. Phone Main IS 12. 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING. Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich GEORGE HANSEN. Agent 

652 Jefferson Ave. W., Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS* UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, Ohio PATRICK ADAMS, Ag«lJ 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis ERNEST ELLIS, AgeiJ 

1G2 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT. Mich WM. EDGBWORTH. 

652 Jefferson Avenue, W. Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 CHARLES GUSTAFSON, Aged 

North Wells Street Phone State 5175 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. SECORD, Secr< tail 

35 West Eagle Street. Telephone Seneca 0896 
Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 25 W. Kinzie Street 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis., 162 Reed St., Phone Broadway 48» 

DETROIT, Mich 

652 Jefferson Avenue, W. Phone Randolph 0044 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSBN, Agent 

2207 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash MARTIN OLSEN, Agent 

310 So. G Street 
P. O. Box 280, Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, ORE JOHN M. MOORE, Agent 

242 Flanders Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 So. Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68, Telephone 1713W 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal PATRICK FLYNN, Seen tan 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 3699 
Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVE ROBERTS, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Elliot 1188 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM SHERIDAN, Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574. Phone 336 
(Continued on page 1'TJ 



June, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



163 



RIGHT TO STRIKE CURTAILED 



(By Victor A. Olander) 



The right of trade union members to assist 
each other by withholding their personal serv- 
ices from private employers for the purpose of 
maintaining proper standards of work and wages 
is denied by the Supreme Court of the United 
States in its recent decision against the Jour- 
neymen Stone Cutters' Association, if the 
agreement of the workers to withhold their 
services relates to interstate trade. The mem- 
bers of the union involved in the decision had 
declined to work on stone produced in one 
state and shipped into various other states by 
firms and corporations which had refused to 
employe union stone cutters. 

"That the organizations, in general purpose 
and in and of themselves were lawful," said 
the court, "and that the ultimate result aimed 
at may not have been illegal in itself, are be- 
side the point. When the means adopted are 
unlawful, the innocent general character of the 
organizations adopting them or the lawfulness 
of the ultimate end sought to be obtained, can- 
not serve as a justification." 

The "means adopted" which the court de- 
clares to be unlawful under the Anti-Trust 
Law, consisted merely of quitting work. In a 
dissenting opinion Justice Brandeis said: 
"They were innocent alike of trespass and of 
breach of contract. They did not picket. They 
refrained from violence, intimidation, fraud 
and threats. They refrained from obstructing 
otherwise either the plaintiffs or their custom- 
ers in attempts to secure other help. They did 
not plan a boycott against any of the plain- 
tiffs or against the builders who used plain- 
tiffs' product. On the contrary, they ex- 
pressed entire willingness to cut and finish 
anywhere any stone quarried by any of the 
plaintiffs except such stone as had been par- 
tially 'cut by men working in opposition to' 
the Association." 

The majority opinion of the court, however, 
reiterated a declaration made by the court in 
the Danbury hatters' case several years ago, 
"that the Anti-Trust Act had a broader appli- 
cation than the prohibition of restraints of 
trade unlawful at common law, and that its 
effect was to declare illegal 'every contract, 



combination or conspiracy, in whatever form, 
of whatever nature, and whoever may be the 
parties to it, which directly or necessarily 
operates in restraint of trade or commerce 
among the several states.' " 

Justice Brandeis reminded the court that 
capitalists have been permitted by its decisions 
to form great combinations which vitally affect 
interstate commerce. In this connection he 
said in his dissenting opinion: "The Sherman 
Law was held in United States vs. United 
States Steel Corporation, to permit capitalists 
to combine in a single corporation 50 per cent 
of the steel industry of the United States, dom- 
inating the trade through its vast resources. 
The Sherman Law was held in United States 
vs. United Shoe Machinery Company, to per- 
mit capitalists to combine in another corpora- 
tion practically the whole shoe machinery 
industry of the country, necessarily giving it 
a position of dominance over shoe manufactur- 
ing in America. It would, indeed, be strange 
if Congress had by the same Act willed to 
deny to members of a small craft of working- 
men the right to co-operate in simply refrain- 
ing from work, when that course was the only 
means of self-protection against a combination 
of militant and powerful employers. I cannot 
believe that Congress did so." 

The decisions favoring the organization 
rights of capital are apparently ignored by the 
majority opinion in which the court says : 
"Whatever may be said of the motive of the 
respondents or their general right to combine 
for the purpose of redressing alleged griev- 
ances of their fellow craftsmen or of protecting 
themselves or their organizations, the present 
combination deliberately adopted a course of 
conduct which directly and substantially cur- 
tailed or threatened thus to curtail the natural 
flow of interstate commerce of a very large 
proportion of the building limestone produc- 
tion of the entire country, to the gravely prob- 
able disadvantage of producers, purchasers 
and the public; and it must be held to be a 
combination in undue and unreasonable re- 
straint of such commerce within the meaning 



164 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June. 1927 



of the Anti-Trust Act as interpreted by this 
court." 

Pointing- out the powerful and advanta- 
geous position of the plaintiff employers. Jus- 
tice Brandeis said: "The plaintiffs are not 
weak employers opposed by a mighty union. 
They have large financial resources. Together 
they ship 70 per cent of all the cut stone in 
the country. They are not isolated concerns. 
They had combined a local employers' organ- 
ization, and their organization is affiliated with 
the national employers' organization, called 
'International Cut Stone & Quarrymen's Asso- 
ciation.' Standing alone, each of the 150 jour- 
neymen's locals is weak. The average number 
of members in a local union is only 33. The 
locals are widely scattered throughout the 
country. Strong employers could destroy a 
local 'by importing scabs' from other cities. 
And many of the builders by whom the stone 
cutters were employed in different cities are 
strong. It is only through combining the 5000 
organized stone cutters in a national union, 
and developing loyalty to it, that the individual 
-tone cutter anywhere can protect his own job." 

Justice Brandeis suggested that the reason- 
ing of the majority leads toward a form of 
servitude incompatible with the Constitution, 
when he said : "If, on the undisputed facts of 
this case, refusal to work can be enjoined, Con- 
gress created by the Sherman Law and the 
Clayton Act an instrument for imposing re- 
straints upon labor which reminds of involun- 
tary servitude." If "a course of conduct" en- 
gaged in by a trade union "which directly and 
substantially curtailed, or threatened to thus 
curtail'' the natural flow in interstate commerce 
"of a given product" is unlawful under the 
Anti-Trust Act simply because such conduct 
"operates in restraint of trade and commerce 
among the several states," without regard to 
the "ultimate result aimed at," how is it possi- 
ble for workers in interstate commerce to 
legally quit work by agreement? Almost any 
sort of strike on a railroad interferes with "the 
natural flow in interstate commerce." That 
is true also of steamship lines. Are we near- 
ing the point where the law is to be so inter- 
preted that workers — by decisions preventing 
them from acting in combination for purposes 
of mutual aid — are to be held almost the serfs 
of great corporations whose existence is 
authorized by the very court which denies an 



equal degree of organization among the 
workers? 

If the Supreme Court will apply to all cor- 
porations the same reasoning which it has 
applied to combinations of labor, practically 
every corporation engaged in interstate busi- 
ness for pecuniary profit would probably bef 
declared illegal. It is extremely doubtful if 
any would survive. 

While the decisions of the court over a 
period of years in the interpretation of the 
Anti-Trust Law have favored the existence of 
large corporations, such as those referred to in 
the dissenting opinion of Justice Brandeis, and 
have denied the right of a similar degree o§ 
organization to voluntary associations of labor, 
it is well to remember that, however great 
may be the faults of the court, the basic trou- 
ble is in the Sherman Anti-Trust Act itself, 
that is, in the Act of Congress. That statute, 
which the court must follow, prohibits agree- 
ments and combinations in restraint of trade in 
language far too broad and sweeping. The 
exemptions accorded to labor and farmers in 
the so-called labor sections of the Clayton Act 
are plainly insufficient. Any effective remedy 
must include not only a proper limitation of 
the injunction power of the courts — a limita- 
tion of the equity jurisdiction — but there must 
also be substantial amendments to the anti- 
trust statutes. 



UNIONS THE FOE OF POVERTY 



It has been said that "Poverty can either 
make or break a man. Riches can either make 
or break a man." We say that any people 
steeped in extreme poverty never get any- 
where. The great mass of the people existing 
in the dim and misty past lived in extreme 
poverty. A w r 6rth-while idea was hatched, in 
those days, about once in a hundred years. 
Very few people born and held in extreme pov- 
erty ever advanced to great heights of achieve- 
ment. There may be some exceptions to this, 
but if so they are the exception and not the 
rule. Poverty breeds discouragement. Riches 
inspire ambition for more and more. Prosper- 
ity never hurt anyone who was or is worth 
saving, and it isn't hard to take. One Mire 
way to gain and hold prosperity and a com- 
fortable living is through and by the aid of our . 
unions. Join the union, stay in it. The latch 
string of the union 1s always on the outside. 



June, 1927 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 165 

RULES FOR SEAMEN'S ENTRY UNCLE SAM'S TOBACCO TREASURY 



Documents Required of Those Arriving As 
Passengers in United States 
President Coolidge has just issued an execu- 
tive order requiring documents from bona fide 
alien seamen entering the United States as 
passengers. The order prescribes regulations 
governing entries of such seamen, including 
crews of vessels sold and delivered abroad, in- 
dividual seamen returned in accordance with 
terms of articles of their outward voyage, 
those shipwrecked and other classes. 

The full text of the executive order follows : 
By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Act 
of Congress approved May 22, 1918, as extended by 
the Act of Congress of March 2, 1921, I hereby pre- 
scribe the following regulations governing the entry 
of seamen as passengers: 

Temporary Admission Granted 

(I) Alien seamen whose occupational status as such 
is found to be bona fide entering the ports of the 
United States solely in the pursuit of their calling as 
seamen may be admitted temporarily in the discretion 
of the Secretary of Labor and under regulations pre- 
scribed by him without passports or visas if arriving 
in the United States under the following circum- 
stances: 

1. As seamen who were members of the crew of 
an American vessel, which has been sold and deliv- 
ered abroad, when the contract of employment pro- 
vides for the return of the crew or the laws of the 
United States provide for their return to an American 
port; 

2. As individual seamen returned to the United 
States in accordance with the terms of the articles of 
the outward voyage; 

3. As shipwrecked or castaway seamen rescued 
by or transferred to a vessel bound to an American 
port; 

4. As alien (American) seamen who are consular 
passengers, or are repatriated without expense to the 
United States Government following and in accord- 
ance with the terms of their discharge in a foreign 
port before an American consular officer, but who, 
for any reason, cannot be considered as serving as 
seamen on the vessel on which they arrive at an 
American port. 

(II) If such alien seamen arrive at a port in the 
United States as members of a crew sent forward by 
the owners to take delivery of a vessel in such port 
and for the purpose of navigating such vessel to its 
foreign home port, they may present a group transit 
certificate issued by a consular officer in accordance 
with Section 3 (3) of the Immigration Act of 1924 
under such regulations as the Secretary of State and 
the Secretary of Labor may prescribe. 

CALVIN COOLIDGE. 
The White House, May 13, 1927. 



Andorra, a republic in the Pyrenees between 
France and Spain, has no army, no taxation, no 
motor cars and no roads. 



So long as there is social injustice and we 
do not put an end to it, we are sure to think 
wrongly about things. — Clutton Brock. 



From the many sources of revenue from 
which Uncle Sam pays his expenses, few know 
that tobacco is the second largest of all his 
methods of income. From the recent annual 
report of the income of the United States, it is 
learned that $344,000,000 was paid into the 
Treasury during 1925, as a result of the tax 
on tobacco. The fiscal year ending June 30, 
1926, shows a still larger income, as it totaled 
$399,999,999. Tobacco comes under the classi- 
fication of a luxury, which makes the tax 
higher. 

And now comes the bad news to the anti- 
cigarette crusaders when it is learned that of 
this amount paid the largest portion came as 
the tax on cigarettes. There were 88,000,000,- 
000 used in this country last year, which shows 
the popularity of this little smoke. For the 
past six years the annual consumption has 
been on the increase. 

A statistician has figured that on the current 
basis of population, every inhabitant last year 
smoked 700 cigarettes, 55 cigars, consumed 3.5 
pounds of chewing and smoking tobacco, and 
paid into the Treasury as tobacco taxes, $2.90 
each. The $171,000,000 worth exported to for- 
eign countries is not included in this compu- 
tation. 

Tobacco consumption in this country has 
grown phenomenally since the Civil War — 
almost 50 per cent during the past fifteen 
years, remarks the Macomb,. 111., Journal. 
Prior to the Civil War it was only four pounds 
to a person. Thirty years ago the consump- 
tion of cigarettes was only 4,000,000,000 as 
compared with our present 88,000,000,000. 
Cigars have not kept pace with other forms of 
tobacco, in fact, showing a slight decrease from 
the figures before the World War. Last year 
6,500,000,000 cigars were smoked in the United 
States. 



WHO WON THE WAR? 



Though the German taxpayer will pay about 
twice what he proportionately paid in taxes 
just prior to the war, his taxes are even now 
slightly less than those of Englishmen, who 
take a rueful pleasure in the boast: "Britons 
pay the heaviest taxes in the world." 



166 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1927 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK PLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

THOMAS CONWAY, Second Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Third Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fourth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
OSCAR CARLSON, Fifth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 
PATRICK O'BRIEN, Sixth Vice-President 

55 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

PETER E. OLSEN, Seventh Vice-President 

49 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURNAL 
is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 



^p£>® 



TUNE 1, 1927 



FLYING ACROSS THE ATLANTIC 



For sheer audacity and nerve the dash of 
Captain Charles A. Lindbergh from New York 
to Paris by airplane sets a new high mark for 
American daring and accomplishment. It ranks 
with the best traditions of the American air serv- 
ice and places this country in the lead of aviation 
achievement. 

Usually the most elaborate preparations are 
made for a feat such as Lindbergh's. About the 
only preparation Lindbergh made was to have a 
plane constructed which he used to school him- 
self in remaining awake for long periods. 

Without any more field equipment than a com- 
pass, five sandwiches and a flask of water, he 
''hopped off," and while death hung onto the tail 
of his airplane at the outset, he shook off the 
dark shadow and flew his plane 3600 miles across 
the ocean tp Paris in a little over thirty-three 
hours. 

A Yhile the whole world was seeking to solve 



the riddle of the disappearance of Captain Nunl 
gesser and Ala j or Coli, the French airmen who 
set out to cross from Paris to New York, and. 
who have not been heard of since they were last 
sighted over Ireland, this 25-year-old American, 
stowed some lunch in his pocket and braved the 
perils of the upper airways and succeeded where 
the Frenchmen probably lost their lives. 

Lindbergh realized that if he was to sm 
fully make the trans-Atlantic hop he would have 
to keep awake. He trained himself to do this, 
lie also knew that he would have to remain a 
the air for at least thirty-six hours. To prepare 
himself for that nerve-racking experience he flewl 
the plane designed for the big feat from San 
Diego to St. Louis and thence to New York, 
making the distance in two hops, with very little 
time for rest in between. 

The very nonchalance with which he appar- 
ently approached his problem has led to the 
ing that the flight was made on the spur of the 
moment, but it was not. It was done deliber- 
ately, but without the elaboration of detail that 
has surrounded other similar feats. One thing 
in Lindberg's favor was his experience flying with 
mail. He had been a successful mail aviator in 
the service of a contract carrier. He knew every 
vagary of the air currents and was able to gauge 
the probabilities of the weather; and he guessel 
right, although he did run into one heavy dis-j 
turbance. 

Experience in flying in all sorts of weather and 
bringing the mail through on schedule time aided 
him in his achievement, for he knew just what to 
prepare for. He handicapped himself with nei- 
ther assistants nor excess bag-age ; and he saw 
to it that his plane was "fit" and could carry a 
sufficient amount of "gas" to get him to Europe. 

This achievement is but another exemplifica- 
tion of the sporting adage, "Youth will be served.'^ 
Lindbergh is young, being just past 25. He 
has all of the confidence of youth, with the ability 
of experience in a hazardous calling ; and he had 
the courage to undertake what older men might 
have hesitated to attempt. These are the charac- 
teristics of the young American who has suc- 
ceeded where others have failed. Youth, plus 
courage, experience, determination and prepara- 
tion of himself for the ordeal are what brought 
Lindbergh through in safety and enabled him to 
place the laurel of America upon the highest peak. 
thus far reached in aviation. 



June. 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



167 



ANOTHER DOLLAR MUTINY 



Associated Press dispatches from San Pedro, 
Cal., announced another bloody battle between 
the Chinese crew and the white officers of the 
Dollar liner President Wilson. Although it is 
khe established policy of the Dollar Company to 
kondone and minimize any and all mutineering 
Iby Chinese crews, it appears that at least two of 
the officers and seven of the Chinese required 
the attention of the ship's surgeon when the 
battle was over. As usual, the executive officers 
k>f the Dollar Company at San Francisco denied 
that there had been trouble of any consequence 
on the President Wilson. It could not be denied, 
though, that several of the white officers quit 
their jobs rather than take further chances with 
khe favorites of Mr. Dollar. The instructions to 
officer of the Dollar liners, it is said, are quite 
explicit on this subject. American licensed offi- 
cers who cannot get along with Dollar's Chinese, 
no matter how rebellious the latter may be, are 
invited to resign. Dollar's Chinese pets are 
always in the right! That is rule No. 1. But 
what a different story when white seamen are 
employed! On the slightest provocation old man 
Dollar expresses his violent disapproval of white 
seamen. If one of his white seamen ever shows 
evidence of having taken more than one drink 
of hootch Mr. Dollar raves about the La Fol- 
lette Seamen's Act and launches a vitriolic at- 
tack upon the Seamen's Union and American 
seamen in general ! 



PROPERTY RIGHTS! 



President Coolidge has declared that Amer- 
ican property rights in Mexico cannot be 
arbitrated. 

There is a remarkable resemblance between 
these so-called property rights and claim for 
property damages. 

The possibility that a detailed accounting 
of the claims of American citizens for property 
damages in Mexico may result in a consider- 
able scaling down of the amounts due from the 
Mexican government has often been sug- 
gested. 

In 1868, the United States presented claims 
against Mexico for $470,126,613.40, and was 
awarded $4,125,-622.20, or less than 1 per cent. 



In 1871 Great Britain presented claims against 
the United States for damages incurred dur- 
ing the Civil War, of $96,000,000, and was 
awarded $1,929,819, or about 2 per cent. The 
United States, in the same connection, pre- 
sented clamis for $1,000,000 and was awarded 
nothing. 

Spain, before another commission, presented 
claims amounting to $30,313,581.32, on which 
she was awarded $1, 293,450, or about 4 per 
cent. 

The French government in one case brought 
claims against the United States for $17,368,- 
151.27, and was awarded $625,566.35, or 36 
hundredths of 1 per cent, while the United 
States, in a claim for $2,747,544 against France. 
received $13,659.14, only 56 hundredths of 1 
per cent. 

Mr. Coolidge seems to think, however, that 
all property claims of American capitalists in 
Mexico and other Latin-American countries 
are sacred and inviolate. Mr. Coolidge deems 
it his duty to defend and protect the "rights" 
even if we have to use the last marine to do it! 



THE LAWYER'S UNION 



California has a new law, known as the 
"self-governing bar" act. This measure forces 
all the lawyers of the state into a union, it pro- 
vides that none but members of the lawyers' 
union can practice the trade, and places the 
control of the trade in the hands of the union. 
A few years ago, the lawyers" of California 
were very much disturbed by the fact that the 
bankers were scabbing on them. Said bankers, 
with that generosity which distinguishes them, 
were giving free advice on legal matters. The 
lawyers took this jurisdictional dispute to the 
Legislature and got a law restricting the giv- 
ing of legal advice to their own trade. The 
bankers appealed to the people, and the mea- 
sure was defeated by referendum. The law- 
yers learned that the only way to protect their 
trade was to establish a closed shop, and so 
they went into the Legislature and got then- 
closed shop without any outside interference. 

Tailors, sailors and other union men insist 
that they have a right to organize. Moreover, 
they believe that they have a right to a so- 
called closed shop, if they can get it. But no 
union man has ever vet asked for a law i 



168 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 192J 



lishing the closed shop for his union. That 
would be "un-American," unconstitutional, etc. 

The lawyers are not disturbed by such nice 
principles. They have the common sense to 
see that the best way to protect a trade is to 
organize it, and the best way to protect the 
organization is to get a closed shop, and so 
they go about getting it. The very lawyers 
who have been loudest in demanding this "self- 
governing bar" are the ones who have also 
been most active in denouncing the "illegal and 
un-American" tactics of the labor unions. It 
all depends on your point of view. The closed 
shop is all right in your trade, but all wrong 
in the other fellows. 

We don't like to say it, but we are wonder- 
ing how long it will be before sailors, tailors 
and candlestick makers will show as much 
energy in protecting their own interests as the 
lawyers have shown. We are willing to bet a 
thin dime that the lawyers of the San Francisco 
Industrial Association are strong for the "self- 
governing bar" bill, yet they have been de- 
nouncing the San Francisco unions who are 
struggling for the right of collective bargain- 
ing. 

What would be the attitude of the "closed 
shop" lawyers' union, if organized labor asked 
the Legislature to force all state employes to 
join the union? 



THE SOVIET MERCHANT MARINE 



The much discussed question of what stew- 
ards' tips should be has been decided by the 
Comptroller General of the United States, who 
has ruled that stewards rendering daily service 
may receive not more than $5 each for a trans- 
Atlantic trip, but the total of all tips should not 
exceed 10 per cent of the cost of passage. All 
that can be said about the Comptroller's decision 
is that the stewards of ocean liners would be 
extremely well pleased if they received collec- 
tively 10 per cent of the gross fares paid by the 
passengers. A New York contemporary refers 
to the sad fact that instances have been known 
of passengers paying $1500 for a double room 
and bath and handing their bedroom steward 
$2 at the end of the trip. 



A specially appointed commission of inquiry 
lias just reported on the results of its infec- 
tion into the working of the services of the 
Soviet State Mercantile Marine, generally 
known as the Sovtorgflot. According to the 
Pravda, official organ of the Soviet, inquiry 
has shown that the administration of the 
Sovtorgflot is overloaded with an excessively 
large personnel, and that the expenses are out 
of all proportion to the work done. The cen- 
tral administration alone costs 500,000 rubles 
per annum. The Sovtorgflot has been ver\ 
ligent in the matter of getting rid of old ships, 
so that out of the 422 vessels comprising the 
fleet, a little more than one-half are suitable 
for navigation and many of these are in need 
of repairs. The remedy is said to be the 
immediate junking of old tonnage, severe re- 
duction in the personnel and placing the man- 
agement in the hands of a single responsible 
director. 



The condition upon which God hath given 
liberty to man is eternal vigilance. — John 
Philpot Curran, speech July 10, 1790. 



THE ARBITRATION BUBBLE 

If the latest reports from the front in Nicaragua 
and Mexico and the Philippines may be believed, 
the Pan-American Union, alias the American 
League of Nations, certainly has made a lament- 
ably ineffective record in preventing imperialism 
and securing international justice for the Latin- 
American countries of the Union. 

A union presupposes common interests and 
arbitration of controversial subjects, not business 
expediency and profitable development of unde- 
veloped resources. This union, however, seems 
to stand for something quite different. Housed 
in a beautiful building at Washington, erected 
chiefly through the bounty of our foremost steel 
magnate, the Union states that it "confines its 
activities to the development of safe cultural, 
commercial and financial relations between the 
twenty-one American republics" — whatever that 
may mean. 

Organized in 1890 with the Secretary of State 
as the chief member of the Governing Board, it 
has already witnessed, without a murmur, the 
interference by the United States in the political 
affairs of seven of its members, although twenty 
of them would have liked to intervene! The 
Union's mail goes out under our government 



8 



June, 1927 



THE SEAMEN 



frank, and it naively states that "it is not within 
the province of the Union to make any repre- 
sentation to the individual government, relative to 
their political policy" — (shades of Secretary 
Kellogg and his Nicaraguan President!) We 
wonder what its purpose really can be, since it 
took no action even when 12,000,000 people called 
upon us unanimously to let them express their 
desire for freedom by popular vote. They sat 
supinely by and let President Coolidge veto their 
request, giving as some of his reasons : "The 
plebiscite might create friction and disturb busi- 
ness" ; "Independence is an intangible ideal 
which has often brought disillusionment and dis- 
aster in its train — history is filled with the failures 
of popular government." This surely sounds not 
unlike King George the Third, and the conti- 
nental Congress ! 

Prof. William R. Shepherd, in a recent issue 
of "The New Republic," makes the following 
statements, which probably are not unfamiliar to 
the members of the Pan-American Union, though 
they do not as yet seem to be a safe and con- 
genial topic for frank and open discussion around 
their council table : 

"In about thirty years we have created two new 
republics — Cuba and Panama; converted both of them 
and three other Latin-American countries — the Do- 
minican Republic, Nicaragua and Haiti — into virtual 
protectorates; intervened by force at least thirty times 
in the internal affairs of nine supposedly sovereign 
and independent nations; made the period of interven- 
tion last anywhere from a few days to a dozen years; 
enlarged our investments from a paltry two or three 
hundred millions of dollars to upwards of three bil- 
lions. We have annexed Porto Rico and the Virgin 
Islands, built a canal, secured an option to construct 
another and gathered in several naval stations." 

If we have a union for the purpose of com- 
ing together and understanding one another's 
problems, why hide behind the cloak of "cultural 
relations," and follow the parable of the talent, 
which politely advocates usury Why criticize 
the league of forty-eight nations and belittle its 
sincerity, when we cannot even be frank with 
one another and have an honest-to-goodness 
league of our own, with only twenty-one homo- 
geneous republics in it? If we really believe in 
"arbitration," we've got to put some real mean- 
ing into the word, or stand corrected as base 
hypocrites ! 



S JOURNAL 

HUNTING ICEBERGS 



169 



This that they call the Organization of 
Labor is the universal vital problem of the 
world. It is the problem of the whole future 
for all who will in future pretend to govern 
men. — Carlyle. 



Early last month two Coast Guard cutters, 
the Tampa and the Modoc, sailed north to play 
"I spy" with icebergs. They are to patrol 
steamship lanes, chart location of icebergs, 
figure the speed and direction of iceberg drift, 
and issue warning to Atlantic liners. Though 
equipped with mines designed to blow icebergs 
to pieces, they often find bergs which explosives 
can scarcely injure. An iceberg may contain 
36,000,000 tons of ice, eight-ninths of which 
are below the surface of the water. When 
dynamited, a giant berg merely loses a few 
large chunks, which then become small bergs, 
or "growlers," and float faithfully along with 
the mother berg. Thus the Tampa and Modoc 
are detectors rather than destroyers. 

In April, 1912, nobody followed icebergs, 
which drifted free, unchaperoned. Cne drifted 
into the the path of the liner Titanic, then the 
pride of the White Star Line. The Titanic 
sank with a loss of 1513 people. In 1927, 
with transatlantic travel reaching its spring 
height, with glacier-born icebergs drifting bus- 
ily south, the Tampa and Modoc sail north- 
ward, charged with preventing a repetition of 
the Titanic disaster. 



Every American will be interested in read- 
ing about the Government's first motorship, 
the M. S. Tampa, first to be completed, tested 
and put into service in the Shipping Board's 
$25,000,000 motorship conversion program. 
The article on the subject, appearing else- 
where in this issue, is non-technical, accurate 
and authentic. It tells of a visit to the Tampa. 
It is probably the first feature story ever writ- 
ten for any magazine about one of the Govern- 
ment's new motorships, and will give a new 
insight into the extraordinary change which 
is coming on the ocean where big ships are run 
by a "twist of the wrist" and where one will 
some clay "motor" and not "sail" across the 
seven seas. 



What is the good of all that starry firma- 
ment and the revolving planets, of all Crea- 
tion's labor and travail up to now, if it is not 
to enable a man to live in freedom, in happi- 
ness, and in activity among his surroundings? 
— Goethe. 



170 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1927 



LAW ENFORCEMENT WINNING 



It is now quite apparent that the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America has been 
victorious in the contention that it is the duty 
of the United States Steamboat Inspection 
Service to enforce the watch provisions of 
Section 2 of the Seamen's Act and that the 
shipowners now find themselves obliged to 
obey that law. The Lake Carriers' Associa- 
tion, one of the most stubborn organizations 
of shipowners in the United States, has an- 
nounced that all deck crews on its ships will 
hereafter be divided into regular watches when 
at sea. This means that the association has 
found itself obliged to yield to the law. Sus- 
tained effort always produces results. More- 
over, there is every indication that the organ- 
ized seamen can make further progress with 
reference to certain other features of the Sea- 
men's Act which in the past have been given 
little or no attention by the Inspection Service. 



PALATIAL INLAND STEAMSHIPS 



Two of the finest stern-wheel river boats 
ever built anywhere in the whole wide world 
were completed at Stockton, California, dur- 
ing the past month. California's palatial new 
river steamships are named Delta King and 
Delta Queen. They were built to order for 
the California Transportation Company under 
the personal supervision of Captain A. E. 
Anderson, president of the company. 

The boats are identical in size, equipment 
and finish. Each is 280 feet in length, has a 
58-foot beam and a 16-foot, 6-inch depth. The 
tonnage is 1838. There are four decks, includ- 
ing the main deck for freight and automobiles. 
Below, in the hull, are in addition to the 5000 
horse-power engines, a modern galley and up- 
to-date quarters for the crew. 

Each boat will have accommodations for 
234 passengers, there being 117 staterooms 
with accommodations for two persons each. 
Staterooms are luxuriously furnished and 
equal in excellence to the rooms of some of 
the finest hotels. 

Shipbuilders throughout America should be 
highly interested in the engineering features of 
the boats. "Hog chains" are not used. In 
other words, chains and cables are not em- 



ployed to hold the superstructure to the hull. 
These two boats are the only two stern 
wheelers in the world constructed without hog 
chains and on the order of "real, honest-to < ioi 
boats," according to Captain Anderson. Steel 
girders and plates have been used insteal 
throughout the superstructure. 

With the placing of the two new boats into 
service, the California Transportation Com- 
pany will have a fleet of fourteen passengj 
boats on the San Joaquin and Sacramento 
rivers. The California Transportation Co. inci- 
dentally, is one of the oldest company in 
California, founded in 1853 by Captain Nelson 
Anderson, father of the present owner, and 
Captain Andrew Nelson, his partner. The 
company's first stern-wheel steamer was built 
in 1865. The Delta King and Delta Queel 
were built for the run between San Francisco 
and Sacramento. 

Captain Anderson and his company are to, 
be congratulated for the vision and the cour- 
age which made possible the construction of 
these majestic inland vessels. 



SYNDICALISM LAW UPHELD 



The United States Supreme Court upheld 
the California syndicalism law in a unanimous 
opinion. The conviction of Miss Charlotte 
Anita Whitney and William Burns were sus- 
tained. 

A third case, involving the syndicalism law 
of Kansas, was remanded back to the courts 
of that state on the question of procedure. 

The Supreme Court said that .freedom of 
speech does not permit unbridled license for 
every possible use of language. 

Under the California law the term "crimi- 
nal syndicalism" is defined as any doctrine ad- 
vocating the commission of crime, sabotage oi 
unlawful acts of force or methods as a means 
of accomplishing change in industrial owner- 
ship or control or affecting any political 
change. Any person who assists in organiz- 
ing or is a member of such organization is 
guilty of a felony. 

Miss Whitney was charged with havinj 
sisted in organizing the California branch of 
the Communist Labor party, affiliate. 1 with 
the Communist Internationale at Moscow. 



10 



June, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



171 



LABOR INJUNCTION TRACED TO 
DAYS OF ANCIENT ROME 



(By Andrew Furuseth) 



In a 5000-word memorandum on "Equity 
Power and Its Abuse," Andrew Furuseth, 
president of the International Seamen's Union 
of America traces the origin and development 
of this process through the centuries. 

Mr. Furuseth shows that the discretionary 
and irresponsible power to forbid was con- 
ferred upon the Roman Tribune for the pro- 
tection of the plebeians and as a result of social 
upheavals in the Roman Republic. This sys- 
tem developed from changing the Tribune 
every year to conferring the Tribunician 
power upon Caesar for life, together with the 
executive power, the legislative power and the 
religious power. These powers went by in- 
heritance to the Roman emperors that fol- 
lowed and lasted in the Western Roman Em- 
pire, with more or less strength, until its de- 
struction by Odoacer. It was re-established 
by the crowning of Charlemagne, with the ex- 
ception of religious powers. It became the aim 
and purpose of practically every king to make 
these powers his own "to become in fact, as 
well as in name, a king by the grace of God, 
responsible to no one but God." 

"A philosophical writer among the Westro- 
Goths," continued Mr. Furuseth, "is reported 
to have substantially defined Roman law as a 
method or arrangement through which it be- 
comes possible for a few free men as masters 
to safely live with a population of slaves. The 
chancery — the equity — power is part of that 
system. Like everything else that has existed 
for a long period of time, it has in it a kernel 
of truth. Within its proper limits, it is not to 
be interfered with. It is not to be weakened, 
because we know of nothing that can take its 
place. As exercised here in the United States 
within the last 50 years, it is destructive of hu- 
man freedom and of our American institutions 
because it serves to chloroform or kill creative 
power in the bulk of the population. 

"The difference between the free man and 
the bond man is that the first lives in self-re- 
spect without fear and within accepted stand- 
ards does what seems good to him, while the 
bond man has no individual choice and obeys 
in fear. To transform a free man into a bond 



man, whether it be done by brute force, by 
legislation or by judicial decree, is a crime 
against humanity and is a reversal of Ameri- 
can ideals. If it could be done and then made 
to last long enough to change the character of 
our people, American ideals as we have 
learned to know and love them would be de- 
stroyed and the institutions based upon them 
would pass away." 

In tracing the development of the chancery 
power in England, Mr. Furuseth said that this 
term became so obnoxious in that country 
that the word "equity" was substituted. 

"Through some three centuries of struggle in 
England, the chancery court has been shorn of its 
powers until it has no jurisdiction except to pro- 
tect property where there is no remedy at law. 

"The Thirteenth Amendment to the Consti- 
tution forbidding slavery and involuntary 
servitude was adopted to vitalize the funda- 
mental principle laid down in the Declaration 
of Independence. The old Roman right to en- 
slave the debtor, no matter how the debt 
arose, is constitutionally prohibited by this 
amendment, and Section 3 of Article IV of 
the Constitution is repealed. Whenever either 
the legislative or the judicial power undertakes 
to differentiate between the laborer and his 
labor power, it does violence both to logic and 
to common sense. The value of the slave was 
in his labor power and it was property because 
the slave was property and everything that 
the labor power of the slave produced 
was the property of the owner of the slave. 

"The endeavor, therefore, to differentiate 
between the labor power and the individual in 
whom it is inherent, seems to be so contradic- 
tory of our historical and common knowledge 
as to be beyond the possibility of logical dem- 
onstration. As equity came to the United 
States it had jurisdiction to protect property 
where there was no remedy at law. We have 
amended it so as to make it read, 'no adequate 
and complete remedy at law,' and we use it 
as if it read, 'no better remedy at law.' If this 
development is permitted it will destroy Amer- 
ican institutions. It will, so far as the worker 
is concerned, destroy liberty, because as gov- 
ernment by equity (personal government) ad- 
vances, republican government (government 
by law) recedes. The two systems cannot 
occupy the same field and through English ex- 
perience the chancery, or equity, power had 



172 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1927 



been limited in its jurisdiction to the protec- 
tion of property when there is no remedy at 
law. 

"We seek to have that definition restored 
in order that the fundamental American insti- 
tutions may be permitted to grow in clearness 
and force and the Christian evolution of soci- 
ety may be permitted to proceed in peace. 

"If the court of equity be permitted to reg- 
ulate personal relations, it will gradually draw 
to itself all legislative power. If it be per- 
mitted to set aside or enforce law, it will ulti- 
mately arrogate to itself jurisdiction now held 
by the law courts." 



CANDID COMMENT 



Fairy tales to the contrary notwithstanding, 
the calling of the sailor is not an inviting one. 
Man is not an amphibious animal, but essen- 
tially a terrestial one, and the thinking element 
of the shipowning community throughout the 
world freely admits that the social status of 
the seaman must change with that of the 
worker, and that modern social conditions 
make it urgent to introduce such reforms in 
the manning of ships as will relieve marine 
labor of its degrading features. In this respect 
it is gratifying to report that the shipping com- 
panies which have the smallest number of 
accidents, both to men and material, and those 
which show the best operating results, are 
also those which pay the most attention to the 
well-being of their seagoing personnel ; those, 
in fact, where it is held as a matter of principle 
that a sailor or a fireman is not necessarily of 
a lower order of human being than the office 
doorman, because of being a seafaring man, or 
that officers or engineers have less need of 
relaxation and relief from their work than clerks 
or office managers who have come to look upon 
paid vacations as a matter of right. — "Nauticus." 
New York. 



Are we down-hearted? No! Remember the 
words of Ingersoll : "Let me say here : The 
greatest test of courage on the earth is to bear 
defeat without losing heart. That army is the 
bravest that can be whipped the greatest number 
of times and fight again." Cheer up, comrades. 
A cause like ours, though temporarily defeated, 
must triumph in the end. Fight on! 



SAILORS' SNUG HARBOR 

This institution was founded by Robert 
Richard Randall, Esq., of New York City. On 
June 1, 1801, Mr. Randall executed his last? 
will and testament, drawn by Alexander Ham- 
ilton, bequeathing practically the entire estate 
for the establishment and maintenance of a 
home for aged, decrepit, and worn-out sailors, 
to be known as "The Sailors' Snug Harbor." 
This estate consisted chiefly of a farm of 
about 20 acres located on Manhattan Island, 
and which is now, roughly speaking, bounded 
by Fourth and Fifth avenues, and Sixth and 
Tenth streets. 

The will provided that the administration of ' 
this trust be committed to the following per- 
sons : The Mayor of the City of New York, 
the President of the Chamber of Commerce of 
the State of New York, the president of the 
Marine Society of the City of New York, the 
first vice-president of the Marine Society of- 
the city of New York, the rector of Trinity 
Church of the city of New York, the minister of 
the First Presbyterian Church of the city of New 
York. 

Owing to litigation and other causes, the 
site for the Home, which is beautifully located 
on Statan Island, on the banks of the Kill Yon 
Kull, a part of New York harbor, was not 
purchased until June, 1831. The first building 
was erected in 1831-32; in the year following 
50 sailors were admitted, and since then 
has been provided for more than 6,000 seamen. 
On August 21, 1834, the remains of the 
Founders were removed from the original 
place of interment, and deposited beneath a 
monument situated in front of the main build- 
ings. 

The grounds comprise about 150 acres, some 
60 of which are laid out in lawns, flower-beds, 
and fine shade trees. On this part of the 
grounds stand all of the buildings, costing sev- 
eral millions of dollars. The remainder of the 
grounds comprise the farm and a thickly 
wooded piece of ground, to which the inmates 
have free access. 

The buildings, of which there are more than 
30, are the chief features of the institution; 
the eight main buildings used for dormitories 
and mess halls being connected with corridors 
of stone and brick as one building. The rooms 



12 



rune, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



173 



ire ' 1 1 bright - nd cheerful, well heated and 
krentna.cu, lighted by electricity, furnished 
kvith every comfort, and kept scrupulously 

lean. The number of occupants to a room 
varies from one to five, most of the rooms 

lave but twp. 
The fullest liberty is allowed the inmates 

onsistent with good order and a due regard 
[or the peace and comfort of the community. 
It is the intention of the Board of Trustees 
that the institution shall be a home where our 
worn-out and disabled sailors may spend their 
declining years in peace, comfort, and self- 
respect, and it is the aim of its officials to 
faithfully carry out this intention. The insti- 
tution is the heritage of the present and future 
generations of American sailors, and it is faith- 
fully managed as such by the Board of 
Trustees. 



THE "YELLOW DOG" CONTRACT 



(By James M. Lynch) 



John J. Leary Jr., of the "New York World," 
foremost labor reporter of the country, sees 
jthe doom of the "yellow dog" contract. Leg- 
islation to outlaw this instrument of labor 
exploitation failed of passage in Ohio this 
[year only by lack of a two-thirds majority in 
the House after it had passed the Senate and 
revealed a strength of 71 to 44 in the House. 
Parliamentary trickery, which raised need for 
a suspension of the rules before the measure 
could be placed on passage, was resorted to 
to kill the bill. 

Mr. Leary wisely reflects that the history 
of all labor legislation shows that this stage 
of the struggle must be passed before any 
labor measure can be enacted. He foresees 
that an early session of the Ohio Legislature 
will see the "yellow dog" contract sent to 
limbo. Doubtless he is right. It usually takes 
years for labor to obtain fair play in matters 
of this sort. 

Another reason why the decline of the "yel- 
low dog" contract may be expected is that 
many employers are becoming ashamed to use 
it. On its face the thing is palpably despicable, 
and every sort of subterfuge has been tried to 
give it an aspect of decency in vain. 

The Amalgamated Association of Street and 
Electric Railway Employes is now engaged in 



litigation, growing out of a "yellow dog" con- 
tract, in which is disclosed the reluctance of 
even the most reactionary employers to spread 
the rotten thing before the public. This street 
railway company sought an injunction under 
the "contract." Attorneys for union men, em- 
ployed by the company, denied the existence 
of the instrument and produced many wit- 
nesses — employes of the company — who de- 
nied they had signed it or seen it. It was de- 
manded that the company bring the contract 
into court. The company objected and the 
court ruled that the evidence would not be 
necessary. 

It was disclosed later that the contract had 
been made years before and signed by five 
employes, alleged to represent their fellows, 
and that it had been altered materially since 
by the company. Employes were never asked 
to sign a copy of the contract, but when a new 
man was engaged he was asked to sign a sheet 
of paper, containing other names, at the time 
he received his badge. The contract was not 
mentioned to him, but later the company was 
prepared to attach the signed paper to a copy 
of the contract. 

The company even declined to permit em- 
ployes to see the contract or to supply a copy 
for their attorneys. When a copy was ob- 
tained without consent of the company, 
officials complained bitterly and spoke of "bad 
faith" in a hearing before the State public 
service commission. 

What kind of a contract can this be when 
one party to it is kept in ignorance, not only 
of its contents but of its very existence? The 
contract contains just one clause aimed at 
unionism : "The business of said company shall 
be conducted at all times on the open shop 
principle." Yet 64 men were discharged by 
the company at one time for the frankly stated 
reason that they had joined a union. Of course 
"open shop" means a place where union and 
nonunion men may work side by side. No 
wonder, the company is coy about revealing 
this contract, either to applicants for employ- 
ment or in open court ! 



And they shall build houses and inhabit 
them, and they shall plant vineyards and eat 
the fruit of them. They shall not build and 
another inhabit; they shall not plant and an- 
other eat. — Isaiah. 



13 



174 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1927, 



THE UNION BROADCASTING STATION 

(By Joseph A. Wise, Staff Correspondent, 
International Labor News Service) 



President William Green of the American 
Federation of Labor and officers of seventy in- 
ternational labor unions, together with the officers 
of fifty city central bodies and local unions, 
promptly responded to the appeal sent out for 
more support in the fight being waged in behalf 
of radio broadcasting station WCFL, owned and 
operated by the Chicago Federation of Labor, 
John F. Fitzpatrick, president, and E. X. Xock 
els, secretary. 

President Green and other trade union officers 
have made strong representations to Gen. W. 
II. G. Bullard, chairman of the Federal Radio 
Commission, Washington, D. C, earnestly urg- 
ing that WCFL, the only radio broadcasting sta- 
tion owned and controlled by organized labor, 
be granted a wave length of its own and power 
equal to that of any other station. 

It is felt by these trade-union officials that this 
modest request should be granted without hesi- 
tancy by the government, inasmuch as labor owns 
but the one station, while there are hundreds of 
other stations owned by capital and used almost 
wholly in the interests of capital. 

"In behalf of the millions of workers affiliated 
both directly and indirectly with the American 
Federation of Labor, I earnestly petition your 
commission to favorably act upon the application 
made by the representatives of Station WCFL, 
located at Chicago," says President Green in his 
letter to General Bullard. 

Officers of the International Seamen's Union 
of America have called attention to the peculiar 
interest which sailors have in Station WCFL, 
and of course passengers on vessels might well 
be included. 

The seamen took such a deep interest in this 
matter that a vote of the members of the Inter- 
national Executive Board was taken by wire. 
Under instruction of President Andrew Furuseth 
and other members of the board, Secretarv- 
Treasurer Victor A. Olander wrote a letter to 
the Radio Commission in which he said, among 
other things : 

"The members of our district unions and 
branches sail on all parts of the Great Lakes, 
as well as on the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and 
other waters. Their interests are involved in 



Station WCFL, which is the only labor radio 
station in the country. Unless it is given an 
exclusive wave length and permitted to use the 
maximum power, the station will be of little use 
to seamen."' 

Large financial interests are vigorously fighting 
Station WCFL, in an effort to put it on a low 
wave length and with little power, it is charged, 
and it is therefore the duty of all union mem- 
bers to put a shoulder to the wheel and demon- 
strate the solidarity and power of organized labor. 



AN AUTOMOBILE OF THE OCEAN 

(By Hamilton M. Wright) 



From the outside, Uncle Sam's new motor- 
ship, the Tampa, looked not different front 
the scores of ships which were nosed into their 
slips along the Hudson River like so many 
horses in their stalls. In fact, her tall funnel 
belied her nature, and one expected to see i%. 
at any moment belching forth huge clouds of 
black smoke in preparation for her departure 
for the River Plate, that great artery of com- 
merce which leads to Buenos Aires and marks 
the deep water entrance between Uruguay and 
the Argentine which are productive of con- 
siderable trade with the United States. But 
the tall smokestack carried away no smoke 
It was merely an addition to the ship's architec- 
ture, for ship builders, be it known, take as much 
pride in a symmetrically balanced ship as does an 
architect in the towering skyscrappers which he 
has designed. The one or more smokestacks 
usually found on a motorship are merely archi- 
tectural legacies inherited from the steam vessel, 
though they have a function in bearing off the 
exhaust of the great motors, in sometimes carry- 
ing the flue gases from the kitchen and in 
supplying ventilation to the lower hatches. 

Ascending to the Tampa's main deck, we set 
foot on the new motorship. Unlike a steamer- 
which keeps up steam in her boilers when she 
is in port, the main engine of the Tampa was 
as "dead" as the engine of a parked automo- 
bile. In the case of a ship of the Tampa's size 
this means a saving of §150 to $200 per day, 
as it probably will cost something like this to 
keep up steam when the steamship is tied to 
the dock. The motorship not only saves monel 
when at her pier, but makes her biggest saving 
when under way. It costs only $240 per day 



14 



June, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



175 



for fuel while she is at sea, while the fuel for 
a steamship of the same size when at sea will 
cost $350 to $400 daily. 

When we reach the engine room of the 
Tampa we begin to find how really different 
the motorship is from the steamship. The 
engine room containing the mighty engine 
which is a connected mass of giant cylinders, 
is reached through a door opening from one 
of the corridors on the cabin deck. We enter, 
step out on a steel platform and behold some 
fifteen feet beneath us the tops of the four giant 
cylinders which develop approximately three 
thousand horsepower to drive this automobile 
of the ocean to the far corners of the globe. . 

The engine room is as clean as that in a 
municipal water pumping station. The great 
engine itself is enclosed and accessible by steel 
platforms which lead around it, but even in its 
casing its form reveals similarity to the engine 
of a motor car. 

All the power is generated in those giant 
cylinders and in them it is directly transformed 
into mechanical energy. In a steamship the 
steam is generated in the boilers and expands 
in the cylinders of the engine or the veins of 
the turban. But in the motorship the energy 
is developed and converted into mechanical 
power in the engine itself. Thus there are no 
furnaces and no torrid stoke holes. There are 
no grimy sweating men bared to the waist 
shoveling coal down in the bowels of the ship. 
Only a few years ago everyone thought that 
the business of feeding the hungry minotaur 
of the ocean, the greedy furnace of a great 
steamer, was a necessary burden to sustain 
the highest pitch man had reached in the navi- 
gation of the seas. The great oil era is re- 
sponsible for the change. Oil is greasing the 
wheels of progress on the high seas and re- 
ducing human effort to the turning of a crank 
with so little trouble that one engineer calls 
it a "flick of the wrist." 

A flick of the wrist, indeed, is all it takes to 
start the Tampa. The turning of a lever directs 
compressed air into one of the cylinders. The 
giant piston, unseen and in its casing, starts 
its stroke in the cylinder. There is a slight hiss 
as of escaping air, then you feel the low throb- 
bing of the engine. The ship is under way. 
What has happened is a story in itself. The 
compressed air was the engine's self starter. 
When it rushed into the cylinder it started the 



piston on its strike. The head of the piston 
was thrust past the exhaust ports or openings, 
and it began to compress the air in the now 
tightly closed cylinder. Greater and greater 
grew the compression. The moving atoms in 
the confined air impinged upon one another 
more and more frequently, causing intense 
heat. The cylinder had reached the top of its 
stroke when suddenly a spray of fuel oil was 
injected into the highly heated chamber. The 
oil united with the heated air causing combus- 
tion and the cylinder was forced downward on 
the return stroke. The engine was running. In 
the other three cylinders the same cycles were 
under way. Air was being compressed to a 
pressure of four hundred and fifty to five hun- 
dred pounds to the square inch. Then came 
the spray of oil uniting with the oxygen in the 
compressed and heated air. At the moment of 
combustion the heat in the cylinder was ter- 
rific, probably approaching in intensity the 
radiant heat in the firebox of a locomotive. 

But there was nothing in the cool engine 
room to reveal the dreadful commotion to 
which the harassed atoms were being sub- 
jected, or the intense heating which took place 
inside the great cylinders. In fact, during her 
maiden trip to Germany, the engine room of 
the Tampa became so cold that the engine 
crews complained and asked that heaters be 
installed. This meant but one thing, and that 
is the cooling system of the Tampa's engine 
had reached a high degree of perfection. 

W 7 hat a marvelous thing is a modern cooling 
system in a big Diesel. Even while the giant 
piston is rushing up and- down in the cylinder, 
a stream of water is constantly flowing inside 
it. Through wonderful mechanical articulation 
the water passes up through apertures inside 
the piston, circulates through the piston head, 
and then returns downward through the pis- 
ton in openings outside of those which carry 
the upward stream. A stream of water also 
flows inside the casing which encloses the 
cylinder. In the engine of the Tampa the metal 
surface over w r hich this water flows has been 
ribbed to cause the stream to hesitate slightly 
and thus absorb a greater volume of heat- 
Think how very much more elaborate the cool- 
ing system of a giant Diesel is than that of 
your automobile. 

The Diesel oil engine is a German invention, 
invented by the late Dr. Rudolf Diesel toward 



15 



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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Juno, 1927 



the close of the nineteenth century after seven- 
teen years of study and experiment, and de- 
veloped through the kindly co-operation of the 
Krupps. But the engine of the Tampa is an 
American development. It is said to be the 
first double-acting Diesel wholly developed in 
this country. It was designed and built for the 
Shipping Board by the Worthington Pump and 
Machinery Corporation, an American firm 
which was in existence before the Civil War. 
In order to enter the competition instituted 
by the Shipping Board, which specified that 
bids should be made only for engines which 
had been in actual operation, the company 
built a full-sized engine of the new design in 
one cylinder and it was given a trial run be- 
fore Shipping Board officials, before the Board 
accepted specifications for the new type. So 
successful has the new Worthington engine 
proved that the company has recently disposed 
of the rights of its manufacture in Holland 
which is quite contrary to the usual run of 
Diesel building, as Europe has supplied the 
design for most of the marine Diesels. One of 
unusual features of this American Diesel is 
that the cylinders are of alloy steel which is 
tough and thin and so carries off the heat much 
more rapidly than the heavy cast iron cylinders 
used in the earlier types. But these prodigious 
air swallowing Diesels are a heavy subject, 
both actually and metaphorically. Before we 
departed one of the engineers asks if we knew 
that she is a two-cycle, double-acting Diesel. 
We were willing to learn. , 

The double-acting system is one where 
power is exerted at both' ends of the piston, 
he explains. This is, he says, quite a develop- 
ment over a single-acting Diesel engine, or an 
automobile engine, where power is exerted at 
one end of the piston only. Hence, more work 
is gotten out of the cylinders and it is possible 
to cut the weight of the engine. The two-cycle 
system is one which accomplishes simultane- 
ously the exhaust of gases and intake of fuel. 
Thus it does away with the non-working pis- 
ton strokes that are required for exhaust and 
intake under the earlier four-cycle but still 
popular types, and again, more work is pro- 
duced from the cylinders than is obtained 
under the four-cycle types. The double-acting 
system and two-cycle system are combined in 
the Tampa's engine. 

And that is the story of the Tampa, first 



government motorship, and one of twelve 
former steamships which the government has 
cpnverted to the new power that is sweeping 
the seas. 



LONGSHOREMEN'S COMPENSATION 
FROM THE LEGAL VIEWPOINT 

(By Warren H. Pillsbury) 



With the enactment of workmen's compen- 
sation laws by the different states commencing 
in 1911, it was soon proved to the satisfaction 
of all concerned that workmen's compensation 
legislature was superior to the older systeffl 
of trying personal injuries to employees by 
damage suits. To the injured worker it gave 
speedy and inexpensive relief and restored a 
portion of lost wages during the time when 
financial aid was most needed. To the em- 
ployer it substituted a fixed and limited li- 
ability, easily and quickly determined, for 
lung, drawn-out damage suits with high court 
expenses and verdicts for unlimited amounts. 

For the first six years of practice under 
state workmen's compensation acts, it was 
assumed that the state law would apply to 
sailors and longshoremen in the absence of any 
act of Congress upon the subject. In April, 
1917, however, the United States Supreme 
Court held that the inadequate rules of the 
maritime law must be applied and could not 
be altered by state legislation. In October, 
1917, Congress passed a statute to restore to 
maritime workers state workmen's compensa- 
tion protection. This law was declared un- 
constitutional by the United States Supreme 
Court. 

In 1920 Congress again took up the mari- 
time personal injury problem, this time at- 
tempting to differentiate between seamen on 
one hand and port and harbor workers on 
the other. By Section 33 of the Jones Act, 
seamen were placed under the Federal Em- 
ployers' Liability Act, previously applicable 
only to railroad employees injured in inter- 
state commerce. State compensation acts 
were restored for port and harbor workers. 
The latter provision was again declared un- 
constitutional by the Supreme Court. 

For several years bills have been pending in 
Congress to provide a uniform federal compen- 
sation act for maritime workers. 

The principal measure, whose provisions 
were largely followed in the bill which was 
just passed, was framed by the New York 
Association for Labor Legislation, with the 
assistance of Dr. John B. Andrews, Trot. 



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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



177 



Joseph L. Chamberlain of the Columbia Law 
School, and Dr. Miles M. Dawson, with occa- 
sional suggestions and criticisms from others, 
including the writer. There was much dis- 
cussion in the Congressional Committee over 
details of all measures presented and particu- 
larly over a strong attempt to retain seamen 
within the law. In the closing hours of the 
session, a redraft was rushed through both 
houses without further committee hearings, 
which is the present law. 

While it is apparent from reading the act 
that there are some loose ends which will re- 
quire court construction and that it will take 
considerable litigation before the law will be 
well understood, the measure is upon the 
whole quite satisfactory in its general plan. 
The law applies to disability or death sus- 
tained by employees in maritime employ- 
ment in the whole or in part upon the navi- 
gable waters of the United States, including 
any drydock. where recovery is not provided 
by state law. This latter provision will be a 
fruitful source of litigation for many years. 

The law does not include injuries sustained 
by a master or member of a crew of any vessel 
or any person engaged to load, unload or re- 
pair any small vessel under eighteen tons, net. 
By a process of elimination it therefore ap- 
plies to all port and harbor workers except 
upon such small vessels, but excludes seamen 
who still remain under the Jones Act. 
Whether work upon small boats will now 
|come under the Admiralty Law or the state 
[compensation act, is an open question. 

The scale of benefits under the new law is 
[higher than under the California Act. Max- 
jimum payments of weekly compensation are 
j$25.0O a week instead of the $20.83 under the 
California law. Compensation is payable at 
the rate of 66 2/3 per cent instead of 65 per 
cent. Permanent total disability entitles a 
(workman to 66 2/3 per cent for the rest of 
|his life, instead of 40 per cent under the Cali- 
fornia Act. Specific- authorization is given to 
allowance for facial or head disfigurement, not 
'exceeding $3500. For death benefits a sur- 
viving widow is entitled to 35 per cent of her 
husband's wages until her death or remarriage, 
'with 10 per cent additional for each minor 
(child until each child becomes 18 years of age. 
,The California death benefit is 65 per cent 
for 240 weeks, with nothing further. Under 



the Federal Act the death benefit payable to a 
widow may approximate $15,000 or $20,000. 
Under our state law the limit is $5000. 

The employer's liability for medical treat- 
ment is unlimited, as under the state law. 

Insurance under the Federal Act is compul- 
sory and may be taken out in any insurance 
company authorized by state or federal law to 
write workmen's compensation insurance in 
the jurisdiction in which the employer oper- 
ates. This includes state compensation in- 
surance funds. Self-insurance may also be 
engaged in under permission upon the de- 
posit of an indemnity bond. 

Stevedoring companies must present a cer- 
tificate showing that they have complied with 
these provisions concerning insurance before 
they can be employed by any vessel. Failure 
to comply with insurance provisions entails a 
fine of $1000 or imprisonment for one year. 

The law is to be administered by the United 
States Employee's Compensation Committee, 
which is to appoint deputy commissioners in 
each state or district. It is authorized, though 
not required, to appoint any state industrial 
accident commission to act as deputy commis- 
sioner for its state. 

The validity of decisions of the deputy com- 
missioner is to be tested by injunction pro- 
ceedings in the United States District Court 
with eventual right of appeal to the Circuit 
Court of Appeals or the' United States Su- 
preme Court, as in other cases. 

The act takes effect July 1, 1927. 



INVICTUS 

(By W. E. Henley) 



Out of the night that covers me, 
Black as the pit from pole to pole, 

I thank whatever gods may be 
For my unconquerable soul. 

In the fell clutch of circumstance 
I have not winced nor cried aloud. 

Under the bludgeonings of chance 
My head is bloody, but unbowed. 

Beyond this place of wrath and tears 

Looms but the Horror of the shade, 
And yet the menace of the years 
Finds, and shall find, me unafraid. 

It matters not how strait the gate, 
How charged with punishments th. 

I am the master of my fate: 
I am the captain of my soul. 



17 



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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1927 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Injury to Foreign Seamen— While the effect 
of the Jones Act (41 Stat. 1007) has been to 
import the Federal Employers' Liability Act 
of 1908 (Comp. St. 8657-8665) into the mari- 
time law of the United States, the grant of 
the right to sue in admiralty does not confer 
a maritime lien as appurtenant to the right — 
II. Plamals vs. S. S. Pinar del Rio, I'. S. Cir- 
< t. App., 2d Cir. 

Libelant was a member of the crew of the 
steamship Pinar del Rio (Br.), then lying at 
Philadelphia, and was ordered by first mate to 
paint the upper portion of the smokestack. He 
was to get there in a boatswain's chair, which 
by means of a rope and other tackle was to be 
hauled to the place where libelant was to work. 
The rope which was selected by the mate 
broke while libelant was being hauled up. He 
fell to the deck and received serious injuries. 
The rope that broke was old and worn ; there 
was plenty of good rope aboard that could 
have been used. Libel in rem was brought to 
recover in respect of the personal injuries sus- 
tained. At the trial libelant's proctor asserted 
that suit was brought under section 33 of the 
Jones Act, because at the time of the accident 
the ship was lying within the territorial waters 
of the United States. The District Court dis- 
missed the libel and libelant appealed. The 
Circuit Court of Appeals rejected the appeal. 
The opinion of the higher court state- that in 
order to recover it must appear (1) that there 
exists a good cause of action for a maritime 
tort; and (2) that a maritime lien arises 
through and by the tort. The general maritime 
law of the United States bars libelant from 
recovering either against the vessel or her 
owners for the "improvident and negligent" 
act of the mate in selecting for libelant's use 
an insufficient rope. The Osceola, 189 U. S. 
158, 23 S. Ct. 483, 47 L. Ed. 760. If the vessel 
had been unsupplied with good and proper 
rope, a different question would arise. 

Had the vessel been American, either a libel 
in personam or an action at law against her 
owners would have lain under the Jones Act. 
The effect of that statute has been to import 
the Federal Employers' Liability Act of 1908 
(Comp. St., sections 8657-8665) into the mari- 
time law of this country. "Rut to grant the 
right to sue in admiralty does not confer a 



maritime lien as appurtenant to the right. A 
lien grows out of a proprietary right, and no 
words can be pointed out in the Jones Act 
directly or indirectly conferring a lien. The 
section invoked gives a seaman "his election'' 
to "maintain an action for damages at law,'' 
and "in such action all statutes of the United 
States modifying or extending the common; 
law right or remedy in cases of personal injury 
to railway employees shall apply." Because no 
lien exists, even as against a vessel of the 
United States, by reason of the matters herein, 
there is no lien against this British v< 
The decree dismissing the libel was affirmed, 
with costs. 

Assault Upon Marine Fireman — Ceeile Mofl 
sey was employed abroad the steamship West 
Gotomska as a fireman. While the vessel lay 
at Copenhagen on or about the 13th da) of 
May. 1925, he was struck with a wrench over 
the left eye, making a scar three inches long, 
because he had gone up on deck. There was no 
one else in the fireroom or engine room and 
the fire got to running wild. Because of this 
the chief and the first assistant went to the 
engine room and when the plaintiff came down 
he was struck as aforestated. This case was 
tried in the city court of the city of New York, 
by Mr. Lucien V. Axtell, and resulted in a 
verdict of $1,000. 

Damages for Defective Ladder — Ernes 
Morbelli, the plaintiff in this case had never 
been to sea before. He signed on the American 
Legion as a dishwasher. While carrying a boi 
of oranges upstairs, the hand rail of the ladder 
suddenly gave way, he was caused to fall 
striking his shin and scraping it and dropping 
the box of oranges on the shin. He had a scar 
^i\ inches long and one wide on his shin bone. 
The case was tried in the city court of the city 
of Xew York by Mr. Lucien V. Axtell and re- 
sulted in a verdict of $175'). An offer of $M 
was made him sometime before the trial. 



Half my life has been spent trying to forget 
the falsehoods I was taught in my youth. 
Most of us would know a lot more had we 
learned a lot less. — H. E. Boote. 



Hunger ought to be considered i crime.— 
Anatole France. 



18 



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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



179 



BOOK REVIEWS 



THE SHIP UNDER SAIL. By E. Keble Chatter- 
ton. Publishers, J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia. 
Price $4.50. 

In spite of our legislators whom we so vocif- 
erously select every two years, and send to our 
state capitols to draw up the laws that sup- 
posedly govern us and guide our thoughts, the 
principle of evolution, though condemned by 
them in different states as heretical and dan- 
gerous, will not be downed ! It lifts its head 
again and again for recognition by those of 
us who may not qualify as legislators, but who 
nevertheless have "eyes wherewith to see and 
ears wherewith to hear," as we walk along a 
city sidewalk, a mountain trail or set our ship 
full sail into the wind ! For evolution is the 
process by which man has acquired the means 
to adjust himself to his surroundings with the 
greatest amount of usefulness and the least 
amount of friction. If this be heresy, then 
let us change its definition and send to our 
legislatures men and women who do not try 
to go forward with their eyes turned back. 

One of the men who has proved this prin- 
ciple conclusively, even to the point of inani- 
mate things — if the reader of these columns will 
allow a ship to be called "inanimate," merely for 
the purpose of illustration — is E. Keble Chatter- 
ton, the author of "The Ship Under Sail." Here 
he shows us the evolution of the earliest 
Egyptian Nile sailing craft, with its square-sail 
rig, in to the five-masted bark of the twentieth 
century. 

In these interesting pages we see how one 
people after another have adopted this crude 
idea of the year 7000 B. C. to the necessities 
of their present-day life. The Phoenicians 
were indebted to the Egyptians ; the Greeks, 
with their swift-moving, fighting galleys, to 
the Phoenicians ; the Romans with their mer- 
chantmen and traders to the Greeks, and so 
on through the centuries, until in the seventh 
century, with the rise of Moslem power in the 
Mediterranean, we see the general adoption of 
the lateen sail, the gift of these Oriental sea- 
farers. 

Going on down through history, the author 
traces the changes in the character of the ships 
from the clumsy three-masted caracks and 
caravals of the 15th century to the stately 
Elizabethan ships of the 16th and 17th centu- 



ries, with their "square topsails on the mizzen 
and t'gallant sails on the fore and main," and 
guns at the side, three decks deep ! 

Next come the Stuart vessels, with their 
richly decorated hulls; then the stately East 
Indiamen, powerfully armed, which were both 
navy and merchant marine for His Majesty's 
service in the Orient from 1582 till the com- 
ing of the clipper. It is hard to believe that 
these delicate, slim clippers, so full of beauty, 
should have primarily come into existence to 
foster anything so ugly and ignoble as the opium 
trade with China. But to the eternal discredit of 
American and British firms, this trade was 
carried on with China illicitly from 1776, and 
"fast vessels which could get the job done 
quickly and hurry away from speedy pirate 
lorchas" were in constant demand. And so, 
because of the greed for opium, tea and Cali- 
fornia gold, the clippers came into being and 
were developed. Fortunately they leave us in 
retrospect, only a memory of their grace and 
loveliness and strength, as exemplified in "The 
Glory That Was Sail." 

The closing chapters deal with the early 
fore-and-afters, developed in Holland, and the 
cutters and luggers and present-day yachts 
and yachtsmen, who, the author says, are 
showing themselves to be real sailors and nav- 
igators. 

And so, through countless vivid illustra- 
tions, these different ships live through the 
ages for us, and we come to realize that the 
square-sail, the oldest ship rig in the world's 
history, used in the old dynastic craft of the 
Nile, "has been modified and multiplied for 
ocean going ships of all nations and has lasted 
down to our own time." 

What better illustration of "evolution" could 
this unbelieving world ask for? — Ekel. 

"SHIP SANITATION AND FIRST AID" for 
Merchant Seamen, Robert W. Hart, author. Pre- 
pared under the direction of Rev. Archibald R. 
Mansfield, D. D., Seamen's Church Institute of 
New York, Publishers. Price, $1. 

This manual is a very thorough treatise, yet 
presented in such a manner that its contents 
are readily discernable to the layman without 
the necessity of medical training or knowledge. 

It is especially adapted for use as a first aid 
manual aboard ship, for the author has borne 
in mind the fact that when illness or an acci- 
dent is met with at sea it is often a matter of 



19 



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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1927 



time before regular medical attention can be 
secured. 

As proof of its value we have only to point 
out that it is used by the United States Public 
Health Service as a text in teaching the prin- 
ciples of ship sanitation and first aid to mas- 
ters, mates, pilots and engineers for examina- 
tion for original licenses as prescribed by the 
rules and regulations of the Board of Super- 
vising Inspectors. 

The first part of the book is devoted to the 
principles of sanitation and hygiene to be prac- 
ticed aboard ship. There is also a complete 
section on maritime quarantine regulation ap- 
pended by an outline of the quarantine regu- 
lations as prescribed by the United States Gov- 
ernment. 

The volume then takes up certain diseases 
having especial relation to the sanitary con- 
ditions aboard ship with corresponding pre- 
ventive measures to be exercised in combating 
each. A comprehensive idea of the contents of 
the volume may be had from a survey of the 
sections which are as follows : 

General Anatomy and Physiology. Under 
this a brief and clear description is given of 
the functions of the more important members 
making up the human body. 

Ship's Sick Bay or Hospital and Medical 
Chest. Suggestions for this are given together 
with an appendix giving specifications for the 
medicine chest and directions for their use. 

A short chapter is given over to General 
First Aid; this having mainly to do with the 
care and nursing of the sick. A chapter is also 
included covering treatment of general ills with 
the respective treatments and this quite natur- 
ally leads to a section for the treatment of 
specific diseases with definitions and symp- 
toms of each. 

As wounds and injuries should be dis- 
tinguished from disease, so with the treatment. 
This being amply taken care of by the section 
on surgical first aid, giving general information 
and suggestions and also directions for specific 
cases. 

Included in the appendix to this volume is a 
very important section given over to first aid 
by radio. Since this is of great value it is im- 
portant to know how to derive the most bene- 
fit from its use and therefore explicit instruc- 
tions are given for the proper use of this ser- 



vice. A list of stations controlled by the Radio 
Corporation of America and the United Fruit 
Company or Tropical Telegraph Company, all 
giving free medical advice follows the instruc- 
tions regarding first aid by radio. The book 
should be useful for all hands as a valuable aid 
for the maintainance of a sanitary ship and 
healthy crew. — J. D. L. 



THE NICARAGUA CANAL 



There have been many rumors, but there 
does not seem to be any likelihood of Congress 
authorizing the cutting of a canal across Nic- 
aragua to relieve congestion at the Panama 
Canal. At present, the Panama Canal is closed 
to traffic at 2 p. m. and is being operated at 
only 40 per cent of its capacity. By increasing 
the water supply in the locks, by lighting the 
canal, and working a night shift of employees 
for operating purposes, the present capacity 
could be more than doubled. Increased water 
supply would require the building of another 
dam, and if enough water could be obtained 
for approximately fifty lockages a day, fifty 
more vessels a day could go through, which 
might also require a third set of locks. It would 
take five years to build a dam and three years 
to build and equip locks, at a cost of perhaps 
$20,000,000 to $25,000,000 in all. 

When engineers begin to estimate the prob- 
able cost of digging the Nicaragua Canal, the 
aforementioned amounts will appear insignifi- 
cant by comparison. 



WHO OWNS THE LAND? 



It can never be pretended that the existing 
titles to landed property are legitimate. The 
original deeds were written with the sword, 
soldiers were the conveyancers, blows were 
the current coin given in exchange, and for 
seals, blood. Those who say that "time is 
a great legalizer" must find satisfactory an- 
swers to such questions as: How long does 
it take for what was originally wrong to be- 
come right? At what rate per annum do in- 
valid claims become valid? — Herbert Spencer. 



Thou must mount up or sink down, must rule 
and win, or serve and lose, suffer or triumph, he 
anvil or hammer. — Goethe. 



2(i 






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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



181 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The steamship Indiana Harbor, from San 
Francisco, May 18, for Portland, went ashore 
ten miles south of Point Gorda. The vessel 
is reported a total loss. 

The Donaldson Line, of Glasgow, will in- 
augurate a Pacific Coast-European refrigerator 
service with a fleet of five vessels beginning 
with the S.S. Kastalia, July 30, followed in 
August by the M.S. Modavia, then the steamers 
Parthenia and Cordillera. London and Liver- 
pool are the only ports definitely announced 
as discharging ports. 

Captain John Bartlett, 84, a veteran sealer 
and Arctic explorer, died at Fredericton, N. B., 
on April 14. He commanded the first steam 
vessels used in the Newfoundland seal fishery, 
the Panther, in 1855. He made his first trip 
to the Arctic in 1869 and accompanied Peary 
on his first voyage to the Polar regions. Robert 
A. Bartlett, skipper of the Peary exploration 
ship Roosevelt, was his nephew. 

The Hudson Nav. Corporation during 1926 
has gross revenues of $1,693,365 and operating- 
expenses of $1,400,306, leaving net operating- 
income of $293,059, according to the .first annual 
report. After deducting taxes of $32,500, de- 
preciation of $60,289 and interest on funded 
debt of $127,833, there remained $72,436 ap- 
plicable to the preferred stock. Of this amount 
$19,987 was paid out in preferred dividends, 
leaving a surplus of $52,449. 

Lighthouse No. Ill, the first vessel in the 
United States Lighthouse Service to be fitted 
with a full Diesel engine for propulsion, has been 
[completed and placed on Northeast End, N. J., 
off the entrance to Delaware bay. The hull, deck- 
houses and interior quarters are all steel. The 
I fog signal apparatus consists of an air-driven 
Isiren, the sound being distributed through a four- 
way cast-iron multiple horn, located over the 
engine trunk. The propelling engine is of the 
Diesel 8-cyl. type, direct reversible. 

Permission has been granted to the Ford 
Motor Co. by the Shipping Board to convert 
to barges three vessels purchased from the 
Board for scrapping purposes upon additional 
jpayment of $10,000 for each vessel. The ves- 
sels are all of the Lake type, and were pur- 



chased from the Board for $8350 each. The 
Ford Motor Co. will spend approximately 
$125,000 on the conversion of each vessel. The 
hulls will be completely stripped and fitted 
with donkey boilers and donkey engines, but 
with no propelling power. They will be used 
for handling bulk materials. 

The shipping of salmon from Astoria started 
immediately after the opening of the salmon 
packing season, May 1, some of the shipments 
moving by water within a day or two of the 
time the fish were caught. The earliest ship- 
ments went via the Admiral Line to San Fran- 
cisco for transhipment to the East Coast, the 
first really large shipment being 7500 cases 
taken by the steamer Columbian from the Port 
of Astoria terminals on May 13. With the 
demand for Columbia River salmon fair, the 
early spring and summer pack at least is ex- 
pected to move out almost as rapidly as it is 
put up. 

A destitute American seaman who went 
abroad as a passenger is not entitled to the 
benefit of consular funds available for Amer- 
ican seamen for hospitalization and medical 
treatment in a foreign country, according to a 
ruling by Comptroller General J. R. McCarl. 
The ruling disallowed a claim made by the 
American Consul at Trieste, who sought 
authority to expend Federal funds in caring 
for a destitute American seaman. The Consul 
contended that the seaman in question was 
discharged from an American hospital in an 
unsound physical condition, and. that his con- 
dition abroad was a continuation of his con- 
dition in this country, and further that he was 
an American citizen and therefore entitled to 
aid from the government. 

Contracts for the construction of four of the 
six 10,000-ton scou_t cruisers for the U. S. 
Navy have been awarded to private builders, 
and contracts for the remaining two placed 
with Navy yards. The private companies re- 
ceiving contracts were the Newport News, two 
cruisers; Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, 
Quincy, Mass., and American Brown Boveri Elec- 
tric Corporation, Camden, N. J., one each. The 
Navy yards at Puget Sound and Mare Island, 
Calif., were awarded one each. The vessels 
represent the remainder of the program of 
eight scout cruisers authorized by Congn 
1924. Orders for the first two of these eight 



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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1927 



cruisers were placed in July, 1926, that for 
the Pennsacola to the New York Navy Yard 
and for the Salt Lake City to Cramp, Phila- 
delphia. The Cramp Company, however, forfeited 
its contract. 

Demand by the Eastern railroads for creo- 
soted Southern pine and oak cross ties has 
provided a new field of employment for 
schooners on the Atlantic seaboard, according 
to W. H. Labrot, vice-president of the Amer- 
ican Creosote Works and the Savannah Creo- 
soting Company. During the past six months, 
Mr. Labrot states, these companies have char- 
tered twenty-two schooners, mostly four and 
five-masted vessels, and a number of steamers 
to move shipments of these ties from New 
Orleans and Savannah to New York and Bos- 
ton. It is estimated that some forty vessels 
have been employed in this trade during tin- 
past six months, or more than six per month. 
The schooners carry about 100,000 feet of tie- 
on each trip. Sailing vessels are favored be- 
cause of the low rates at which they may be 
obtained as compared with steam vessels. [1 
is believed that the demand for creosoted tim- 
ber from the South will continue. 

The Marine Hotel Corporation of New York, 
has placed in service a hotel transformed from 
the old U. S. monitor Amphitrite, which lies at 
anchor at Lake Worth, between West Palm 
Beach and Palm Beach, Florida. The Amphi- 
trite was built in 1883, saw active service in 
the Spanish-American War and during the late 
war laid the nets protecting New York harbor 
and guarded them during the duration of the 
war. She was also used as a detention ship for 
naval prisoners and was finally sold. She is 
a boat 265 feet by 55 feet and since dismantling 
and rebuilding her draft has been reduced to 
9 feet. The floating hotel has seventy-five 
double rooms, 12 by 15 feet, with private baths. 
There is a fully equipped kitchen and a dining 
room with a capacity of 300. Each room has 
a telephone, and trunk line communication is 
available by means of a submarine cable. 
Guests board and leave by tender. Electric 
power is furnished by two generators, and suf- 
ficent storage battery capacity to maintain 
emergency lights in case of power plant failure. 

Because a ship's doctor informed a prospective 
female passenger, within hearing of third par- 
ties, that passage to New York from Porto Rico 
would be denied her on the ground that she was 



suffering from venereal disease, which barred 
her from landing as an alien, coming from an 
insular possssion, a jury in Porto Rico gave 
her a verdict of $4900 and costs in an action 
for breach of contract and slander against the 
New York and Porto Rico Steamship Company) 
The verdict was reversed by the United States 
Circuit Court of Appeals (first circuit) on the 
ground that it was the doctor's duty to inform 
the plaintiff on inquiry why she could not -ail 
and that the presence of bystanders was not due 
to any design on the part of the doctor or the 
steamship company. This made the communica- 
tion a privileged one and acted as a bar to an 
action for slander. The immigration authori- 
ties, having found the plaintiff to be in the con 
dition described by the doctor, there was no 
ground for damages arising from breach of con- 
tract to transport the ticket holder. 

Arrangements are being made for the inau- 
guration of a regular banana transport servici 
horn Central America to Pacific Coast p<»rts 
by the United Fruit Co. Three ships will be 
provided at ten-day intervals with space lor 
50,000 stems each and accommodation for a 
few passengers. This departure is hcingfl 
watched with a great deal of interest in ship- 
ping circles, inasmuch as the duration of the 
sea transit will be greater than is usual in the 
trade between Central America and North 
Atlantic ports, although the British subsidiary 
of the United Fruit Co. maintains a regular 
banana service between Central America and 
the West Indies and the west coast of England. 
Incidentally, it may be worth pointing out that 
the transport of bananas is quite a different 
proposition from that of other fruit. Banana! 
can never be shipped in the same hold as other 
fruit. Oranges, for instance, give off CO», 
which, when present with bananas, cause! 
premature ripening, and as bananas must be 
landed green, great care must be exercised to 
avoid contamination. Bananas are chilled in 
the holds with air cooled by brine pipes and 
sucked in by powerful fans. In addition t»> it- 
own fleet of some sixty-two ships, the United 
Fruit Co. employs a large number of vessels 
under time charter for its service to outports, 
the latest of which is the motorship Gunder- I 
sen, recently completed in Sweden for account 
of a Norwegian company organized to work 
a long time charter granted by the United . 
Fruit Co. 



22 



June, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



183 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The Rotterdam Drydock Co. last year earned 
a net profit of fl. 866,666. A dividend of 10 per 
cent (unchanged) is proposed. 

The Peruvian coastwise trade is open to for- 
eign vessels on reciprocity basis; i. e., to vessels 
of countries which admit Peruvian vessels to 
their own coastwise trade. This provision bars 
American vessels from inter-Peruvian trade. 

Workman, Clark & Co., Belfast, have launched 
the Iriona, the last of the three passenger and 
fruit-carrying boats ordered by the United Fruit 
Co. She is similar in every respect to the Cas- 
tilia, already delivered, and the Tela, which had 
her trial recently. 

The establishment of a state monopoly for 
petroleum imports in France, which was to come 
into effect April 1, 1927, has been postponed to 
January 1, 1928. The institution of the monop- 
oly depends on details to be fixed by a law which 
has not yet been drafted by the Ministry of 
Commerce. 

The Swedish East Asiatic Company have 
placed an order with Gotaverken, Gothenburg, 
for the construction of a motorship of 10,000 
tons d.w., which is to have a speed of 12^2 knots. 
This yard now has in hand orders for new ton- 
nage aggregating 125,000 tons, over half of 
which is for account of Swedish owners. 

Contracts have been awarded by the Can- 
adian Steamships, Ltd., to the Davie Shipbuild- 
ing Company, Levis, Quebec, for two pas- 
senger steamers costing approximately one 
million dollars each. The ships will each have 
accommodation for 500 passengers and 800 
tons of cargo. 

Burmeister & Wain will pay 8 per cent divi- 
dend to shareholders, or an amount of 1,600,000 
crowns, inasmuch as the share capital of the 
company totals 20,000,000 crowns. The yearly 
statement of this well-known Danish ship- 
building firm shows a profit of 4,900,000 crowns 
for 1926, in addition to 150,602 crowns trans- 
ferred from the 1925 account. 

After transferring £100,000 to the reserve 
fund, directors of the Cunard Steamship Com- 
pany have decided to recommend to the share- 
holders at the forthcoming meeting a dividend 



on the ordinary shares for 1926 at the rate of 
6 per cent per annum, payable less tax. \u ti- 
the previous twelve months the distribution 
was at the rate of 5 per cent and nothing was 
placed to reserve. 

Royal Netherlands S. S. Co., Amsterdam, was 
not in a position last year to derive much benefit 
from the improved state of affairs brought about 
by the strike in Great Britain. Further, the profit 
and loss account was unfavorably affected by the 
loss of the steamships Delft and Carna. The 
company pays no dividend for 1926, nor does the 
affiliated Royal West Indian Mail Service, Am- 
sterdam. 

The six river gunboats building by the 
Kiangnan Dock & Engine Works, Shanghai, 
for the U. S. Navy, are making uncertain pro- 
gress due to local conditions. The two vessels 
most advanced are 22.7 and 22.4 per cent com- 
pleted. Although the contract date of com- 
pletion of these two of the six vessels is March 
1 and April 1, 1927, it is not known when com- 
pletion may be expected. 

The keel has been laid at Belfast for the 
26,000-ton motorship to be built for the White 
Star Line, and it is expected that the vessel will 
be launched during the winter of 1928. The 
Laurentic will be launched in June, but there is 
yet no sign of the laying down of the larger 
White Star liner, for which plans have been pre- 
pared, and for which the government of North- 
ern Ireland has given a substantial guarantee. 

The cargo steamer Aller, with a deadweight 
carrying capacity of 12,000 tons, has been 
launched from the Vegesack yard of the Bremen 
Vulkan Aktien Gesellschaft. Building to the 
order of the Norddeutscher Lloyd and intended 
for service on the Australian route, she has a 
length of 534 ft. 4 in., and a beam of 63 ft. 10 in. 
Her contract speed is 14 knots, and she will be 
provided with accommodation for twelve first- 
class passengers. 

It is taken for granted that upon the com- 
pletion of port works now being built in a shel- 
tered situation at the entrance of the port of 
Havre, Cherbourg will be abandoned by the 
White Star Line in favor of the former port. 
Nothing definite has been given out on the 
subject, except that at the annual meeting of 
the London & Thames Haven Oil Wharves, 
Ltd., the chairman, Lord Kylsant, who is also 
chairman of the White Star, stated that when 
the work is completed, in the first half of next 



23 



184 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 19: 



year, Havre will be one of the most important 
and finest ports of Northern France and would 
probably prove an attraction for many great 
ocean liners which cater to first class Con- 
tinental passenger traffic. 

Harland & Wolff, Belfast, have received an 
order from Lord Kylsant, on behalf of the White 
Star Line, for the construction of a motor pas- 
senger vessel, which is to be propelled by 8-cyl. 
4-cycle double-acting Diesel engines, developing 
over 20,000 h.p. The vessel is to be laid down 
at once and it is understood that she will be about 
25,000 tons gross and over 700 feet long. This 
will be the first motorship of the W'hite Star fleet, 
and the first order placed on behalf of that con- 
cern since Lord Kylsant took it over. 

The Melbourne correspondent of the London 
Daily Express cabled, stating that the Federal 
Accounts Committee deputed by the government 
to decide the fate of the Commonwealth ship- 
ping fleet of about forty vessels, has, by a major- 
ity of one, decided on its sale. The despatch 
continues that while no doubt it would be a sav- 
ing to the taxpayers of the Commonwealth if the 
fleet were sold, it is not anticipated that it will 
be disposed of, for once it was brought into being, 
political influence got to work. 

The contracts made by the Russian State 
fleet with German shipbuilders for the construc- 
tion of three vessels have been followed by others. 
Two small vessels for service between Odessa 
and Nikolaiew have been ordered from Janssen 
& Schmilinsky, Hamburg, and two larger motor 
cargo ships from the Germania yard, Kiel. The 
Hamburg State will guarantee the credit t<» the 
yards building the vessels \ip to 650,000 mk. 
Further orders may be placed by Russia with 
German yards. 

There are now under construction on the Clyde 
106 vessels of 443,998 tons, as compared with 
64 of 283,280 tons three months ago, and 91 of 
328,418 tons a year ago. The great increase of 
42 vessels and 160,718 tons within the past three 
months is explained by the laying down of many 
vessels which could not be started during the coal 
strike. The work now on hand is the largest 
since June, 1925, but is still about 150,000 tons 
below the average pre-war years and 336,000 tons 
below the average of 1913, which was the best 
year in the river's history. 

Built especially for the around-the-world 
service of the Kerr Steamship Company, the 
motorship Silverguava, third of six 9000-ton 



deadweight, 14j/2-knot m o t o r s h i p s, wfl 
launched March 31 at the Thomson shipyard, 
Sunderland, England. She is expected to ar- 
rive in New York in August. The Silverball, 
the fourth vessel of the group, is expected to 
be launched in the near future. These vessels 
are being used to replace the old 11-knot 
motorship heretofore operated in the Paciric- 
Orient service of the Kerr Line. 

Messrs. Blohm and Voss have launched from 
their Hamburg yard the steamer they a're build- 
ing for the Hamburg-South America Line. She 
is the Cap Arcona, and has a gross tonnage of 
27,000 — some 6000 tons more than the Cap Po- 
lonio — and measures 686 ft. 10 in. in length by 
86 ft. 10 in. beam and 28 ft. load draught. Ac- 
commodation is being provided for 574 first- 
class, 274 second-class and 700 third-class pas- 
sengers, and one of the features of the vessel will 
be an extensive sports deck, the first that has 
been provided in a German liner in the South 
American trade. Her turbine engines are de- 
signed to develop 24,000 s.h.p. and to give her a 
speed of 20 knots, so that she will be able to make 
the passage from Hamburg to Rio de Janeiro in 
twelve days, Santos in thirteen days, and Bue- 
nos Aires in fifteen days. Her boilers will be all 
fitted for firing by oil fuel. 

In order to save transport charges, some ship- 
pers of timber from the Baltic have of late years 
sent the timber in large rafts towed across the 
sea to Dutch, German and other ports. Last 
year one such raft, 400 yards in length and 
with a towing rope of 650 yards, got adrift in 
the Baltic owing to bad weather, and having 
rounded the Scaw broke to pieces in the North 
Sea, its heavy logs of twelve to fifteen yards in 
length proving a serious danger to shipping. A 
discussion then arose whether such rafts were 
"vessels," as in that case they should have been 
provided with lights so as to warn other ship- 
ping. But in order that the lights should be 
visible at a distance the rafts would have to be 
constructed differently, thus adding so much to 
the expanse that it would pay to use ships instead.. 
This matter was brought up for discussion at 
the Shipping Conference in Berlin, and a reso- 
lution was carried calling upon the government 
to confer with the other maritime states with the 
view either of prohibiting the towing of such 
rafts across the seas or of issuing regulations to 
insure the visibility of such rafts, especially in 
foggy weather and at night. 



24 



June, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



185 



LABOR NEWS 



Confronted by grand jury indictments and 
charges of corruption and misdemeanor in 
office, John C. Bond, state auditor of West Vir- 
ginia, has agreed to resign. Bond was in charge 
of bulled-pen miners in Cabin Creek and Paint 
Creek during the strike in those sections thir- 
teen years ago. 

Another disaster in one of West Virginia's 
notorious non-union mines has exacted a toll 
of nearly 100 lives. The property is owned by 
the New England Fuel and Transportation 
Company. It is doubtful if the cause will 
ever be known, but these mines are invariably 
operated in defiance of State mining laws. 

Labor organizations of Porto Rico, Nica- 
ragua, Cuba, Argentine, Venezuela, San Salva- 
dor, Panama, Mexico, Honduras and the 

j Dominican Republic have signified their inten- 
tion of being represented at the fifth congress 
of the Pan-American Federation of Labor at 
Washington, beginning July 18. 

One out of every four immigrant aliens com- 
ing to the United States makes New York State 
his future home, the Bureau of Immigration 
announces. More Mexicans than any other 
racial group entered the United States from 
July to February. Most of them went to 
Texas, which was second to New York in the 

| matter of permanent abode of immigrants. 

Old age pension laws have just been enacted 
by Colorado and by Canada. With this favor- 
able action, five states — Colorado, Montana, 
Nevada, Wisconsin, Kentucky — and Alaska 
have already adopted non-contributory old age 
pensions to care for aged dependents in their 
own homes instead of in costly and inhuman 

ipoorhouses. 

The Union Labor Life Insurance Co. has been 
granted permission to do business in Maryland 
and the District of Columbia. Approval of its 
policies by the Insurance Commissioners of 
this territory carries permission to solicit busi- 
ness through agents and by mail elsewhere. 
Before agencies can be opened in other states 
similar permission from the local authorities 
must be secured. 

The eight-months' strike of the Porto Rico 
tobacco workers against the Porto Rican- 



American Tobacco Company has been settled, 
according to a letter to President Green from 
Santiago Iglesias, president of the Porto Rican 
Free Federation of Workingmen and Spanish 
language secretary of the Pan-American Fed- 
eration of Labor. 

How a group of bankers "made" $1,200,000 
without putting up one cent of money was 
revealed by Robert E. Christie, vice-president 
of Dillon, Read & Co., in a suit brought by 
minority stockholders of the Goodyear Tire & 
Rubber Company. The bankers floated a $30,- 
000,000 bond issue, and between themselves 
organized a "purchase" group, a "banking" 
group and a "distributing" group. By merely 
assuming liability for taking over the bond 
issue and charging for paper transactions be- 
tween the various groups, the $1,200,000 profit 
was possible. 

Governor Hunt of Arizona has signed the 
women's eight-hour law, which passed the 
Senate after a long struggle with but two dis- 
senting votes. The bill was aided in the House 
by Speaker Crawford. He said that when the 
first law of this kind was enacted he and his 
father were operating a laundry on the ten- 
hour basis. "We were confident that an eight- 
hour law would ruin us." he told his colleagues, 
"but at the end of the first week under the 
short-hour law we were getting better results. 
I am for this measure and I will even be for a 
stronger measure." 

The auto industry leads railroads in the 
number of workers employed and in capital 
invested, and ranks first in the nation's indus- 
tries, according to a report to the American 
Bankers' Association. "The capital invested 
in motor vehicles and highways improved pri- 
marily for motor vehicle use," the report says, 
"is in excess of the total invested in railroads. 
Automotive and allied industries have on their 
payrolls about 8 per cent of all persons gain- 
fully employed in the United States. In re- 
pair shops, public garages, professional chauf- 
feurs and truck drivers, the total is greater 
than for railroad workers of all classes." 

Chicago now boasts the largest hotel in the 
world, the Stevens, which opened for business 
recently. It is twenty-five stories high, has 
3000 rooms, cost, with furnishings, $30,000,000, 
and has a staff of 30,000 employes. Should a 
guest desire the experience of sleeping in a 
different room each night, he would spend 



25 



186 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June, 1927 



more than eight years in the hotel before oc- 
cupying each of the 3000 rooms. The Stevens 
tops the new Palmer House, Chicago's next 
largest hotel, by 720 rooms, the latter, recently 
rebuilt}, having 2280 rooms, or eighty more 
than New York's largest hotel, the Pennsyl- 
vania. 

The New York communists under graft in- 
vestigation in Magistrate Corrigan's court howl 
they are "framed" by the A. F. of L. special 
committee that is aiding the International Fur 
Workers' Union. The "reds" spent more than 
$800,000 with no record of expenditures. Some 
of the crew admitted their wrong to the com- 
mittee, but now repudiate this confession. They 
all but wrecked the fur workers' organized 
movement and now plead the charges against 
them is a plot to weaken their influence in the 
union. Matthew Woll, A. F. of L. vice-presi- 
dent, and Edward McGrady and Hugh Frayne, 
A. F. of L. representatives, are aiding the fur 
workers. 

An analysis of 1925 tax returns show that 95 
per cent of the individual tax collections were 
paid by .29 of 1 per cent (approximately one 
out of every 400) of those making returns, 
while 82 per cent of the people paid no income 
tax. Membership in the millionaire club 
jumped to 207 in 1925, as against 75 in the 
preceding year and 74 in 1923. Corporation 
income tax returns of $1,101,657,078 was the 
largest on record. This tax is exclusive of the 
excess profits tax. The prosperity of corpo- 
rate industry was also indicated by the reports 
of the 169,917 concerns reporting no net in- 
come, their combined deficits being less than 
for any year since 1919. 

In explaining how Steel Trust capital stock 
received a larger share of gross income last 
year than in many years past, and labor's share 
was smaller, the Wall Street Journal assures 
the public that "these figures do not mean that 
labor suffered in any way last year, as com- 
pared with 1925." "Average wages paid in 
1926," this financial paper says, "were, in fact, 
slightly higher than in 1925, or $1844 against 
$1828." This is an increase of $16 for the entire 
year, or approximately 5 cents a day, although 
the editor acknowledges that "production, and 
consequently earnings, was increased by 
higher efficiency of labor due to regular em- 
ployment and by increased use of labor-saving 
devise." 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



American copper mines in Chile are said to 
be the only large industries running at capacity 
and able to maintain good wages and comfort- 
able living conditions for their workmen. 

As a means of relief for the spreading of 
unemployment the French government has 
finally prohibited by decree all introduction of 
laborers from foreign countries. 

The population of Rotterdam on December 
31, 1926, totaled 559,618 persons (275732 males 
and 283,886 females) as against 548,92" person] 
on December 31, 1925, or an increase for the 
year of 10,689 persons. 

A small group of Austrian immigrants re- 
cently arrived in Ecuador, leading, it is said, to 
the general conclusion that the economic future 
of Ecuador depends upon the success the coun- 
try may have in attracting European immigrants 
of the type that formerly went to the United 
States. 

The arrival in Greece, from Turkey during 
the past five years, of more than a million refu- 
gees has brought about marked changes in 
population, unemployment and influences upon 
the general labor situation. Salon iki has 
grown from a city of 175,000 to nearly half a 
million inhabitants; and during the past six 
months its unemployed total has grown from 
a few hundred to more than ten thousand. 

By a practically unanimous vote the French 
Senate has adopted the Washington ('inven- 
tion for an eight-hour working day, condi- 
tioned upon its later ratification by German! 
and Great Britain. After these countries have 
accepted the convention through legislative 
enactment, its provisions will replace tho 
the existing French eight-hour law of April 
23, 1919, upon terms somewhat more favorable 
to the workmen. 

On the initiative of the Mexican Regional 
Federation of Labor, a new joint convention 
of management and workers in the sugar in- 
dustry in the state of Vera Cruz, Mexico, has 
been arranged. The "Crom," in its call lot 
the workers to attend this convention, states 
its belief that an understanding between cap- 
ital and labor in the industry which will re- 



2o 



June, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



187 



move the difficulties now proving detrimental 
can benefit both sides. Both agree to the ne- 
cessity of a tax reduction on the part of the 
government. 

The Yugoslavian "Volksstimme" contains a 
long article dealing with conditions in Yugo- 
slavian spinning mills, remarking in conclu- 
sion that much has been heard of recent times 
of the indescribable exploitation of the work- 
ing class in China, but little concerning con- 
ditions in the Near East, especially in the 
Yugoslavian spinning mills. Working condi- 
tions in these mills are quite as terrible as in 
China, with the single difference that in China 
it is British and French owners who do the 
exploiting, while in Yugoslavia it is Germans 
and Czechs. The chief workers in the spin- 
ning mills are women, who ought to enjoy the 
protection of the special legislation to that end. 
But working hours are often as long as eleven, 
and in the last few months some mills have 
actually worked an average of fifteen hours. 
There are even mills in which women are re- 
quired to work thirty-two hours at a stretch. 

In spite of the terrorism which keeps news 
of what is really happening in Italy from com- 
ing out of there, it is impossible to keep the 
lid entirely on the situation, and enough is 
seeping through the border to show that what 
has been printed here about the condition of 
the workers in Italy is true in every partic- 
ular. While salaries and wages have been cut, 
the cost of living has not gone down. Food 
and rent are so high as to make the conditions 
of many of the workers pitiable. So pitiable 
that, in spite of the terror, sporadic uprisings 
have occurred. Why the newspapers of this 
country and most of the special writers they 
have sent to Italy have played the dictator's 
game is hard to understand. Eventually the 
real situation there will be exposed. There is 
bound to result a lack of confidence in the re- 
liability of the news broadcast by great jour- 
nals who have helped to create in other lands 
the Mussolini myth. 

The spectacular campaign in the Vienna, 
municipal elections which led to an over- 
whelming Socialist victory drew out over 90 
per cent of the voters. The Socialists got 
690,000 votes against 417,000 for the anti-labor 
block. The Socialist majority in the council, 
now increased to two-thirds of the total, can 



go on with its unprecedented experiments in 
"practical socialism." In the national Austrian 
elections which took place at the same time the 
Socialists increased their representation, but 
did not secure a majority. In Vienna under 
Socialist rule housing is practically free for all 
except the rich. A tax of a few dollars a year 
is collected from each tenant for the municipal 
apartment building fund. At the present rate 
the city will have by 1932 about 65,000 apart- 
ments. Wealthy citizens in Vienna take little 
pride in the beauty and comfort of these mu- 
nicipal buildings, because they had to pay for 
them. It is estimated that the 731 richest ten- 
ants in Vienna paid more in rent used for 
putting up municipal housing than the 490,000 
other tenants. The Socialist council also built 
clinics, nurseries, schools and other agencies 
which are being studied by a continuous flow 
of delegations from municipalities all over 
Europe. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE STEIDLE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

P. O. Box 214. Phone Main 2233 

SAN PEDRO, Cal Ill Sixth Street 

JOE WADE, Agent 
Phone 1317J 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal :... 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca St., P. O. Box 42 

Phone Elliot 3425 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 138 

Phone 147 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 
AND VICINITY 

CORDOVA, ALASKA I'. O. Box 597 

N. SWANSON, Secretary 



MONTEREY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE UNION 

Headquarters: 

MONTEREY, Cal 508 Abrego Street 



EUREKA, 



EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

Cal 

G. A. SVENSON, Agent 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

Phone Elliot 6752 
Branches: 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

Phone Black 241 
KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. B 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

OAKLAND, Cal 219 Federal Telegraph Bldg. 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary 
Telephone Lakeside 3591 



27 



188 THESEAMEN'SJOURNAL June, \92 

BROADCASTING — > 

A $475,000 NOTE ISSUE 

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INTEREST RATES: 

Interest is assured and depends upon the amount that you invest. Our 
NOTES are issued in the following denominations : 

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28 



June, 1927 
•f 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 
— -f 



189 



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Eureka, 210 F St.; Santa Cruz., 121 Pacific 
Ave. j Portland, Ore., cor. Washington and 
Broadway; Seattle, 206 Union St.; Tacoma, 
1103 J/2 Broadway; Bellingham, Holly and 
Commercial Sts.; Vancouver, B. C, 101 
Hastings St. E.j Boston, Mass., 581 Wash- 
ington St. 



MEAD'S 
RESTAURANT 

No. 14 
EMBARCADERO 

NO. 3 
MARKET STREET 

"THE" Place to Eat 
in 

San Francisco 



INFORMATION WANTED 

REWARD 

Two hundred dollars reward will 
be paid for information that will 
enable the undersigned to identify 
and recover damages from the ship 
that pulled out a submarine cable on 
November 5, 1926, at 7:03 p. m., in 
Carquinez Straits, cable running 
from a point approximately 500 feet 
east of the Associated Oil Dock just 
north of Port Costa, thence north- 
erly across the Straits, landing ap- 
proximately 500 feet southwest of 
the Southern Pacific Depot at 
Benicia, California. — Postal Tele- 
graph-Cable Company. By A. B. 
Richards, General Superintendent, 
22 Battery Street, San Francisco, 
California. 

Anyone knowing the whereabouts 
of Frans Oskar Eriksson, formerly 
of Obbola, Wasterbotten, Sweden, 
will kindly communicate with his 
sister, Mrs. A. Gidlund, 1401 River- 
side Ave., Hoquiam, Wash. 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union ef 
the Pacific since Its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

Will give the cases of seafaring men 

prompt attention 

531 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market 

Streets, San Francisco 

Phone Douglas 315 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 

— at — 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone Davenport 537 



THE 
James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

PRINTING 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney For 

Marine Firemen and Watertendera' 

Union of Pacific 

Marine Diesel and Gasoline "Engi- 
neers' Association No. 4!) 
10 Embarcadero Tel. Davenport 3134 
676 Mills Bldg. Tel. Douglas 1058 
San Francisco, California 



Telephone Garfield 306 



Henry Heidelberg 

Attorney at Law 

(Heidelberg & Murasky) 

Flood Building, San Francisco 



Buy Union Stamped Shoes 



We ask all members of organized labor to 
purchase shoes bearing our Union Stamp on 
the sole, inner-sole or lining of the shoe. We 
ask you not to buy any shoes unless you 
actually see this Union Stamp. 



Boot & Shoe Workers' Union 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 

246 Summer Street, Boston, Mass. 

COLLIS LOVELY CHARLES L. BAINE 
General President General Secretary-Treasurer 



29 




S. T. Hogevoll, Seamen's Law- 
yer; wages, salvage and damages. 
909 Pacific Building, 821 Market 
Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 

FERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 




190 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Jn. 



192! 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STOR-RS 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Co. 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 
AND EMBALMERS 

Crematory and Columbarium In 
Connection 

Broadway at Olive St. Seatl 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO FOOT 
OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES. HATS 
AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., Cor. University, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Union Store 

Best Line of Men's Suits 

Overcoats, Raincoats, Shoes, Hats 

and Men's Furnishings 

CARL SCHERMER 

715 First Avenue 
SEATTLE, WASH. 



Tel. Sutter 6900 

Notary Public — Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



Mother: "Even if your friends 
don't like Lillie, I hope you are 
careful not to say anything in her 
presence to hurt her feelings." 

Elsie: "Oh, yes, Mother, we're 
very careful. Whenever she conies 
near we always move a little way 
off from her and whisper." 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim and Douglas Shoes 

And the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 Sixth Street, SAN PEDRO OPP. SAILORS' UNION HALL 



PROVIDENCE, R. L 



TAXI 



CALL GASPEE 5000 
Red Tod Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 
67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. 



Bill's Smoke Shop 

Right alongside the Sailors' Union 
Hall 



Complete Line of Smokes 
371 Richmond St., Providence, R. I, 



Matty's Union Barber 
Shop 

Special Attention to Seafaring Men 
95 Point St. Providence, R. I. 



Eastern Restaurant 

Corner Point and Eddy 

HOME COOKED MEALS 

The Best Cup of Coffee in the Port 

One block from Union Hall 
Corner Point and Eddy Streets 



Man (in barber chair) : "Be care- 
ful not to cut my hair too short — 
people will take me for my wife." 



TACOMA, WASH, 



StarkePs Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



GEO. LONEY, President 
H. O. HAUGEN, Sec.-Treas. 

HAUGEN & LONEY 
TAILORS 

High Grade Custom Tailoring 

942 Pacific Avenue 

PHONE MAIN 8000 

Tacoma, Wash. 



SMOKE 

SAN TEX CIGARS 

Union Made 

San Tex Cigar Co. 937 Tacoma Ave. 
Tacoma, Wash. 



Seamen, Attention! 

EUREKA BENJAMIN— Now 
Located in San Francisco 

A full line of 

Clothing, Furnishings and Shoes 

in Stock 

NO RUNNERS EMPLOYED 

729 Market Street 

Eetween Third and Fourth Streets 
SAN FRANCISCO 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gent's Furnishing Goods 

Sayer'a Oil Skin Clothing 

Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 

110 EAST STREET Near Mission 

Kearny 3863 San Francisco 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



A FULL STOCK OF 

UNION MADE CLOTHING. HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS. 
GLOVES, OVERALLS. SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 
321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Higkory Phlrts. 

Hats, Oil Clothing. 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe. 

302 8o. F Street, ABERDEEN, Wash 

on the Water Front 



HUOTARI & CO. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
and MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

UNION MADE GOODS 

Orders taken for 

MADE-TO-MEASURE CLOTHING 

Heron and F Sts , Aberdeen, Wash. 

Tickets to and from Eur 

NOTARY PUBLJC 



Phone 263 

NIELS JOHNSON 

"THE ROYAL" 

"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 

219 EIGHTH ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



30 



Tune, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



191 



Savings 



PIONEERS IN MODERN LABOR BANKING 



Thrift 




Wm®m&m& W®m®& Wm&, 



Commercial 



of San Francisco 

MEMBER OF FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 

Brotherhood Bank Building 

26 O'Farrell Street 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 



Exchange 



D. S. 



E. W. SCOTT, M. D., D 
Dentist 
10 Embarcadero 
San Francisco, California 

Open Sunday by Appointment 

Foot of Market Street 

Opp. Ferry Building 



A dachshund is half a dog high 
jy a dog and a half long. 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry. 

Phone Kearny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near Townsend 

San Francisco 



SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES 

One Minute from Ferry Building 

The 

ANCHOR CHAIN 

SAFE DEPOSIT CO. 

11 Steuart Street 
San Francisco, California 



RELIABLE TAILOR 

Popular Prices 

TOM WILLIAMS 

48 CALIFORNIA ST., near Davis 

Phone Douglas 4874 

San Francisco 



Phone Davenport 505 With Morgen's 

BEN HARRIS 

Formerly of 218 East Street 

125 MARKET STREET 
Bet. Spear and Main Streets 

WORK AND DRESS CLOTHES 
SHOES, HATS, CAPS 



BOSS™ TAILOR 

NOW AT 

1048 MARKET STREET 

Five Doors Below Granada Theater 

We Use the Only Label Recognized by The American Federation of 
Labor. Accept no Other. 



SUITS AND 
OVERCOATS 

at Popular Prices 




§U$&s||| All Work Done 
res ill^^Nlll Under Strictly Union 
Conditions 



You May Remember My Name, But Sure Would Like to Have You 
Remember the Number 

1048 MARKET STREET 



Crooked Dough 



for- 



Kit: "He cleaned up a 
tune in crooked dough." 

Kat: "He was a counterfeiter?" 
Kit: "No, a pretzel manufac- 
turer." 



Telephone Garfield 694 

O. B. Olsen's 
Restaurant 

Delicious Meals at Pre- War Prices 
Quick Servlc* 

98 Embarcadero and 4 Mission St. 
San Francisco, Open 6 a. m. to 1 a. m. 



San Francisco Camera Exchange 

88 Third Street, at Mission 




KODAKS and CAMERAS 

Exchanged, Bought, Sold, 

Repaired and Rented 

Developing and Printing 

31 



Read Meters 

Viola: "Oh, he's a poet, I'm sure. 
He says he's an expert at meter 
reading." 

May: "Poet nothing! He works 
for the gas company, my child." 



ALAMEDA CAFE 

Personal Management of 
JACOB PETERSEN 

Proprietor 

Established 1880 

COFFEE AND LUNCH 

HOUSE 

7 Market St. and 17 Steuart St. 

San Francisco 



GEO. A. PRICE 

— SAYS — 
Our success is due to the fact that 
our merchandise is superior and our 
prices are right. Boss of the Road 
and Can't Bust 'Em Union-made 
products are sold with money's worth 
or a money back guarantee. 

First-Class Seamen's Outfitters 
19 The Embarcadero 
San Francisco, Calif. 



192 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



June 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 
and Battery Sts., Opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 
THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances t<> illustrate and teach 
ny branch of Navigation. 
The class of teachers of Navigation 
| ist have been those having 

imply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 

;ed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now, 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be. even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of Ignorance to the height of the average 
well Informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




White Palace Shoe Store 



34 MARKET STREET,o PP 
JOE WEISS, Prop. 

Phone DAVENPORT 7895 

Large stock of men's Nunn, Bush and 

Crossett shoes. Repair work done neatly 

while you wait. 

COME AND GIVE US A TRIAL 

Branch Store at 41 Fourth Street 
Near Market Street 



S. P. Bldg., SAN FRANCISCO 





BETTER DENTISTRY 
Better Health 

DR. C. S. FORD 

DENTIST 
702 MARKET STREET 

At Market — Geary — Kearny Streets 

Sutter 2860 

Daily Office Hours: 8:30 a. m. — 8 p. m. 

Sunday Hours — 9 a. m. till noon 

"One Patient Tells Another" 



Established 1896 




James <&. Sorensen 

fres and Jf«03. 



Diamond Engagement Rings 

Select them from our large stock in attractive 
Platinum and White Gold Mountings that com- 
bines Quality with Low Prices. 

Diamonds - Watches * Jewelry 
Clocks & Silverware 

715 Market St., between 3rd and 4th Sts. 
JEWELERS & OPTICIANS 

All Watch Repairing Guaranteed 

A GOOD ALARM CLOCK FOR 85c NOW 



HALE BROS. 

INC. 

Cowhide 

TRAVELING 

BAGS 

$ 15.00 



Sturdy Traveling Bags made 
of genuine cowhide. All have 
hand-sewed frames and extra 
corner-. 

Shown in both single and 
double handle types. 

Shades of tan. brown or black. 

These well made bags will 
give years of service. 

— Fourth Floor 



Fifth and Market 
SAN FRANCISCO 



UNION LABEL 
WORSTED $QQ 
SUITS OcJ 

Unconditionally Guaranteed to 
Wear and Wear and Wear 
See Them In Our Windows 




653-866 MARKET ST. 
Sam FRANCISCO 

Opposite The Emporium 



WHICH ROAD? 

The trails of life are not always 
marked, bul the road that 1< 
the ownership of homes, Invest- 
ments, and other property Is paved 
with regular savings deposits, our 
"Ambition Bond" tells how you r.m 
accomplish any objective through 
regular sajrlng. Ask for a 

HUMBOLDT 
BANK 

Savings — Commercial — Trust 

7S3 Market Street, near Fourth 

San Francisco, Calif. 



32 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

Ls a > |Caca|| ' I,ai Mtcaiif triiiiieic3iiini tiiiiic3iiiitiiiiiiic3iiiTiiiiiiiic2iiiiiiiiiiiiC2iiiiitiiitiiC3iiiiaifiitiic3iiiiin iicaiiiiiiiiiiiicsiiffiiiiiiriicsf ■iinniitic^iiiiiiiii*iiic3itriTi iinirc^f iiviiiimic3iiif iiiiiiatc^iiiiiiuitficai 



il 



Our Aim 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR &EAMEN: 

Sea poiver is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

Page 

SKILLED SEAMEN STILL AVAILABLE 195 

THE HEALTH OF SEAMEN 196 

MISSIONARIES IN CHINA 197 

EDITORIALS: 

WHAT IS UN-AMERICAN 198 

THE FORTY-EIGHT HOUR WEEK 198 

STRIKE BREAKING IS COSTLY 199 

THE NORWEGIAN ARBITRATION ACT 199 

LINDBERGH'S FATHER .-200 

CO-OPERATION IN JAPAN 201 

DOLLAR IN THE NEWS AGAIN 202 

I. W. W. MURDERERS CONFESS 202 

THE FUTURE OF THE PACIFIC 203 

THE HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE 205 

BARNACLES IN FRESH WATER 205 

WHALING IN THE ANTARCTIC 206 

A TEN THOUSAND DOLLAR VERDICT 207 

ITALY'S PENAL COLONY 208 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 210 

BOOK REVIEWS 211 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 213, 214, 215, 216 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 217, 218, 219 



VOL. XLI, No. 7 
WHOLE No. 1962 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
JULY 1, 1927 



!^.iiiiitcaiiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiuc3iiMiiiiiiiic3iiiiiiiiiiiic3iaiiiirc3iiiiiiiiinicaiiii iiu iiiiiiiuiiiiiiimiiu iiiiioiiiiiiiiiiinuuuiii'uuHiHiiiiiiinifK: 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C. 



V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 
359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass PERCY J. PRYOR. Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 1258. 
Branches: 

PROVIDENCE. R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Dexter 8090. 

NEW YORK. N Y CHRIS RASMUSSEN. Agent 

67-69 Front Street. Phone Bowling Green 0524 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON. Agent 

216 S. Second Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE, Md M. A. SCHUCH, Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 5910. 

NORFOLK. Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 238fis Norfolk. 

MOBILE, Ala W1L ROSS, Agent 

G6i£ Government Street. Phone Bell 1796 

NEW ORLEANS. La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Jackson 5557 

GALVESTON. Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street, Phone 2215 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex 

131 Proctor Street 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTEN 
UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 
Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches: 

BOSTON. Mass TONY ASTE, 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RrVERS, 

375 Richmond Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa OTTO A. OLSSON, 

216 South Second Street 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, 

735 So. Broadway 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, 

206 Julia Street 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex 

222 Proctor St. 

MOBILE, Ala WM. ROSS, 

OfiVfe Government Street. Phone Bell L7M 



DERS' 
Street 

Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 
Agent 

Agent 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 
„_ _ Headquarters: 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 
Branches: 

NEW YORK (West Side Bran.li) IAS. ALLEN, Agent 

Phone Cortlandt 1979 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE. Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1710 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street 

MOBILE, Ala WM. ROSS, Agent 

66V2 Government Street. Phone Bell 1796 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

»21 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Tex 

131 Proctor Street. 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters: 

BOSTON. Mass WM. H. BROWN, Secretary 

288 State Street. Phone Richmond 0827. 
Branches: 

GLOUCESTER, Mass THOMAS COVE, Agent 

209 Main Street. Phone Gloucester 1045 

NEW YORK. N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

6 Fulton Street. Phone John 4539. 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR EM- 
PLOYES UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 

NEW ORLEANS, La S. C. OATS. Secretary 

910 N. Dorgenois S treet. P hone Galvez 6210-J 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters: 

CHICAGO, 111 359 North Wells Street 

VICTOR A. OLANDER. Secretary 
Phone Superior 5175 

Branches: 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue. W. Phone Main 1842. 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING. Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

652 Jefferson Ave. W., Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

THOS. CONWAY, Secretary 
ED. HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches: 

CLEVELAND, Ohio PATRICK ADAMS, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis ERNEST ELLIS, 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Midi. WM. BDGEWORTH, \-.nt 

652 Jefferson Avenue, W. Phone Cadillac 543 

CHICAGO, 111 CHARLES GUSTAFSON, AgeJ 

359 N.-rth Wells Street. Phone State 5175 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters: 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. SECORD, SecretaJ 

35 West Eagle Street. Telephone Seneca 0896 
Branches: 

CHICAGO, 111 25 W. Kinzle Street 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 

308 Superior Avenue. W. Phone Main 1*42 

MILWAUKEE, Wis., 162 Reed St., Phone Broadway 48» 

DETROIT. Mich 

652 Jefferson A venue. W . Phone Randolph 0044 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN, Acting Secretary 
Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches: 

TACOMA, Wash A. KLEMMSEN, Agent 

2207 North Thirtieth Street 
P. O. Box 102, Telephone Main 3984 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65, Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash MARTIN OLSEN, Agent 

310 So. G Street 
P. O. Box 280, Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, ORE JOHN M. MOORE, Agent 

242 Flanders Street, Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 So. Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68, Telephone 1713W 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters: 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 3699 
Branches: 

SEATTLE, Wash DAVE ROBERTS, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Elliot L1M 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM SHERIDAN. Agent 

111 Sixth Street. P. O. Box 574. Phone 336 
(Continued on page 27) 



July, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



195 



SKILLED MEN STILL AVAILABLE 




HERE are those who contend that skill 
and efficiency among the personnel of 
the American Merchant Marine have 
become a negligible quantity. There 
are others who even maintain that the 
[goodwill and the co-operation of the crew have 
ceased to be essential factors in the successful 
operation of ships. Happily, such viewpoints 
po not represent the thinking element among 
phip operators. There is at least a healthy min- 
ority that fully realizes the importance of 
efficiency and the value of constant, whole- 
hearted co-operation by the crew. 

While the policy of every prudent owner and 
operator should be rightfully toward reduction 
in general operating expense, it is a sad but 
notorious fact that certain prominent Amer- 
ican shipping men give preference in employ- 
ment to aliens and particularly to Orientals 
solely because it is possible to obtain such men 
at a lower schedule of pay and under living 
conditions unacceptable to American seamen. 

The true goal of American effort should al- 
ways be to increase efficiency of operation. The 
most certain means to this end is improvement 
in the efficiency of sea labor. Most of the 
efficient men are members of the various dis- 
trict unions and branches of the International 
Seamen's Union of America. It is a paying 
proposition to send to the union office for men. 
When an officer of a Seamen's Union is called 
upon to furnish men for a certain ship, he does 
his level best to supply men best suited for the 
particular type of work in question. The union 
agent's experience with men enables him to 
render satisfaction to the vessel operator with 
a greater degree of certainty than any other 
employment service. Countless incidents and 
concrete examples may be cited to "prove up" 
on this assertion. For instance, Mr. Harry 
Ohlsen, the agent of the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific at San Pedro, California, has been called 
upon from time to time to furnish crews to the 
fine old sailing ships now engaged in the film- 
ing of moving pictures on the southern Cali- 
fornia coast. 

The interesting and self-explanatory com- 
munications which follow show rather con- 
clusively that skilled and efficient sailor men 



are still obtainable when masters or ship- 
owners exercise a little sound judgment in 
applying for men : 

CECIL B. DE MILLE PICTURES CORPORA- 
TION— DE MILLE STUDIO 

Culver City, California. 
Ship Bohemia, Long Beach, Calif., 

Friday, June the 10th, 1927. 
To: Mr. Harry Ohlsen, Agent tor the Sailors' Union 
of the Pacific, Sailors' Union Hall, San Pedro, 
California. 
Dear Mr. Ohlsen: 

I herewith deliver to you a duplicate of an original 
letter which was mailed to me by the management of 
the Columbia Pictures Corporation of Hollywood, 
California, shortly after the conclusion of complete 
filming of the motion picture to be known and entitled 
"The Blood Ship." This corporation is not in any way 
connected with the De Mille organization, they were 
merely charterers of the ship "pro tern." 

I have felt that it was in form to furnish you with 
this duplicate copy in order to convince you and the 
men themselves that there are still persons and cor- 
porations who, although they may have little knowl- 
edge regarding matters maritime, are possessed of 
sufficient perceptive intelligence to visualize and realize 
first class service in their interest, and that such ser- 
vice can be rendered only by men who are really and 
truly "sailors," as in this case. To me the most ad- 
mirable phase of the matter is that these officials of 
the Columbia Pictures Corporation were possessed of 
sufficient magnamity of disposition to let us know that 
our combined services were perceived, and appreciated. 
I remain as ever truly and sincerely yours, 
(Signed) W. I. EYRES, 

Master of Ship Bohemia. 

(Duplicate Copy of Original Letter to Master of 

Bohemia) 

COLUMBIA PICTURES CORPORATION 

1483 Gower Street, Hollywood, California 

Executive Offices, 1600 Broadway, New York City 

Los Angeles, Calif., June 10, 1927. 

Captain Williams I. Eyres, 

Master of Ship Bohemia,. Long Beach, Calif. 
Dear Sir: 

On behalf of this corporation, its officers, and its 
members, may I take this opportunity of thanking you 
for the kind co-operation which was extended to us 
while we were filming scenes of our motion picture 
entitled the "Blood Ship," on board of your vessel. 

The many favors extended to us by you, and your 
splendid crew are indeed appreciated, and I may say 
at this time that the efficient and skillful handling, and 
maneuvering of the ship at all times assisted us greatly 
in completing our work, not only in a satisfactory 
manner but in as short a period of time as was pos- 
sible. 

We hope again in the not distant future to be en- 
abled to avail ourselves of the splendid services of 
yourself, your crew and your good ship for prospec- 
tive marine filming. 
We remain very truly, 

COLUMBIA PICTURES CORPORATION. 
(Signed) Samuel J. Briskin, 

Business and Executive Manager. 

As a fitting addition to the foregoing letter 
it should be stated that in filming the T>1<«>d 
Ship," "Yankee Clipper" and other popular 



1% 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July. 1927 



moving pictures, those who were entrusted 
with hiring the crew showed the good sense, 
not only to employ competent union sailors, 
hut also engaged high class cooks from the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards Association at San 
Pedro. 

That Captain Eyres is appreciative of good 
service is clearly demonstrated by a previous 
letter to Agent Harry Ohlsen, reading as fol- 
lows : 

Ship Bohemia, Isthian Cove, 

Santa I atalina Island, Calif., 
Wednesday, August 11, L926. 

To: Mr. Harry Ohlsen, 

Agent, Sailors' Union of the Pacific, 
San Pedro, California. 
Snhject: Crew Efficiency. 
Dear Mr. Ohlsen: 

I wish at this time to highly compliment you on the 
efficiency of the crew that you furnished for this ship 
for duty on present filming cruise on the above vessel. 
and in doing so I want you to know that this compli- 
ment is for the men themselves. 

Since taking up their duties I have not heard one 
word of dissatisfaction, they are all men of character, 
and of high manly qualities. All are highly interested 
in their work, to such an extent that the Chief Direc- 
tor, Mr. Rupert Julian, is already most favorably im- 
pressed by their attitude in the promotion of filming 
work. So far the pictures secured have been excellent 
and are the best marine views that I have yet seen. 

Everything moves along smoothly, and the maxi- 
mum of efficiency is being obtained in maneuvering 
ship, in general aid to the actor, and camera personnel 
in the prosecution of their work. In short, these men 
of yours are demonstrating that the sailor who is 
really a sailor is a vital adjunct to, or of the marine 
end of this motion picture business. 

Wishing you well and with best regards, 
I remain trulv yours, 

(Signed)' W. I. EYRES, 

Master, Ship Bohemia. 

If there were more appreciative souls like 
Captain Eyres the get-together process would 
he a comparatively easy matter. There are al- 
together too many men who take it for granted 
that first class service is normal and needs no 
commendation. Let us have more of the fine 
spirit shown by the master of the Bohemia. 
A good word, when well deserved, makes work 
seem like play ! 



THE HEALTH OF SEAMEN 



INSPIRING SENTIMENTS 

( By Kabindrath Tagore) 



Where the mind is without fear and the head is held 
high; 

Where knowledge is free; 

Where the world has not been broken up into frag- 
ments by narrow domestic walls; 

Where words come out from the depths of truth; 

Where tireless striving stretches its arm towards 
perfection; 

Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its 
way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit; 

Where the mind is led forward by Thee into ever- 
widening thought and action — 

Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my 
country awake. 



It will be remembered that, as the result of 
an international conference held at Oslo in the 
summer of 1 U J6, a Permanent Joint Committee 
was set up. representing the League of Red 
Cross Societies, the Health Section of the 
League of Nations, and the International La- 
bor ( )ffice, to consider measures for facilitat- 
ing the medical treatment of seamen and pro- 
moting their well being on board and ashore. 

This committee held its first meeting recent- 
ly at the offices of the League of Rvd Croa 
Societies, in Paris. 

There were present: Mr. Koolmans-Behnei 
(Netherlands), Mr. Gramm (Norway;. Mr. 
Tsurumi (Japan), Mr. Leon Bernard (Health 
Committee of the League of Nations), Dr. 
Carozzi (International Labor Office), and 
representatives of the League of Red Cross 
Societies. The national Red Cross societies of 
Germany and Great Britain had not yet nomi- 
nated their representatives. Mr. Snow (Unite! 
States) was detained in Geneva and unable to 
attend. 

Under the chairmanship of Mr, Koolmans- 
Behnen, the committee considered throe ques- 
tions: The contents of ships' medicine chests; 
medical manuals; and the transmission of med- 
ical advice by wireless. 

The committee decided that a list should be 
drawn up of the drugs and appliances provided 
for in the various nationals codes, showing 
tlio>c which were required by all the codes and 
those which were required only by some codes, 
together with a standard list of drugs and ap- 
pliances which, in the opinion of the commit- 
tee, should be included among the contents of 
every medicine chest. This standard list will 
be submitted not only to the members of the 
committee, but also to associations of ships 
doctors and officers, shipowners and seamen. 
The observations of these bodies will be taken 
into account in the compilation of a definite 
list. 

The Health Service of the League was also 
entrusted with the sketching of an outline for 
a medical manual which should contain what 
was regarded as the minimum of essential in- 
formation. 

As regards consultation by wireless, it wal 
agreed that this question cannot be usefully 



July, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



197 



dealt with until a final agreement has been 
I reached as to the contents of the medicine 
chest and of the medical manual. 

The discussions of the committee were facil- 
itated by the distribution by the League of 
Red Cross Societies of two documents, one 
giving a survey of the medical manuals pro- 
vided for the merchant ships of various coun- 
tries, and the other giving a list of the drugs 
and appliances required under the various na- 
tional maritime codes. The next meeting of 
the committee will be held in October, 1927. 



MISSIONARIES IN CHINA 



"Rightly or wrongly, the East has come to 
Ithink of Christianity as part of the political 
(game of the West," says John Jesudason Cor- 
Inelius, a fourth generation Christian and a 
Inative of India, in a recent issue of Harper's 
Magazine. His indictment, whether consid- 
ered fair or not, is instructive. The expan- 
Ision of foreign governments at the expense of 
jChina has been closely connected with the kill- 
ing of missionaries by "would-not-be-saved" 
jChinese rebels. Thus, indeed, the patriotic 
feeling to rid China of the missionary pesti- 
lence was aroused. Dr. Cornelius believes 
(that, had there been no treaties forcing special 
{privileges for foreigners, especially mission- 
tries, the Chinese would be less hostile today, 
though the situation would have been more 
difficult at first. 

Of India, the writer says that it is commonly 
believed that "the Bible comes first and then 
{the gunpowder." In Africa the natives have 

Iost their lands since the arrival of the mission- 
tries. "Hence the east concludes that the po- 
litical method of the west is first to send mis- 
sionaries, then traders, and then gunboats to 
deprive the helpless peoples of their lands and 
pi take possession of their natural resources." 
The Orient suspects the missionary's real 
motive because he has let himself be used as 
ipolitical agent of an alien government. In 
jview of the relations between the government 
pf India and the missionary Dr. Cornelius 
.doubts if the latter can be neutral in his atti- 
tude toward the government and the natives. 
tin some cases where the missionary has felt 
obliged to report students to the government 
tor attending proscribed political meetings 



"the missionary appears to the non-Christian 
as a political agent masquerading under a re- 
ligious cloak." The present-day recognition of 
missionaries by imperialist governments, he 
believes, has actually lessened their opportu- 
nities. 

Another indictment against the missionaries 
is that western Christianity tends to suppress 
national cultures. While the east is "thankful 
for the introduction of western education, it 
resents its introduction at the expense of na- 
tional cultures." In this connection the author 
cites insistence upon English as the medium 
of instruction, the condemnation of Oriental 
literature, music and art as "heathen," the re- 
fusal in India to allow converts to retain their 
native names, etc. This attitude has resulted 
in the denationalization of the Christian com- 
munities in both India and China. Another 
difficulty in the Chinese situation is the fact 
that the Chinese Christians were put under 
the protection of foreign powers by treaties. 

But Dr. Cornelius accuses Christianity of 
"religious imperialism," as well. "Coupled 
with the intemperate aggressiveness of the 
western nations, the simple religion of the 
humble Nazarene has become the most aggres- 
sive, exclusive, and powerfully organized re- 
ligion in the world." The writer quotes hymns 
and missionary literature in this connection. 

In addition, the brighter side of the west 
has been pictured for the east. As Orientals 
become more familiar with western life, they 
see its social evils, and lose confidence in 
Christianity. "The Orientals naturally revolt 
against an organized religion which for the 
sake of money to propagate itself so humili- 
ates them in the eyes of others * * * . Only an 
interpretation of the higher idealism of both 
countries will bring about goodwill." 

The anti-Christian movement, says Dr. Cor- 
nelius, is "a call to Christianity to disentangle 
itself from all its political complications, to 
substitute disinterested service for proselytiz- 
ing as its motive, to seek to supplement and 
not to supplant, to be domestic and not foreign, 
to be concerned more with life and less with 
dogma." It should be noted that this article is 
an attempt by an Oriental Christian to inter- 
pret the anti-Christian movement oi the 
Orient. — Federal Council of Churche? of 
Christ in America. 



198 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July. 1927 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

THOMAS CONWAY, Second Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

P. B. GILL, Third Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fourth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
OSCAR CARLSON, Fifth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 
PATRICK O'BRIEN, Sixth Vice-President 

55 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

PETER E. OLSEN, Seventh Vice-President 

49 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

V. A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

359 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG Editor 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURNAL 
is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 



JULY 1, 1927 



WHAT IS UN-AMERICAN? 



have their choice of joining or not joining any 
church, lodge, political party or union that they 
may or may not want t<> join, and their joining 
or not joining is no one's affair but their own." 
The prerogative of "not joining" is unques- 
tioned and inalienable. But surely the matter 
of joining is the business of the organization 
one seeks to join— whether it be church, lodge, 
club, business organization or whatever else. 
Such might want to inquire whether the ap- 
plicant is honest, sober, of adult age and, more 
important, if he is in sympathy with tin- 
organization's purposes. 

Can anyone imagine the righteous indigna- 
tion of an open shop captain of industry if some 
uncouth person should attempt to "crash the 
gates" of his favorite country club without the 
formality of inspection. 

The labor union is but one- of myriad forms 
representing the effort- of man to protect his 
interests by means of collective effort. 

Those 100 per cent patriot- who waste their 
time maligning the labor union- are doing it 
either to curry someone's favor <>r because they 
are paid hard cash to do that kind of work'. 



An employee of the Industrial Association 
of San Francisco recently made the statement 
that "American labor unions are un-American 
now, and will continue so until they eliminate 
the 'closed shop.' " 

By this test, the social 400 is un-American 
because it will not admit the proletariat on 
terms of social equality; the various organiza- 
tions of business and professional men are un- 
American because they will not admit those 
who are unworthy or incompetent. Followed 
to its ultimate conclusion, this line of logic 
would make the government of the United 
States un-American because it has reared a 
tariff wall to limit the importation of foreign 
goods, bars undesirables from its shores and 
withholds suffrage from the mentally deficient. 

Arguing further, the champion of the "open 
shop," says : "If there is any one thing that 
Americans should have the right to do, it is to 



Till: FORTY-EIGHT lloi'K WEEK 



The Advisory Committee of the Seamen's 

Section of the International Transport Work- 
ers' Federation met at Antwerp recently to 
consider further steps to be taken to secure 
the eight-hour day and forty-eight-hour week 
for merchant seamen. The meeting was at- 
tended by representatives of seamen's and tire- 
men's unions in Belgium, Denmark, Germany. 
Finland, Holland, Norway and Sweden, and 
by two fraternal delegates from the Interna- 
tional Mercantile Marine Officers' Association. 
It was decided that the I. T. F. should issue an 
international manifesto in nine languages : 
150,000 copies to be printed as a beginning. In 
order to meet the costs of this campaign and 
to give the seamen an opportunity of broad- 
casting their argument, propaganda cards are 
to be printed, also in nine languages, for sale 
among the seamen. The French Seamen's 
Federation, which at present is not affiliated 
to the I. T. F., has declared its willingness to 
support the campaign, while the International 
Mercantile Marine Officers' Association has 
also signified i 4 - agreement with the plan-. 



July, 1927 THESEAMEN'SJOURNAL 199 

STRIKE BREAKING IS COSTLY NORWEGIAN ARBITRATION ACT 



An investigation of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company of New York reveals that 
money without limit was used last year to 
break an independent strike. 

These workers belong to a company "union.'' 
Some of the strike expenses were : $43,348 to 
detective agencies ; $42,090 for "field men," 
the new title for stool pigeons; $12,000 for 
automobile hire; $21,116 to strikebreaking 
agencies ; $50,000 for kitchen equipment and 
laundry. 

The constitution of the company "union" 
was the work of the Interborough's attorney. 
The strike cost $967,000, not including loss of 
fares. Strikebreakers were paid $10 and $12 
a day while motormen who refused to strike 
were paid their usual weekly wage with a 
bonus of two-weeks' pay when the strike 
ended. 

The employees accepted a 10 per cent wage 
cut in 1921 "to save the company from bank- 
ruptcy," but shortly after the board of direct- 
ors increased the salary of Frank Hedley. 
president, from $65,000 to $75,000 a year. The 
attorney who drew up the company "union" 
constitution was advanced from $60,000 to 
$72,000, and the assistant to the president 
drew a $5,000 increase. 

The company has secured an injunction 
against the legitimate union of street car men. 

It seems as if some injunction judge is 
always read} to safeguard the interests of the 
$75,000 a year man. And then some folks won- 
der why the workers are losing respect for the 
judiciary ! 



Elsewhere in this publication appears certain 
advance information on a notable conference 
to discuss the problems of the peoples inhabit- 
ing the shores of the Pacific. The editor of the 
Journal was privileged to attend a conference 
under the same auspices two years ago. He has 
again been honored with an invitation to attend 
this year's conference to meet at Honolulu, 
July 16 to 29, inclusive. A summary of the 
transactions of the Honolulu meeting will ap- 
pear in future issues of the Journal. 



No one is useless in this world who lightens 
:he burdens of another. 



When the bill was passed making arbitration 
of labor disputes compulsory, the Norwegian 
employers called off the lockout which had 
been in force against some 15,000 workers for 
over twelve weeks. Until the arbitration court 
has delivered its award, work will continue 
under the old conditions. As a protest against 
the act, the trade-unions have decided not to 
appoint a representative on the arbitration 
court, and to take no part in the negotiations 
before the court. The fixing of wages, which 
is the chief point at issue in the present dis- 
pute, will thus be left wholly to the members 
of the court appointed by the state. 

According to the new act, which will remain 
in force until August 1, 1929, whenever the 
government considers that important public 
interests are endangered, and the intervention 
of the state conciliator has failed to achieve 
agreement, it may, on the proposal of the con- 
ciliator, issue a decree prohibiting any stoppage 
of work and refer the point at issue to the 
decision of the court. The court award may be 
limited to such points in dispute as cannot be 
otherwise settled. Until the court has declared 
its award the old wages and working condi- 
tions must continue in operation. The court 
consists of a president and four members, the 
trade union center of the employers' association 
being entitled to nominate one each. The award 
of the court (i. e., the compulsory agreement) 
may not remain in force longer than two years. 
Should there be any considerable change in 
general conditions, a rise or fall in prices, or 
any substantial improvement or worsening in 
economic conditions in the trade in question, 
an appeal against the terms of the award may 
be lodged after the expiry of six months, and 
in such case the court may fix new rates of 
wages. Simultaneous with the passing of this 
arbitration act there has also been a revision 
of the Labor Disputes Act. This act contains 
clauses dealing with the composition and 
methods of working of the industrial courts, 
the conciliation procedure, and the procedure 
when voting on conciliation proposals in the 
organizations. It may safely be asserted that 
on the whole the collective responsibility 
of the organizations has been extended and 
the industrial court has been so constituted as 
to bear a great resemblance to an >rdiiiar\ 



200 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 10. 



court of justice. For so-called "illegal'' stop- 
pages of work, that is, for non-observance of 
the award issued by the court, fines may be 
imposed ranging from 5 to 25,000 kr., or im- 
prisonment up to three months. Both laws 
are to come into force immediately with 
respect to both employers and workers, that is, 
for both strikes and lockouts. 

This is not the first time the Norwegian 
Parliament has passed legislation of this kind. 
In 1922, even the Labor members of the Nor- 
wegian Parliament and the Social Democrats 
voted in favor of the prolongation for one year 
of the act making arbitration compulsory. In 
1923, the government moved another extension 
of the act, but the motion was thrown out 
through the combined votes of the Labor party 
and the Conservatives. Since then there have 
been an extraordinarily large number of labor 
conflicts in Norway, many of them involving 
large numbers of workers, and this year's con- 
flict threatened to be of the same kind. At the 
proposal of the hard-pressed employers the 
government and parliament decided to reintro- 
duce compulsory arbitration. Past experiences 
of the kind in Norway have not been very 
encouraging, and it is doubtful whether the 
court as at present constituted will be able to 
reject the exaggerated and unjust wage cuts 
proposed by the employers. 



LINDBERGH'S FATHER 



The last issue of the Journal devoted its 
leading editorial to Charles A. Lindbergh, the 
daring young aviator, who crossed the Atlantic 
in 33 hours. 

His flight to Paris is the most dramatic event 
since the war; the most dramatic event with a 
single actor recorded in all history. Never be- 
fore has the whole round world hung breath- 
less on the fate of a single man. 

But Lindbergh, like the rest of us, had two 
parents; and how many know that his father 
was a Swedish immigrant boy, a Progressive 
Congressman from Minnesota, a man whose 
honesty was a proverb and whose courage, 
though differently tested, was quite as fine as 
that of his famous son? 

Charles Lindbergh the elder was born in 
Sweden in 1859, son of a member of the Swed- 
ish Parliament. His parents brought him to 



America when he was a small child. He had 
the usual experiences of a western boy, studied 
law, graduated from the University of Michi- 
gan, settled down to practice at Little Falls, 
Minnesota. But very soon something devel- 
oped about this man that is not too usual. 

He picked his cases, not by their probable 
return to him in money, but by their merit. 
He wouldn't take a case that he believed in any 
way was tainted with unfairness. A client must 
have the right side of a controversy to get 
Lindbergh for his lawyer. So well established 
did this rule become that through a wide dis- 
trict it was taken for granted that any litigant 
whose cause Lindbergh would espouse de- 
served to win. I suspect the juries saw to it 
that he generally did win. 

Such a man. in such a community, cannot 
stay out of public life. Lindbergh, senior, came 
to Congress as a Republican from the Sixth 
District of Minnesota in 1907, and stayed ten 
years. He belonged to the group of North- 
western Progressives, with a specially keen 
interest in the money question. He was a hard 
worker, but lie found time to keep in close 
touch with the long-legged boy who, when nol 
tinkering with machinery, liked to hang around 
dad's office, listening, but never saying a word. 

Lindbergh quit Congress in 1917, and next 
year ran for Governor ^i Minnesota as candi- 
date of the Non-partisan League. That league 
had been branded as a disloyal organization 
which it was not — and hotheads who believed 
the charge and schemers who had their own 
reasons for repeating it. tried to bluff out 
league speakers. 

They never got to first base with Lindbergh. 
He would go to a town which had threatened 
to mob him, walk through the scowling crowds 
without seeming to see them, and make his 
speech. In spite of the war fever, he came 
close to winning- indeed, lie probably was 
counted out. 

That was one sample of the Lindbergh 
nerve. Another was shown — though not 
known — while he was at Washington. He 
went through a major operation without an 
anaesthetic, talking with a friend the while. 
and only onee did he even clench his fist. The 
"Flying Fool" comes rightly by his courage, 
from both sides of the house. 

When Congressman Lindbergh died in 1924, 



July, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNA 



201 



his flying son took up the father's ashes in a 
plane, and scattered them over the old home. 
Then he went back to the air mail service, and 
his mother, who graduated at the same college 
as her husband, went to teaching school ; for 
men like Lindbergh do not leave fortunes — in 
money. 



A POPULAR PARDON 



Governor C. C. Young of California did a 
good turn for justice when he granted an un- 
conditional pardon to Charlotte Anita Whit- 
ney, sentenced to San Quentin Prison for from 
one to fourteen years for alleged violation of 
California's Criminal Syndicalism Act. 

The governor said what has been said and 
thought by many others when he gave as 
among his reasons for the issuance of the par- 
don : 

"Because I do not believe that under ordi- 
nary circumstances this case would ever have 
been brought to trial. 

"Because the abnormal conditions attending 
the trial go a long way toward explaining the 
verdict of the jury. 

"Because I feel that the Criminal Syndicalism 
Act was primarily intended to apply to organ- 
izations actually known as advocates of vio- 
lence, terrorism, or sabotage, rather than to 
such organizations as a Communist Labor 
party." 

Miss Whitney, a social worker, was arrested 
and convicted in an atmosphere of after-war 
hysteria and was given a sentence all out of 
proportion to her alleged offense. Her pardon- 
ing is an augury of a more liberal and civilized 
epoch in California and the United States. 



CO-OPERATION IN JAPAN 



Free national employment offices, under the 
joint control of the shipowners and seamen 
of Japan, began their work on April 1, 1927. 

The Joint Martime Board (Kaiji Kyodo Kai ) 
has free employment offices at Kobe, Osaka, 
Tokyo, Yokohama, Hakodate, Otaru, Moji. 
Shimonoseki, Wakamatsu, Tobata and Naga- 
saki. At the same time, fee-charging employ- 
ment agencies in all these cities have been 
prohibited. 

The Merchant Marine Officers' Association 



and the Japan Seamen's Union have trans- 
ferred their employment departments to the 
new organization, and all the offices of the 
Japan Seamen's Relief Association have been 
closed, with the exception of four of minor im- 
portance which are shortly to be abolished also. 

Thus the centralization of the seamen's em- 
ployment service in Japan under the Joint 
Maritime Board is virtually complete. The 
board consists of twelve members — six chosen 
from the shipowners, and six from the seamen. 

It is stated that, in addition to the employ- 
ment service, the board is to deal with other 
maritime labor problems. 



REFERRED TO MR. DOLLAR 



"Slowly we are learning that low wages for 
labor do not necessarily mean high profits for 
capital," said Owen D. Young, of General 
Electric, at a recent dedication of a business 
school at Harvard. "We are learning that an 
increasing wage level is wholly consistent with 
a diminishing commodity price level. We are 
learning that productivity of labor is not 
measured alone by the hours of work, nor even 
by the test of physical fatigue in a particular 
job." 

"What we need to deal with are not the 
limits to which men may go without physical 
exhaustion, but the limits within which they 
may work with zest and spirit and pride of 
accomplishment. When zest departs, labor 
becomes drudgery. When exhaustion enters, 
labor becomes slavery. Zest is partly a mat- 
ter of physical condition, but it is also largely 
influenced by mental actions." 

Surely these were words of wisdom which 
might well be heeded by some of Mr. Young's 
less enlightened big business compatriots. 



Industrially we cannot obtain liberty 
without freedom of action ; we cannot se- 
cure freedom of action unless we first have 
organization. Organization is the first and 
last gesture toward amelioration of slavish 
conditions. Organization has in all walks of 
life preceded collective action. The mass ear 
not function without organization. 



The fellow who is pulling on the oars hasn't 
time to rock the boat. 



202 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July. 19. 



DOLLAR IN THE NEWS AGAIN 



Scarcely a month passes that the press is 

not called upon to devote some space to Cap- 
tain Dollar's crews. The latest news item of 
this nature comes all the way from Japan. 

Readers of the Journal will recall that Cap- 
tain Dollar was required to discharge his 
Chinese crew in the steward's department of 
the S.S. President Grant when that vessel was 
chartered by the government to carry Amer- 
ican soldiers to China. If Captain Dollar had 
replaced those Chinese with competent men 
from the American Marine Cooks and Stewards 
Association the news item, which follows, 
would not have been printed. Instead, the men 
for the President Grant's steward department 
were picked up anywhere and everywhere. 
They had to meet only one condition, namely, 
to work below the union scale of wages. 

The result of this policy is told in Japan 
Chronicle of May 22: 

What might have been a serious fracas on board 
the President Grant, which arrived at Hongkong 
from Manila was averted by the timely intervention 
of the police authorities by posting over 100 men of 
all ranks on the vessel throughout the whole after- 
noon, while some 120 members of the crew were 
being paid off. 

The President Grant came into port from Manila 
in the morning and in the afternoon information was 
lodged at the Water Police Station that members of 
the steward's department had caused some trouble 
and were threatening to damage certain of the cargo. 

A dispatch message was immediately sent to all 
stations on the mainland and in a very short time all 
available men were hurried to the vessel. Divisional 
Inspector Aris was in charge of the men, who num- 
bered about 100 strong, including European sergeants, 
detectives and Indian constables. 

It was learned that about 100 members of the 
steward's staff, comprising Americans and Filipinos, 
were being paid off but were dissatisfied with their 
treatment and had threatened to create a disturbance. 
On the arrival of the police, however, everything 
calmed down and the men received their pay quietly 
and without incident, later leaving the ship singly 
and in small groups. They had previously refused to 
have their luggage searched before leaving, but they 
offered no resistance on learning of the arrival of the 
detachment of police officers. 

Information which has drifted to San Fran- 
cisco through various channels confirms the 
report that those men were of the lowest type. 
As soon as the vessel left San Diego they be- 
gan selling food to the soldiers, starving the 
crew all the way across the Pacific. The 
authorities were appealed to in the Japanese 
port because the worthies had packed up all 
the silverware, ready to take it ashore. When 



the} refused to have their luggage searched, 
the skipper sent for the police. 

Xow, of course, we expect to hear some 
more bitter complaints from Mr. Dollar about 
tlie worthlessness of white crews. What does 
he expect, as long as he procures men from 
seal) halls and dives? 



I. W. \\ MURDERERS CONFESS 



Trade-union and railroad brotherhood offi- 
cials have materially aided the government in 
apprehending Kay and Roy de Autremont near 
Steubenville. Ohio. The twin brothers, together 
with their brother Hugh have confessed to four 
murders in connection with their holdup of a 
Southern Pacific train at the < >regon-California 
border, October 11. 1923. 

The murdered men were the engineer, fire- 
man, brakeman and railway mail clerk. Hugh 
de Autremont was previously captured in the 
Philippines, lie had enlisted in the United 
States army under another name. The three 
brothers were I. W. W. organizers and are for- 
mer convicts. The murders were the most 
cowardly in the history of American railroad- 
ing. The victims were unarmed. The mail 
elerk was blown to pieces when his car was 
dynamited. The brakeman was shot in the 
back. The mentality of these cowardly mur- 
derers is exemplified in the confession. They 
declare that they arrived at the decision to 
hold up the train because they "had too much 
guts." 

Yes, it requires an awful lot of guts to shn.it 
and kill unarmed working men whose line of 
duty compelled them to cross the path .of these 
fiends. 



That better ships are being built is evident 
by current events. According to Admiral 
1). W. Taylor, U. S. N., retired, formerly chief 
constructor of the navy, the recent ramming 
of the S. S. Malolo was of the most serious 
character, and hitherto all ships similarly 
struck, either by a torpedo or another vessel, 
have gone to the bottom. The admiral Bras 
aboard the S. S. Malolo when the accident 
took place. 



It's better to tell the truth, for then ybu do 
not have to tax- vour memory. 



10 



July, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



203 



THE FUTURE OF THE PACIFIC 



Advance Information on the Second Meeting of 
the Institute of Pacific Relations 



The Pacific has been called the "Ocean of 
the Future," as the Atlantic has been the ocean 
center of our present era. Significant events of 
the moment, centering in the Pacific area, are 
already directing increasing attention to that 
part of the world. 

In line with this directing of attention to the 
Orient, the Institute of Pacific Relations, an 
unofficial organization of inquiry, is holding 
its second inter-Pacific conference in Honolulu 
July 15-29. 

These events in Pacific countries concern 
something like 960 millions of people who re- 
side in the countries bordering that ocean. 
They concern millions more, counting in terms 
of the other nations of the western hemisphere 
which have heavy interests in the Orient. 

Hawaii, situated in the path of all the prin- 
cipal shipping between the continents of Amer- 
ica, Australia, Asia, and the island empires of 
the east, acts as something of a barometer for 
Pacific problems. When inter-Pacific friendli- 
ness is expansive, Hawaii feels it. When there 
is tension, the U. S. Island Territory reacts. 
That is why Honolulu has been chosen as the 
meeting place for this coming session of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations, and as the loca- 
tion for the permanent secretariat of the in- 
stitute. 

The Institute of Pacific Relations is a non- 
government, unofficial inter-Pacific body con- 
cerned with the gathering and discussion of 
facts relating to Pacific countries. It came into 
existence because its promoters believed that 
the Pacific actually is the "Oce^n of the Fu- 
ture," and Pacific problems of vital importance. 
It makes no attempt to settle problems, brings 
no diplomatic interests to its sessions, and rules 
out no tender question or grievance from its 
discussions. It does attempt through these 
means to develop a frank presentation and a 
friendly consideration of all bones of conten- 
tion between Pacific countries by delegates 
from the countries involved. 

This method was tried out in 1925 at the 
first meeting of the institute, when over one 
hundred unofficial delegates from the United 



States, Canada, Australia, and the Orient spent 
two weeks in session in Honolulu. It was 
found that the most troublesome questions 
could be frankly aired and tolerantly con- 
sidered, when individuals approached the dis- 
cussion with goodwill instead of rancor, and 
with no fear of being misquoted. 

Since 1925 national groups of the institute 
have grown up in the various Pacific countries, 
and research has been in progress, making 
ready for the 1927 session. Dr. J. B. Condliffe, 
leading research man of New Zealand and 
Professor of Economics at Canterbury College, 
University of New Zealand, has been put in 
charge of research of the Honolulu head- 
quarters. 

The general affairs of the institute are in 
the hands of the Pacific Council. Its mem- 
bership is: Sir Mungo W. MacCallum, Aus- 
tralia; Sir Robert L. Borden, Canada; David 
Z. T. Yui, China; Frank C. Atherton, Hawaii; 
Junnosuke Inouye, Japan; Sir James Allen, 
New Zealand; Ray Lyman Wilbur, United 
States. 

President Ray Lyman Wilbur, of Stanford 
University, United States of America, is chair- 
man of the Pacific Council. Members of this 
directing council stress the fact that the insti- 
tute is a voluntary group, self-governing and 
absolutely unofficial. Its aim is to devise an 
approach to the most tangled and little under- 
stood international and interracial problems 
by building a basis of known facts rather than 
by guesswork and individual bias. 

Some of the problems which will find place 
on the program of the July conference are 
those connected with populations, food supply 
and race migration; racial cultures and insti- 
tutions; commerce and industry, and interna- 
tional relations in general. The program is left 
largely elastic, beyond its broad outlines so 
that important details may be inserted after 
the members gather. Discussion is by inti- 
mate round-table groups of those persons 
specially informed on special topics. The re- 
sults of these discussions are gathered together 
by general forums of the institute session in 
which all members participate. 

Japan is sending two outstanding figuri 
her national life among the group of her 
distinguished representatives to be present at 
the second meeting of the Institute of Pacific 



204 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1927 



Relations at Honolulu, July 15-29. One of these 
men is Junnosuke Inouye, leading financier of 
the Island Empire. The other is Mr. Bunji 
Suzuki, president of the Japan Labor Union. 

The apparent clashing of interests between 
the two groups to which these men belong 
is a characteristic element in the conferences 
of the Institute of Pacific Relations. The en- 
tire membership of any national group pre- 
sents a true cross-section of that nation's social 
and economic life. The presentation of their 
respective points of view without the seem- 
ingly inevitable clash is the principal aim of 
the conference. 

Mr. Junnosuke Inouye, LL. B., Imperial 
University of Tokyo, has been a distinguished 
figure in his country's public life through suc- 
cessive responsible posts as President of the 
Yokohama Specie Bank, Governor of the Bank 
of Japan, Minister of Finance in the Yama- 
moto Cabinet, and as an associate in interna- 
tional financial negotiations. He was named 
by the Japanese Government to head the Jap- 
anese delegation to the Economic Conference 
at Geneva in May but declined because of his 
association with the Institute of Pacific Rela- 
tions and his belief in the importance of its 
conference in Honolulu, July 15-29. Mr. Inouye 
is president of the Japanese Young Men's 
Association, a fraternity with a membership 
of over 3,000,000 throughout Japan. 

Mr. Bunji Suzuki is known as the father of 
organized labor in Japan. He established the 
first Japanese labor society, the Yuai Kai, in 
1912, and has been widely influential in the 
promotion of labor unions and better conditions 
of labor in Japan. Mr. Suzuki will come to 
Honolulu from the International Labor Con- 
ference in Geneva. 

The membership of the Chinese group as 
partially announced from Shanghai at this 
date includes economists, research professors, 
social and religious workers, commercial men 
and political scientists. It is expected that the 
completed list will name labor representatives 
and financiers. 

Four distinguished men from Great Britain 
have already announced their intended pres- 
ence at the institute conference, and others 
are expected to confirm their acceptance. 

General Sir Frederick Whyte, one of the 
four, will be a notable figure in any Pacific 



gathering, as former president of the National 
Indian Council. 

Sir Ernest Wilton, member of the British 
Diplomatic Service, will be in the unique posi- 
tion of a diplomat with no official representa- 
tion. He is attending the conference, he states 
in his acceptance, simply as an individual in- 
terested in the solution of Pacific problems, 
not as an exponent of British diplomatic policy. 
He holds no government commission to attend 
this conference. 

The other two whose names have been an- 
nounced are Professor C. K. Webster. Eco- 
nomist, of the University of Wales, and John 
Dove, editor of the British "Round Table." 

The unofficial character of the British at- 
tendance is typical of the entire conference, 
officials state. The chief aim of the Institute 
of Pacific Relations is to keep it> sessions fret 
of all official or government control, and by 
the varied interests represented to keep it fret- 
also of any taint of propaganda. The goal is 
frank, free discussion, by experts from the vari- 
ous countries involved, of all the problems 
which might form bases of animosity between 
the nations of the Pacific area. Such, for in 
stance, as the ungloved handling of immigra- 
tion problems in the 1925 conference by nun 
from the United States, Japan, and Australia 

Australia has announced her participation in 
the 1 ( )27 conference also, with five members 
so far scheduled to attend. The group will be 
headed by the chairman of the Victorian 
Branch of the Institute, Hon. F. W. Eggleston. 
Mr. Eggleston is Attorney-General and Minu- 
ter of Railways for Victoria. 

New Zealand, Canada, the United States. 
possibly Mexico, and other countries' border- 
ing on the Pacific will be represented by rep- 
resentative and carefully selected groups. 



Sixty-nine Hindus who had American citi- 
zenship papers prior to 1923 have been re- 
stored to full rights by the Department of 
Justice and their papers returned to them. 
Under Justice Sutherland's ruling in 1923 
about 3000 other Hindus now in this country 
are ineligible to citizenship, as they are not 
"whites" in the popular sense of the word. The 
sixty-nine were naturalized in various COUTtS 
before the Sutherland decision was written. 
All other Hindus will remain ineligible to 
citizenship. 



12 



July, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



205 



THE HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE 

Germans who believe their country's future 
depends upon a strong merchant marine re- 
cently celebrated the 80th anniversary of the 
Hamburg-American Line, which began busi- 
ness in 1847 with a capital of 450,000 marks 
subscribed by a group of Hamburg merchants 
under the leadership of August Bolten. The 
first ship of the line to make the run to New 
York was the 717-ton sailing ship Deutschland, 
which arrived in October, 1848. 

From 1848 to the beginning of the World 
War in 1914 the Hamburg-American Line grew 
and developed into one of the greatest and 
most successful steamship lines on earth. 

The five years of inaction caused by the 
World War and the subsequent surrender of 
all German tonnage over 1600 tons, looked at 
one time as if the very life of the enterprise 
was threatened, for in addition to other mis- 
fortunes, the president, Mr. Albert Ballin, 
passed away. Bivt the spirit which had ani- 
mated the concern since its foundation was 
equal to the occasion. An arrangement was 
made in 1920 with W. A. Harriman for 
co-operation for twenty years in the Ham- 
burg-New York traffic, first for cargo only and 
eventually for passengers, and a new fleet was 
created of a type best suited to the changed 
conditions brought about by the stoppage of 
immigration in the United States. 

In 1926 a new trend in the company's affairs, 
under the general management of Dr. Wilhelm 
Cuno, came to pass when the Hamburg-Ameri- 
can Line took over the service of the flarriman 
combine — its partner in the joint agreement — 
and, while retaining the United American 
Lines as general agents in America, purchased 
the Harriman liners Resolute, Reliance and 
Cleveland, which were added to the passenger 
fleet of the H. A. L. consisting of the Albert 
Ballin, Deutschland, Hamburg, Westphalia 
and Thuringia. In other directions develop- 
ments took place which brought the tonnage 
of the company and the ramifications of its 
activities almost on a par with what they had 
been before the war. Among these may be 
cited the acquisition of the Stinnes fleet and 
of the fleets and assets of the German-Aus- 
tralian and Kosmos companies, the former 
operating in the Australian trade and the latter 



to the west coast of America. Thus, on its 
80th birthday, the Hamburg-American Line 
finds itself in control of a fleet of 1,023,241 
tons, comprising 136 ocean-going steamers, 31 
motorships, and 221 miscellaneous craft, cover- 
ing the entire world and employing a personnel 
of 12,750 on both sea and shore. Last year 
the eight liners in the transatlantic passenger 
traffic made sixty-two round trips between 
Hamburg and New York, carrying a total of 
60,827 passengers. In addition, the Reliance 
took more than 2000 passengers to and from 
the West Indies during a series of five cruises, 
and the Resolute approximately 400 tourists 
around the world. 



BARNACLES IN FRESH WATER 



Experiments conducted by the U. S. sub- 
marine tender Argonne to determine the effect 
of fresh water on salt water growths on ships' 
bottoms have demonstrated that almost com- 
plete extermination of salt-water animal life, 
in the form of barnacles, results after move- 
ment of the vessel to fresh water. The experi- 
ments lasted from April 29 to May 8, at which 
time the Argonne anchored in Gatun Lake, 
Panama Canal, after being in the water for 
fourteen months. The bottom of the Argonne 
was covered with barnacles, protruding about 
34 in. out of the shell, moss 1 in. long on top of 
the barnacles and sea grass 6 ins. long, cover- 
ing the waterline down to 2 ft. below the sur- 
face. Gradual disintegration of the barnacles 
was noted by the observers, who made under- 
water inspections, at intervals each clay, until 
on May 4, five days after anchoring in Gatun 
Lake, inspection revealed the "animal life 
rapidly disappearing" and similar improved 
conditions of other sea growths. Only the still 
waters of the lake prevented all adhesions from 
being removed. Removal of these sea growths 
enhances the speed of a vessel and in the ease 
of the Argonne, despite head seas and strong 
winds encountered on the trip to the West 
Indies, it was estimated that an actual saving 
in fuel of 7 per cent was effected on the dis- 
tance covered as compared with the estimated 
amount of fuel that would have been used had 
the growths remained. 



To control, first control self. 



1.3 



206 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1927 



LICENSED MEN CONFER 



Limitation of working hours at sea was one 
of the main topics on the program of the 
annual congress of the International Association 
of Merchant Marine Officers recently in session 
in Paris. The aim of the international organiza- 
tion is to have legislation passed in all maritime 
nations establishing the 8-hour day and 48-hour 
week on board ship, with a limit of two hours 
a day or fourteen hours a week overtime. Other 
items of the policy adopted by the organization 
are : The three-watch system in the deck depart- 
ment of all vessels making voyages of more than 
three days' duration, either coastwise or over- 
seas, with a minimum for each watch of one 
officer, two A.B.'s and one O.S. ; for the engine 
room force three watches also would be required. 
with at least two men always on duty. Watches 
and working hours may be varied at the discre- 
tion of the captain in times of emergency or in 
case of illness of members of the crew which 
would render the vessel undermanned if the reg- 
ular limitations were strictly adhered to. The 
program includes the strict enforcement of meas- 
ures for the protection of the health of the 
crews, such as proper sleeping quarters and ob- 
servation of sanitary precautions. Sickness and 
accident insurance also is to be advocated. A 
special committee of the international organiza- 
tion has prepared a report on safety devices and 
medical protection against disease, based chiefly 
on the findings of the labor experts of the League 
of Nations. 



WHALING IN THE ANTARCTIC 



After a cruise of five months in the Ant- 
arctic, the first detachment of a Norwegian- 
owned whaling fleet recently arrived in Half 
Moon Bay, Stewart Island, New Zealand. A 
factory ship of 13,000 tons and five chasers be- 
longing to the fleet killed 254 whales, yielding 
22,734 barrels of oil, while on the cruise. The 
remaining three vessels of the fleet are still in 
the ice barrier. Already they have taken 
40,000 barrels of oil and will continue whaling 
until an additional 50,000 barrels are recovered. 
It is estimated that the company will have 
90,000 barrels for the season's work and as the 
oil is worth about £6 a barrel, the total value 
■ f the cargoes will reach about £540,000, or 



$2,500,000. Last year the profit of this com- 
pany was reported around 40 per cent. Mem- 
bers of the crews of the vessels which recently 
returned to Stewart Island stated that the ship 
of a rival company, still hunting at sea, had 
27,000 barrels on board and at one time had 
forty-eight whales tied alongside. 

The first catch of the season was said to be 
a blue whale 90 feet long, while the largest, 
killed off Discovery Inlet, near the Bay of 
Whales, was 125 feet long and yielded 175 
barrels of oil valued at £1.070. If the figures 
are correct, these mammals establish the 
world's record, previously held by a blue whale. 
87 feet 4 inches, measured in a straight line, 
which was -Handed at the eastern extremity 
of the Australian Bight in 1918. 

The fleet left Patersons Inlet for the Ross 
Sea on November 3 and experienced good 
weather until the pack ice surrounding the 
Polar Cape was reached. Navigation then be- 
came slow, and icebergs were sighted con- 
tinually. On one occasion forty-one enormous 
bergs, all a magnificent Prussian blue, cruised 
slowly down the ice lanes past the fleet in the 
space of an hour. On another occasion a chaser 
ran itself almost high and dry on the floe, and 
a second little vessel smashed every blade of 
its propeller on the ice. The temperature, at 
one time early in February, was 27 degrees be- 
low zero. 

Twenty-one days after entering the ice 
region open water was reached near Coulman 
Island, off the desolate coast of Victoria Land. 
The distance traversed through the ice totaled 
1,157 miles. 

These regions have been visited by whalers 
for a good many years. Between 1830 and 1840. 
when the Antarctic whaling industry was at 
its height, as many as 300 vessels visited New 
Zealand waters each year, many of them from 
America. 

Whale oil continues to be the most impor- 
tant product but it no longer is principally 
utilized as fuel for lamps, since kerosene and 
other modern substitutes are more economical. 
In modern use it finds employment in a num- 
ber of compounds, principally as lubricants. 
Whalebone, another important product, for- 
merly used in large quantities in the manu- 
facture of women's wearing apparel, has been 



14 



July, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 >7 



forced by changing styles and the substitution 
of cheaper material into other uses. Neither 
the bone nor the oil, however, has lost caste 
in point of value as the demand for them has 
increased while the supply has declined, caus- 
ing the jrice to advance steadily. 

In former years little except the oil and bone 
was recovered by the whalers, the remainder 
being cast adrift. Modern whalers, however, 
find use for practically every part of the whale. 
In offshore whaling the carcasses are towed 
to stations for refinement. 

In certain parts of the world whale flesh is 
used as an article of diet. In Japan, because of 
its cheapness, it is of considerable importance 
as a food for the poorer classes. The Japanese 
prepare it in a variety of ways but it is more 
frequently chipped fine, mixed with vegetables, 
and eaten raw, with a dressing of sauce. The 
meat is coarse-grained and tastes something 
like venison but has a flavor distinctly its own. 

Ambergris, another product of the whale, is 
an intestinal secretion caused from a diseased 
condition. It is used extensively in the per- 
fumery industry, as a fixative for retaining the 
fragrance of the essence, and at times reaches 
a wholesale value of $25 per ounce. 

Spermaceti, a wax-like substance obtained 
from the head of the sperm whale, finds em- 
ployment as a base for pharmaceutical pre- 
parations, face creams, and hand lotions. Whale 
skin, fertilizer, and canned whale meat are 
other products of the whale which are increas- 
ing in importance as the industry becomes bet- 
ter organized for the utilization of by-products. 
— By U. S. Consul General W. L. Lowrie, 
Wellington, New Zealand. 



A TEN THOUSAND DOLLAR VERDICT 



LIFE IS ONE LONG BATTLE 



Life is a battle from the cradle to the grave, 
we must fight for what we get. 

He who fights best wins in the end. He who 
ceases to fight goes down to defeat and is 
trampled underfoot and buried in oblivion. 

The man who plans his life's battle and 
works out his campaign will achieve success 
and win victories while the man who relies 
upon chance will lose. 

Are you one of those who still have the cour- 
age to fight with the hope of winning out in 
the end or have you given up the fight and 
are willing to be buried? 



Benjamin Lustgarten, age 19, signed articles 
on the S.S. Coelleda January, 1926, as A. B. 
for a trip to England and return. The vessel 
was commanded by Capt. W. H. Lee, an ex- 
commander the U. S. navy. The crew were 
mostly union men. 

At Swansea, Wales, Second Cook Daniel 
Damico was taken ill with an infectious disease 
which he had acquired ashore. He asked to be 
relieved from duty but although he appealed 
to the captain and the master he was kept on 
the ship. He refused to work when disrated 
to able seaman, on the ground that he was not 
able to work. He was consequently put in 
irons and kept there until the end of the 
voyage, which lasted twenty-eight days due to 
the unseaworthy condition of the vessel. When 
he arrived in New York he was put in the hos- 
pital in New York, where he died two weeks 
later. The record of the U. S. Marine Hospital 
at Stapleton, S. I., show that Damico died from 
the disease with which he was suffering. Hav- 
ing been on a bread and water diet all the time- 
it is reasonable to assume that lack of nourish- 
ment and starvation, plus the disease brought 
about his death. 

Benjamin Lustgarten was made second cook 
in the place of Damico. On March 6, 1926, two 
days out of Swansea, while carrying out the 
order of the chief cook to dump a can of ashes 
over the side of the boat, without the use of 
the customary ash and garbage chute which is 
ordinarily supplied and for which the plans of 
this vessel provided, he was struck by a spray 
and sea and the ash can fell upon him crushing 
him against the rail, injuring him internally. 
He received a blow over the eye which has 
caused him to become partially blinded or im- 
paired his vision. The defendants refused abso- 
lutely to settle because, according to his hos- 
pital record, the plaintiff was a malingerer. 

While in the Marine Hospital Lustgarten. 
although weak and sick, volunteered to call up 
Attorney Silas B.Axtell of New York and a -keel 
him to send somebody over to get the dying 
statement of Damico. As soon as it was learned 
that Lustgarten had been instrumental in pror 
curing information and advice for D; 
Lustgarten was discharged from the pital 

against his will. These facts were brought out 



15 



208 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 1927 



upon the trial of the Lustgarten case. The 
U. S. district judge took the view that the bad 
steering of the Coelleda caused, as plaintiff 
showed by experts and by all the witnesses, 
could not be a competent producing cause of 
the injury. He likewise took the examination 
out of the hands of the defendants' counsel 
and cross-examined the poor boy until he ad- 
mitted that after he received the order to dump 
the ashes he put more ashes in the can. The 
court arbitrarily concluded therefore, that the 
plaintiff's injuries were due to his own fault 
in trying to dump a can which was too heavy 
for him, ignoring the fact that the vessel did 
not have any ash chute erected, and ignoring 
the fact that the construction of this Hog 
Island vessel was such as to make imperative 
the use of a chute at all times when ashes were 
to be dumped over the rail. This for the rea- 
son that the railing on the Coelleda is set some 
15 inches from the outside combing of the ves- 
sel, which made it necessary for the man who 
dumped the ashes to go half way through the 
railing, hoist the can above his head and then 
throw the stuff over the top, unless the chute 
was provided. 

In spite of the fact that plaintiff's counsel 
urged that the vessel was unseaworthy, that 
the defense suggested by the court was one of 
contributory negligence only, the whole cause 
of action was dismissed. 

The second cause of action had been pleaded 
in the case. It seemed that Lustgarten was 
forcibly taken from his bunk and caused to 
work the morning after the accident. At this 
time, a hemorrhage took place when he was 
attempting to knead dough. At the time of 
the trial, some fourteen months after the acci- 
dent, plaintiff was suffering from incipient 
tuberculosis. Three times applications were 
made for preference and finally the case was 
reached for trial. Upon the trial of the case 
the court commented upon the character of 
the evidence as judges in the Federal Courts 
are permitted to do and virtually instructed the 
jury to bring a verdict for the defendant. At- 
torney Axtell objected on the ground that the 
court commented unfairly on the character of 
the evidence. The jury, after deliberating half 
an hour, exhibited an independence of thought 
and action which is most encouraging because 
they disregarded the instructions of the court 



and brought in a verdict for the plaintiff in the 
sum of $10,000. 



ITALY'S PENAL COLONY 



The little island of Lampedusa, Wy'j square 
miles in extent, and situated midway between 
Malta and the African coast, has come into 
prominence lately as a penal settlement, set up 
by Mussolini, for numbers of individuals guilty 
of the "crime" of opposing the rule of Fascism 
in Italy. What life is like to these victims of 
Fascist vindictiveness and violence is shown 
in a letter received by the Labor and Socialist 
International at Zurich from one of the prison- 
ers. The letter, it is stated, reached its destina- 
tion through extraordinary channels, the cen- 
sorship being most rigorous. The letter reads: 

"In the Island of Lampedusa we are about 
350 political and other offenders. The name of 
the island is of Greek origin, and means 'The 
Isle of Pain.' There are about 130 political 
deportees — Socialists, Unitary Socialists, Re- 
publicans, Democrats, Communists, Anarchists 
and so-called dissident Fascists. We all sleep 
in one room, on trestles supporting planks and 
mattresses ; we sleep, so to speak, one on top 
of the other. At 4:30 p. m., the signal for 
going indoors is sounded, and at 6, after a roll 
call, we are locked in. In the morning the door 
is opened to us at 7 o'clock, and we are free 
to wander over the island, on condition of not 
going more than 200 metres from our dormi- 
tory. Whoever passes the boundary — which is 
not marked — by even a metre is condemned to 
the cells for at least five days. Supervision is 
carried out by the Fascist militia. The lieuten- 
ant in command addresses us in the following 
manner: 'You are here as hostages. You are 
like bread between our teeth. We are lighting 
candles to the Madonna that there may be 
another attempt against the Duce, then we 
shall be able to shoot you all. . . . When one 
thinks that with a few bombs one could get 
rid of you . . . the more we punish you the 
more we shall be rewarded. I will make you 
feel the stick, and, if you want it, the knife by 
my subordinates.' A week ago, on a bad even- 
ing, we were the victims of a provocation 
which nearly had the worst consequences : our 
dormitory was suddenly invaded by soldiers of 
the militia and carabinieri with fixed bayonets. 



16 



July, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



209 



Several among us were ill-treated and 
wounded ; about twenty were condemned to 
the cells for twenty days. Some have been 
sent for six months' confinement in a cell to 
Civitavecchia. And all this without any rea- 
son. . . . 

"I am at peace, because I have nothing to 
reproach myself with, nothing to deny, nothing 
to modify. It is a great honor for me to sacri- 
fice myself for the sacred ideal of justice and 
liberty." 



HARBOR WORKERS' INSURANCE 



'OUR WAR" IN NICARAGUA 



Henry L. Stimson, of the House of Morgan, 
went to Nicaragua. Newspapers said he went 
to "negotiate" peace. 

That was bunk. He went to compel peace. 
Henry L. Stimson, House of Morgan man, told 
the Sacasa forces that if they didn't stop fighting 
Diaz, the usurper put in power at the instance of 
the American State Department, that they would 
have to fight the United States. 

Sacasa, Nicaraguan successor to the presidency 
by virtue of having been elected vice-president 
at the last regular election, knows that he can't 
fight the United States, and anyway he doesn't 
want to. Disdaining to sign any such dishonor- 
able peace arrangement as Henry L. Stimson 
laid before him, Sacasa, through his delegates, 
said they would lay down their arms and wait 
for the next election, which the United States is 
to supervise. 

Secretary Kellogg has made a pretense of not 
having intervened in Nicaragua. But at last the 
truth has come out officially. He admits that 
Stimson gave Sacasa's delegates an ultimatum. 
That was an avowal of intervention. The United 
States has intervened in Nicaragua, set up a 
butt-in president amenable to reason and driven 
the legitimate successor to the presidency out of 
the field. It is not a nice story. All Latin 
America will ring with the story for a long time 
to come. The United States will reap only more 
suspicion and dislike. 

The story of our conduct in Nicaragua will 
please the monopoly holders of Nicaraguan ma- 
hogany more than it will please anyone else, just 
as the story of American influence in Cuba 
pleases the great Wall Street owners of sugar 
and electric power plants more than it pleases 
anyone else except the political grafters of Cuba. 



Under the terms of the Longshoremen's and 
Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, which 
took effect July 1, employers must satisfy 
members of the U. S. Employees' Compensa- 
tion Commission of their ability to pay claims 
and become "self-insurers" or insure with a 
company approved by the commission. The 
act, passed by congress, March 4 (public No. 
803, 69th Congress), provides that any em- 
ployer required to secure compensation and 
who fails to do so, shall be guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, punishable by a fine of not more 
than $1000 or imprisonment for not more than 
one year, or both. Every stevedoring firm, 
under the terms of the act, is required to obtain 
a certificate of compliance, which must be pre- 
sented to the shipowner before he can employ 
a stevedore. Violation of this rule is also pun- 
ishable. Self-insurers must give an indemnity 
bond amounting to at least 25 per cent of their 
payroll for the preceding twelve months, or 
approved securities equal to not less than 15 
per cent of the payroll for the preceding twelve 
months, or an indemnity bond amounting to 
at least 10 per cent of the payroll for the pre- 
ceding twelve months. No indemnity bond 
shall be less in amount than $25,000 and no 
deposit of approved securities shall be less than 
$15,000 par value. If both indemnity bond and 
securities are preferred, no such bond shall be 
less than $10,000, with deposit of approved 
securities of not less than $10,000, except that 
where the applicant is a subsidiary of a com- 
pany having the privilege of self-insurance, and 
the parent company guarantees the applicant's 
compensation liabilities, the initial deposit of 
an indemnity bond shall be a minimum of 
$15,000; or the initial deposit of securities shall 
be a minimum of $10,000, par value; or the 
initial deposit of both bond and securities shall 
be $7,500 for the indemnity bond and $5,000, 
par value for the approved securities. No de- 
posit shall, unless in special cases as the Com- 
pensation Commission may determine, exceed 
in amount $100,000 for an indemnity bond or 
$50,000 in approved securities. The Compen- 
sation Commission reserves the right to r< >ke 
the privilege of self-insurance at any time for 
good cause shown. 



17 



210 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July. 19, 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Release Not a Bar to Recovery — Sivert Lov- 
steen, his wife and two sons signed shipping 
articles to work on the motorship La Merced, 
operated by the Nassau Fish Company. They 
were discharged in Alaska before the expira- 
tion of period for which they had signed. All 
return eel to Seattle and were paid off after 
signing" a release before the U. S. Shipping 
Commissioner. Subsequently the entire family 
sued for the recovery of wages in full for the 
six months period they had signed. The Fed- 
eral District Court at Seattle found that there 
had been a wrongful discharge and allowed the 
wages claimed. The case was appealed and 
the Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the ver- 
dict of the District Court with interest at 6 
per cent per annum. 

Liquor Treaty Upheld — The effectiveness of 
the American-British Liquor Treaty of May 22, 
1924, was sustained by the Supreme Court of 
the United States in the decision rendered in 
the case of George Ford et al. against the 
United States (Xo. 312). Ford and some sixty 
others were indicted for conspiracy to violate 
the prohibition and customs laws. The case 
arose largely from the seizure of the British 
steamship Quadra, on the high seas off the 
Farallon Islands, twenty-five miles west of San 
Francisco, under the authority of the Liquor 
Treaty. The ship, with all on board, was towed 
to San Francisco by a Coast Guard cutter. It 
was charged that the Quadra loaded 12,000 
cases of liquor at Vancouver and proceeded to 
a point within an hour's steaming radius of 
Farallon Islands, Calif. ; that large quantities 
of whisky, gin, brandy, vermouth and other 
liquors were smuggled into the United States ; 
and that an attempt was being made to land 
89 sacks of whisky when the participants were 
intercepted on the day of the seizure involved 
in this case. Of the twenty-nine defendants 
tried, two pleaded guilty, nineteen (including 
all the crew of the Quadra) were acquitted, 
and ten (including the captain and first and 
second officers) were convicted. 

The opinion of the court recites that the 
wording of the treaty indicated on the part of 
Great Britain the purpose of discouraging Brit- 
ish merchant ships from participating in the 
illicit importation of liquor into the United 



States, and provided for the seizure of vessels 

engaged in such illegal employment. Adjudi- 
cation of such cases might include both the 
ship and those on board, under paragraph 1 
of Article II of the treaty specifically permit- 
ting examination of the ship's papers and in- 
quiries to those on board to ascertain whether, 
not only the ship, but also those on board were 
endeavoring to import or had imported liquor 
into the United States. The seizure was in 
accordance with the treaty, which did not pro- 
hibit the prosecution of British subjects on 
board seized vessels brought within the juris- 
diction of the United States, for illegal impor- 
tation of liquor, or attempt < >r conspiracy to 
import. 



A BRITISH POINT OF VIEW 

I went over the large manufacturing works 
of Henry Ford in Detroit. I watched the 
workmen at their work. There was some- 
thing banal, callous, inhuman, and soul-de- 
stroying about the endless repetition that work 
involves. The Ford workers, and workers 
working under the various so-called scientific 
and "Taylorised" methods, are, indeed, robots. 
They are transformed from human beings into 
robots. I would not work like that for any- 
thing in the world. Nothing would compen- 
sate me for the dreadful monotony of it and 
the intellectual degradation it carried with it. 
Truly, as was said on one occasion: "When 
the capitalist needs you he does not call for 
men but for hands." You are not supposed 
to be possessed of a thinking brain or human 
intelligence. You are not supposed to be men. 
The Ford workers are truly "hands" in the 
crudely brutal sense of the term. The me- 
chanisation and standardization of American 
industry must have been achieved at the cost 
of an infinite amount of individual initiative, 
taste, desire, and intelligence. — George Hicks. 
President. British Trades Union Congress, in 
" I ,abor Magazine." 



Horace Greeley said that the darkest «',a\ 
in any man's career is that wherein he fancies 
there is some easier way of getting a dollar 
than squarely earning it. 



Deserve success and vou shall command it 



18 



July, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



211 



BOOK REVIEWS 



WORLD MIGRATION AND LABOR. By John 
W. Brown; Publishers, International Federation 
of Trade-Unions, Amsterdam ; 393 pages. Price 
$2.50. 

This volume contains a survey of the general 
position in regard to world migration, stress 
being laid on the origin of current problems. 
On the other hand such subjects as naturaliza- 
tion, immigrant housing, and the work of insti- 
tutions protecting emigrants as well as infor- 
mation in regard to smaller countries, are 
omitted for reasons of economy ; but it is 
hoped that a supplementary volume will be 
issued later. 

Already at the Berne Congress of 1919, the 
International Federation of Trade- Unions ad- 
mitted that nations might restrict migration 
under three conditions : first, when a temporary 
economic crisis warrants it ; second, when re- 
striction is necessary for hygienic reasons ; and 
third, when the immigrants in question are 
completely illiterate. The questions which 
labor has to consider are whether the principle 
of restriction should be extended from these 
three cases, and be made to apply to the im- 
migration of workers whose low standards of 
living make their exclusion necessary for the 
maintenance of the standards of living of na- 
tionals ; and also whether the question of racial 
non-assimilability ought to be allowed to weigh 
down the scales. With regard to the first ques- 
tion, the report claims that there will be a 
general feeling in favor of the recognition of 
this necessity, although it will be admitted that 
there may from time to time be danger of too 
hasty decision. In regard to the problem of 
the immigration of "unassimilable" races the 
report says that "the admission of large num- 
bers of unassimilated immigrants is undoubt- 
edly prejudical to the unity of labor, which will 
therefore naturally be inclined to favor a policy 
of restriction in such cases; but it would be 
better if such decision could, whenever pos- 
sible, be based upon the economic rather than 
upon the racial objections. International labor 
must consistently deprecate the emphasizing 
of racial differences, as being opposed to the 
spirit of international solidarity." 

The principal constructive proposal con- 
tained in the report is the establishment of an 
international migration body which could make 



and arbitrate between the rival nations con- 
cerned. "One of the advantages of the estab- 
lishment of an international migration body is 
that such policy could make decisions in favor 
of restriction unbiased, and could arbitrate be- 
tween the rival nations concerned; it could 
initiate inquiries, and on the basis of the in- 
formation obtained, judge whether restriction 
or complete exclusion is necessary or expedi- 
ent. All such activities could be carried on with 
much less likelihood of wounding the suscepti- 
bilities of the nations concerned than if the 
excluded nation negotiated directly with the 
excluding nation. 

"Migration must be regulated," the report 
concludes ; "this regulation may cover the de- 
termination of the volume of migration ; it 
must cover the provision of information, the 
recruiting of emigrants, the conclusion of in- 
ternational agreements, the protection of the 
emigrant en route, the placing of him in the 
new country, and the supervision of his con- 
ditions there, with a view to securing his 
equality of treatment in respect of wages, work- 
ing conditions, and enjoyment of the benefits 
of social insurance with the nationals of the 
country of immigration. All the above-men- 
tioned functions can best be accomplished by 
the creation of special national and interna- 
tional bodies for the purpose, on which labor 
must be strongly represented, as only so can 
the interests of both immigrants and national 
workers be effectually safeguarded ; otherwise, 
employers will exploit both native and immi- 
grant workers by playing off one against the 
other." 

A warning is given against the danger of 
considering migration an infallible remedy 
against unemployment and over-population. 
"Labor is well aware that both are due to deep- 
lying economic causes, and that migration can 
be of use to a very limited extent only, or for 
a limited period of time. As to the true remedy 
for over-population, labor has not yet taken up 
an official standpoint: but no doubt it will 
eventually decide for international justice, and 
discountenance of any national policy which 
would tend either towards the steady depres- 
sion of the standards of one nation by another, 
or towards war." 

The report points out certain direct benefits 
resulting to the workers from migration. 



19 



212 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNA T 



"Within certain carefully-drawn limits, migra- 
tion should certainly be encouraged by inter- 
national labor. It may offer opportunities for 
workers to improve their position, and give 
their children a better chance in the world: 
and it may thus promote the strengthening of 
the position of labor as a whole. It is obviously 
good to take a child from a crowded and un- 
healthy slum, and transplant it into a new 
country with plenty of fresh air and elbow- 
room. But even under the best conditions it 
is a drastic step, bringing in its train much 
inescapable hardship; under the worst it may 
mean that a worker goes from one country 
where he is half-starved to another where he 
is no better off and, in addition, is unwelcome 
and a prejudicial element to the native labor 
movement. A worker comes under a heavy 
handicap, too, when he goes from a country 
with advanced social legislation to another 
where it is less advanced. The general feeling 
apart from specific circumstances, is that emi- 
gration should not be pressed upon anyone 
who has not a natural inclination for it: every- 
thing should be done to enable such a person 
to remain in his own country." 



THE LOVELY SHIP. By Storm Jameson. Alfred 
A. Knopf, Publisher, New York. Price $2.50. 

In the little town of Danesacre, lying in a 
cleft of the hills where the sea makes a natural 
harbor along the rugged coast of England, 
there is an old shipyard known as Gartori's 
Yard. The narrow cobbled streets stretch be- 
tween the houses that are grey and old, like 
the sea that lies at the base of the cliffs, and 
now and then a bowsprit or a jib-boom 
stretches itself across the narrow street that 
runs down to the docks. 

All day long the sounds of the Yard come 
up to the big house on the hill, where Mary 
Hansyke, our heroine, first learned to love the 
mystery of the sea, and where her childish 
wish to build ships became something real. 
After four years' apprenticeship, at the death 
of her uncle, old Mark Henry Grafton, the 
owner of the Yard, she became its manager and 
steered its destiny through the days of the 
1850's and '60's when the wooden sailing ves- 
sels were giving way to steel-built steamers. 

The characters of her two yard managers, 
both of whom were in love with her and one 



of whom she loved 



VS 



he 



July. 1927 
married, are " 1 1 



drawn, though somev ,>o complex for 

. l em 

of action. 

Her dauntless c< ;e, brimminj ueart anu 
resourceful energy, carry her victoriously 
through a strike in the yards, two adventures 
in matrimony, one in real love, and lastly 
through the severe depression that hit the 
entire ship-building industry of England in the 
7()'s. The incongruity of her masculine ap- 
proach to business and her subjective attitude 
toward the men who figure so tremendously 
at various periods in her life, give her a strange 
unreality that at times is baffling. One finds 
oneself constantly looking for the judgment 
and fortitude in her character which her talk 
indicates, but which her actions belie. 

Although Miss Jameson has attained a repu- 
tation for being one of the foremost young 
English novelists, this book seems to miss be- 
ing a powerful novel. Too much is crowded 
between its covers, and many threads are left 
at lose ends. The characters are vividly drawn 
but their inter-relation is sometimes weak. 
Their handling seems to indicate youth and 
lack of experience on the part of the writer. 

Notwithstanding this fact, there is that fas- 
cination to the story that the moors, the bleak 
cliffs and the sea always give. — Ekel. 



WILLFUL WASTE 



Donald McAllister, a Scottish farmer, was 
going to town for a day or two, and his daugh- 
ter Maggie had a weary time listening to the 
hundred and one instructions he gave her as to 
care and economy. 

'"Mind the coal." "Don't waste any food." 
"Don't sit up burning light," etc. 

Finally he set off, but in a moment he was 
back with a parting admonition: 

"An' Maggie, there's young Angus. See that 
he doesna wear his spectacles when he's no 
readin' or writin'. It's needless wear an' tear." 



Only he helps who unites with many at the 
proper hour; a single individual helps not.-- 
Goethe. 



Most men have a peculiar way of forgetting 
things they should be thankful for. 



20 



July, 1927 



P HE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



213 



ij— — — OKRI ; 

SHIPPKx NEWS 



The freighter Harold Dollar, owned by the 
Dollar Steamship Company, has been sold to 
the T. L. Duff Company, Ltd., of London. 

Because of the slump in shipbuilding, the 
Moore Dry Dock Company, Oakland, Calif., 
has turned its attention to the manufacture of 
ice boxes on a large scale. It is stated that 
other forms of manufacturing will be under- 
taken until ship construction and repair will con- 
stitute only the least activity of the concern. 

Twenty additional barges for use on the 
upper Mississippi River by the Inland Water- 
ways Corporation have been authorized by the 
Secretary of War. in addition to the twenty- 
five barges already contracted for. The total 
equipment for the upper Mississippi, when 
completed, is to consist of four towboats and 
sixty barges. 

Professor William H. Hobbs, occupying the 
chair of geology at the University of Michigan, 
has sailed for Copenhagen en route to Green- 
land, where, with a companion, he will for 
the next twelve months study weather condi- 
tions there with the view to etsablishing a 
permanent observatory at that place for the 
protection of shipping on the Atlantic Ocean. 

A loss of $5,741,245 after interest, deprecia- 
tion, etc., is reported by William Cramp & 
Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., Philadel- 
phia, for the year ending December 31, 1926. 
which compares with a deficit of $636,469 in 
1925. The company recently announced its 
intention of discontinuing shipbuilding oper- 
ations. 

The Hudson River Navigation Corporation, 
which operates the night line on the Hudson 
River between New York and Albany-Troy, 
reports gross operating revenues for April of 
$119. 550, compared with $82,617 for April, 1926, 
and $94,220 for April 1925. The $36,943 gain 
in gross over last year was in face of a reduc- 
tion in the rates of both passengers and auto- 
mobiles. 

Judge Augustus N. Hand has been appointed 
Circuit Judge for the second circuit to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Judge Hough. 
The vacancy on the bench of the U. S. District 
Court (S. D. N. Y.) created by the promotion 



of Judge Augustus N. Hand has been filled by 
the appointment of Frank J. Coleman, former 
justice of the Municipal Court at New York, 
and a member of the firm of Coleman, Stern 
tS: Ellenwood. 

Conversion of the U. S. Grant from a coal to 
an oil burner is now under way at the Mare 
Island shipyard. The vessel has been under- 
going extensive reconditioning for the last 
three months and is expected to be commis- 
sioned in another month. When ready the 
vessel will be used as a transport in the trans- 
Pacific service to replace the transport 
Thomas. The Grant, a former German vessel, 
has been laid up since 1925. 

The North Atlantic fleet of the North Ger- 
man Lloyd is soon to be augmented by the pas- 
senger liner Dresden, 15,000 tons gross with a 
speed of 15^2 knots. The vessel was built dur- 
ing the war and was allocated to British interests, 
but was recently acquired by the North German, 
Lloyd. She has cabin, tourist, second and third 
class accommodations. It is expected she' will 
enter the New York-Bremen service in time to 
participate in the westbound tourist rush. 

Canadian National Steamships, recently in- 
corporated by act of Parliament, is calling for 
tenders in Canada and Great Britain for the 
construction of five boats for the West Indies 
service. The available appropriation for tin- 
purpose is $10,000,000. It is stated that ship- 
builders both in Canada and Great Britain are 
being asked to bid and it will be decided by 
the amount of the prices submitted where the 
orders will be placed. 

The Red* Stack tugs Sea Lion and Sea 
Scout are scheduled to tow several log rafts 
from Astoria, Ore., to San Diego, Calif., for the 
Benson Lumber Company. The contract for 
the tows calls for the completion of the work 
by about September 15, according to John Bol- 
der, manager for the Red Stack Tug Company. 
There will be five rafts, all told, each being 
( X)0 feet long, 60 feet wide and drawing 26 feet. 
It will be necessary to use 175 tons of one and 
three-quarter inch chain in the construction 
of the rafts. 

The launching of the turbine passenger 
steamship Shawnee at Newport News marked 
the completion of a building program of SIX 
ships aggregating 45,000 tons gross for the 
coastwise service of the Clyde Line. The 
Shawnee follows the general charactei tics of 



21 



214 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July. 1923 



her forerunners, the Iroquois, Algonquin, 
Mohawk, Seminole and Cherokee, all of which 
were built at Newport News and partly 
financed with funds advanced by the Shipping 
Board out of the Loan Construction Fund. 

Under the new regulations issued by the 
Merchant Fleet Corporation, U. S. S. B., out- 
lining the duties of district directors, they 
shall have authority to order repairs to vessels 
under competitive contracts up to $5000 per 
vessel and under lump sum contracts up to 
$1000 per vessel. Competitive bid contracts 
in excess of $5000 and lump sum contracts in 
excess of $1000 shall be referred to the man- 
ager of the Maintenance and Repair Division, 
Department of Operations, for approval be- 
fore work is started. District directors will be 
responsible for final inspection of all repairs to 
vessels and vessel equipment within their dis- 
tricts, excepting those specially excluded from 
their control or jurisdiction. 

The first U. S. Coast Guard cutter to be 
equipped with Diesel-electric drive, the North- 
land, ran her sea trials at Newport News 
recently. The boat is designed for a speed of 
12 knots, is driven by a single propeller run- 
ning at a speed of 120 r.p.m. ; the total shaft 
horsepower of the propulsion equipment is 
1000. The power plant is extensive, consisting 
first of two main generators, two auxiliary 
generators mounted on shaft extensions of the 
main generators and three independently 
driven auxiliary generators. All these gener- 
ators are driven by Diesel engines. Power for 
the propulsion equipment is supplied by the 
main generators, while the auxiliary supply 
power for operating various ship's auxiliaries, 
for lighting and for excitation. 

Merritt & Chapman Derrick & Wrecking 
Co. has been awarded $92,500 by the Court of 
Claims on its claim against the government 
for $150,000 for salvage services rendered in 
June, 1919, to the transport Graf Waldersee. 
The vessel had 600 people on board, 3200 tons 
of coal and 1500 tons of provisions, when she 
was struck by the steamship Redondo about 
25 miles off Ambrose Lightship. The Graf 
Waldersee was beached to prevent her sink- 
ing, and the Merritt tug Resolute, in answer to 
a request sent by the Navy, proceeded to the 
scene and assisted in removing the passengers 
and crew with their baggage and bringing the 

22 



ship safely to dry dock. The Graf Waldersee 
was valued at $1,500,000, coal to the value of 
$25,808 was saved and the repairs cost $81,814. 
The San Francisco-Honolulu liner Malolo, 
fresh from the Cramp shipyard at Philadelphia 
on her way to the Maine Coast to run trials, 
was rather badly damaged in collision with 
the Norwegian freighter Jacob Christen mil 
The loss will fall on the Malolo's builders' 
risks policy, but the underwriters will not be 
able to recover much in case the Norwegian 
boat is found solely to blame, she being only 
3,600 tons. The Malolo is of 17,200 tons, and 
if both ships are found to blame, under the 
American rule of equal division of damages 
the recovery will fall very short of making up 
for the full extent of the damages that the 
builders' risks underwriters will be called upon 
to make good. Collisions on trial trips are ex- 
tremely rare and this one can be directly traced 
to the then prevailing bad weather. Repairs 
to the Malolo, will cost approximately 
$500,000, it is stated by the Morse Dry Dock 
and Repair Company, of Brooklyn. The 
freighter, also moored in the Morse plant. i;- 
undergoing repairs to the bow. It is estimated 
the cost of repairs to the Jacob Christensen 
will total $20,000. 

The gunboat W olverine, formerly the 
Michigan, laid in 1842 as the first iron vessel 
constructed for the United States navy, will 
be offered for sale by the Bureau of Supplies 
and Accounts the Department of the Navy 
announced. The Wolverine has been in ser- 
vice on the Great Lakes. The ship was ordered 
decommissioned last year. The city of Erie, 
Pa., asked for the vessel. In accordance with 
this request, a special act of Congress was 
passed, duly confirmed by President Coolidge. 
An order was issued to turn over the Wolver- 
ine to Erie. The city, however, refused the 
vessel, and she was turned over to the inactive 
fleet. The Bureau of Supplies and Accounts 
on June 16 also called for sealed bids on the 
Arethusa, oiler, and on submarine chaser 
No. 320. Conditions and terms of the sale are 
"as is, where is and if is." without recourse. 
That provision of the American Merchant Ma- 
rine Act, which makes unlawful the sale or 
transfer, except under regulations, to any per- 
son not a citizen of the United States, will 
apply to the sale of the vessels. 



July, 1927 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



215 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The order for two light cruisers, one of 
6,000 tons and one of 5,200 tons, for the Argen- 
tine navy has been placed with the Orlando 
shipbuilding yard at Leghorn, after keen com- 
petition with British, French, German and 
Japanese yards. 

The Norddeutscher Lloyd is reported to have 
purchased the liner Ormuz from the P. & ()., 
which acquired the ship from the British gov- 
ernment after it was surrendered by Germany as 
reparations. She was built as the Zeppelin for 
the New York service of the N. D. L. and will 
be renamed the Dresden. She is of 14,588 tons 
gross and was launched in 1914. 

The Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleumge- 
sellschaft, the German arm of the Standard Oil 
Company, had gross profit of 7,830,000 marks- 
in 1926, against 3,330,000 marks in the preced- 
ing year; the net profit is 3,700,000 mk. against 
1,505,000. The company will not distribute a 
dividend, because its large petroleum stocks in 
Germany have depreciated as a consequence of 
the large increase in oil production. 

It is reported that the Deutsche Werft, 
Hamburg, has obtained orders for four pas- 
senger ships for American owners, to be fitted 
with the new two-cycle double-acting Diesel 
engine which the builders are developing. It 
is believed that the ships are to be of about 
10,000 tons d.w. each, with a speed of 14^ to 
15 knots. 

It is announced from Berlin that in response 
to the Rumanian Government's invitation for 
tenders for the construction of vessels, the 
Krupp Germania shipyard made the lowest 
offer of £204,000. Other ofTers received were: 
England, £244,000; France, £250,000; Hol- 
land, £260,000, and two Italian offers of 
£320,000 and £340,000. It is expected that 
the contract will be placed with the Germania 
yard. 

The Suez Canal Company last year had re- 
ceipts of 746,547,805 fr., an increase of 137,- 
869,950 fr. over 1925, due to the higher rate of 
conversion of the funds in French francs, the 
excess on this account being 146,279,019 fr. 
Expenses totalled 69,727,176 fr., against 64,- 
257,334 fr. It is proposed to distribute a divi- 

23 



dend of 544,017 fr. per capital share. 531,517 fr. 
per bonus share, and 598,892 fr. per founder's 
share, less taxes, as against 424,934 fr., 412.484 
fr. and 464,770 fr., respectively, last year. 

The S.S. Fredensbro, which sank in the 
Delaware River, after having been raised was 
brought home to Denmark by her owners for 
permanent repairs. After tenders had been re- 
ceived from Danish. Swedish and German 
yards, a German firm obtained the work at kr. 
35,000 lower than the lowest Danish offer. 
Other vessels which sustained damage through 
grounding in Danish waters, have been ordered 
to Kiel for repairs, the German offers being 
considerably lower than the Danish. 

The motor ship Rialto, 9,350 tons, fourth 
vessel of her type ordered by the Navigazione 
Libera Triestina from the Stabilimento Tec- 
nico Triestino, for the monthly mail service 
between Italy and California, has run her trial 
trip, attaining a maximum speed of 13.75 knots. 
The Rialto is a passenger and cargo liner 
fitted with a six-cylinder four-cycle engine of 
3,200 i.h.p. The service maintained by the 
N. L. T. between the Mediterranean and Pa- 
cific ports is increasing rapidly and the com- 
pany is considering further improvements. 

Though German shipbuilding last year was 
rather slack, the number and tonnage of new 
ships exported increased. In 1924 the figures 
were 64 ships of 46,031 tons net; in 1925, 72 
vessels of 86,945 tons net, and in 1926 125 
vessels of 100,730 tons net. The export of river 
vessels was not so satisfactory. In 1924, 1163 
such vessels were exported ; 1925, 866 vessels, 
and in 1926, 968 vessels. German yards which 
specalized before the war in small craft for trop- 
ical service have not been able to regain their 
business, but good progress was made in this 
direction during last year. 

The report of the Lloyd Sabaudo, operating 
lines between Italy and New York, South Amer- 
ica and Australia, shows for 1926 a growth in 
business and earnings of 50 per cent over the 
previous . year. After payment of all charges, 
provision was made for a 10 per cent dividend 
on the 150,000,000 lire capital stock, this having 
been increased during the year by 50,000,000 lire. 
Full interest charges were earned over four times. 
There was set-off during the year as deprecia- 
tion about 10 per cent of the book value of the 
company's fleet. Construction was started dur- 



216 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



July, 19i 



ing the year on a sister ship to the Conte Bian- 
camano which began service on the New York- 
Genoa line at the end of 1925. This new vessel, 
the Conte Grande, will be slightly larger than 
the Conte Biancamano, and is expected to go in 
service next February. 

The new China river gunboat Guam has 
been launched at Shanghai. This boat is the 
first of the six now under construction at the 
Kiangnan Dock & Engineering Works, Shang- 
hai, for the U. S. Navy. She is of 380 tons dis- 
placement. Her engines and those for the 
U. S. S. Tutuila are being built at Shanghai, 
and those for the other four vessels are being 
built at the New York navy yard. The other 
U. S. vessels now undergoing construction at 
Shanghai are the U. S. S. Tutuila, 380 tons ; 
Oahu, 444 tons; Panay, 444 tons; Luzon, 575 
tons, and Mindanao, 575 tons. 

Reports from Karachi state that during 1926 
50 per cent of the exports shipped from that 
Indian port were carried in Italian, German 
and Japanese ships. The day is not far distant 
when Karachi — situated on the Delta of the 
Indus, with a growing population, now 300,000 
— will supersede Bombay, the chief port of 
Western India, with its population of 1^4 mil- 
lion. Karachi is the clearing house for North- 
western Indian and Central Asia. Karachi will 
probably continue to absorb the growing Suez 
and Aden sea traffic, in preference to Bombay, 
for trade with the N. W. Provinces of India. 

Denmark in the past never owned a fleet of 
tankers, though during the last few years some 
have been acquired. The improvement in tanker 
freights, however, seems to be spurring Dan- 
ish owners to venture into the oil trade. Quite 
recently the Myren Co., Copenhagen, ordered a 
12,000-ton tanker from Burmeister & Wain, and 
the Steamship Co. of 1912, Copenhagen, man- 
aged by A. P. Moller, has, in connection with 
the Svendborg Co., under the same management, 
placed contracts with Danish yards for four 
tankers, aggregating 45,000 tons d.w., to be 
delivered about the end of this year and the first 
half of next year. Incidentally, the Steamship 
Co. of 1912 earned a net profit of kr. 1,691,333 
last year and pays a dividend of 14 per cent. 

In all, 2.555,441 gross tons of iron ore were 
received in the United States during 1926, as 
against 2,190,697 tons in 1925. Of the 1926 re- 
ceipts a little more than one-half was supplied 



from mines in Chile, about one-fifth came from 
Cuba, and approximately one-eighth originated 
in Algeria and Tunisia. Large tonnages were 
also received from Newfoundland and Labrador, 
Spain and Sweden. With the exception of 7984 
tons, all of the iron ore brought in during 1926 
entered through the ports on the Atlantic or Gulf 
Coast. Slightly more than three-fifths of the 
ore entered through Baltimore, one-sixth through 
New York and one-eighth through Philadelphia. 
Only 6546 tons entered through Pacific Coast 
ports, and of this quantity all except 20 tons, 
which entered through Los Angeles, came in 
through the Washington customs district. 

Walker & Co., the contractors for the new 
docks at Buenos Aires, have thrown up their 
contract. Soon after the war there were expec- 
tations that the work would be carried through, 
but every kind of difficulty and delay has been 
met with since then, and gradually the commer- 
cial community lost hope of relief from port 
congestion. Walker & Co. give, among other 
reasons for being unable to continue the work. 
that the war caused an extraordinary rise in the 
price of construction material and labor, and the 
company aver that they are facing certain ruin 
if they continue under existing conditions. The 
Argentine Ministry of Public Works has taken 
over the whole construction and intimates that it 
is the government's desire that the most urgent 
works be proceeded with and completed as soon 
as possible. 

Orders have been placed by French, German 
and Japanese owners for motor trawlers of 
large size